NEW YORK CRIMINAL STATUTES – NY PENAL LAW

Assault and Battery

784.011 Assault.–

(1) An “assault” is an intentional, unlawful threat by word or act to do violence to the person of another, coupled with an apparent ability to do so, and doing some act which creates a well-founded fear in such other person that such violence is imminent.

(2) Whoever commits an assault shall be guilty of a misdemeanor of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

History.–s. 5, Feb. 10, 1832; RS 2400; GS 3226; RGS 5059; CGL 7161; s. 1, ch. 70-88; s. 729, ch 71-136; s. 17, ch. 74-383; s. 7, ch. 75-298; s. 171, ch. 91-224.

Note.–Former s. 784.02.

784.03 Battery; felony battery.–

(1)(a) The offense of battery occurs when a person:

1. Actually and intentionally touches or strikes another person against the will of the other; or

2. Intentionally causes bodily harm to another person.

(b) Except as provided in subsection (2), a person who commits battery commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(2) A person who has one prior conviction for battery, aggravated battery, or felony battery and who commits any second or subsequent battery commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. For purposes of this subsection, “conviction” means a determination of guilt that is the result of a plea or a trial, regardless of whether adjudication is withheld or a plea of nolo contendere is entered.

History.–s. 5, Feb. 10, 1832; RS 2401; s. 1, ch. 5135, 1903; GS 3227; RGS 5060; CGL 7162; s. 2, ch. 70-88; s. 730, ch. 71-136; s. 19, ch. 74-383; s. 9, ch. 75-298; s. 172, ch. 91-224; s. 5, ch. 96-392; s. 4, ch. 2001-50.

784.047 Penalties for violating protective injunction against violators.–A person who willfully violates an injunction for protection against repeat violence, sexual violence, or dating violence, issued pursuant to s. 784.046, or a foreign protection order accorded full faith and credit pursuant to s. 741.315 by:

(1) Refusing to vacate the dwelling that the parties share;

(2) Going to the petitioner’s residence, school, place of employment, or a specified place frequented regularly by the petitioner and any named family or household member;

(3) Committing an act of repeat violence, sexual violence, or dating violence against the petitioner;

(4) Committing any other violation of the injunction through an intentional unlawful threat, word, or act to do violence to the petitioner; or

(5) Telephoning, contacting, or otherwise communicating with the petitioner directly or indirectly, unless the injunction specifically allows indirect contact through a third party;

commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

History.–s. 7, ch. 95-195; s. 9, ch. 97-155; s. 22, ch. 2002-55; s. 2, ch. 2004-17.

784.048 Stalking; definitions; penalties.–

(1) As used in this section, the term:

(a) “Harass” means to engage in a course of conduct directed at a specific person that causes substantial emotional distress in such person and serves no legitimate purpose.

(b) “Course of conduct” means a pattern of conduct composed of a series of acts over a period of time, however short, evidencing a continuity of purpose. Constitutionally protected activity is not included within the meaning of “course of conduct.” Such constitutionally protected activity includes picketing or other organized protests.

(c) “Credible threat” means a threat made with the intent to cause the person who is the target of the threat to reasonably fear for his or her safety. The threat must be against the life of, or a threat to cause bodily injury to, a person.

(d) “Cyberstalk” means to engage in a course of conduct to communicate, or to cause to be communicated, words, images, or language by or through the use of electronic mail or electronic communication, directed at a specific person, causing substantial emotional distress to that person and serving no legitimate purpose.

(2) Any person who willfully, maliciously, and repeatedly follows, harasses, or cyberstalks another person commits the offense of stalking, a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(3) Any person who willfully, maliciously, and repeatedly follows, harasses, or cyberstalks another person, and makes a credible threat with the intent to place that person in reasonable fear of death or bodily injury of the person, or the person’s child, sibling, spouse, parent, or dependent, commits the offense of aggravated stalking, a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(4) Any person who, after an injunction for protection against repeat violence, sexual violence, or dating violence pursuant to s. 784.046, or an injunction for protection against domestic violence pursuant to s. 741.30, or after any other court-imposed prohibition of conduct toward the subject person or that person’s property, knowingly, willfully, maliciously, and repeatedly follows, harasses, or cyberstalks another person commits the offense of aggravated stalking, a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(5) Any person who willfully, maliciously, and repeatedly follows, harasses, or cyberstalks a minor under 16 years of age commits the offense of aggravated stalking, a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(6) Any law enforcement officer may arrest, without a warrant, any person he or she has probable cause to believe has violated the provisions of this section.

(7) Any person who, after having been sentenced for a violation of s. 794.011 or s. 800.04, and prohibited from contacting the victim of the offense under s. 921.244, willfully, maliciously, and repeatedly follows, harasses, or cyberstalks the victim commits the offense of aggravated stalking, a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(8) The punishment imposed under this section shall run consecutive to any former sentence imposed for a conviction for any offense under s. 794.011 or s. 800.04.
History.–s. 1, ch. 92-208; s. 29, ch. 94-134; s. 29, ch. 94-135; s. 2, ch. 97-27; s. 23, ch. 2002-55; s. 1, ch. 2003-23; s. 3, ch. 2004-17; s. 3, ch. 2004-256.

Battery on a Law Enforcement Officer

784.07 Assault or battery of law enforcement officers, firefighters, emergency medical care providers, public transit employees or agents, or other specified officers; reclassification of offenses; minimum sentences.–

(1) As used in this section, the term:

(a) “Law enforcement officer” includes a law enforcement officer, a correctional officer, a correctional probation officer, a part-time law enforcement officer, a part-time correctional officer, an auxiliary law enforcement officer, and an auxiliary correctional officer, as those terms are respectively defined in s. 943.10, and any county probation officer; employee or agent of the Department of Corrections who supervises or provides services to inmates; officer of the Parole Commission; and law enforcement personnel of the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, the Department of Environmental Protection, or the Department of Law Enforcement.

(b) “Firefighter” means any person employed by any public employer of this state whose duty it is to extinguish fires; to protect life or property; or to enforce municipal, county, and state fire prevention codes, as well as any law pertaining to the prevention and control of fires.

(c) “Emergency medical care provider” means an ambulance driver, emergency medical technician, paramedic, registered nurse, physician as defined in s. 401.23, medical director as defined in s. 401.23, or any person authorized by an emergency medical service licensed under chapter 401 who is engaged in the performance of his or her duties. The term “emergency medical care provider” also includes physicians, employees, agents, or volunteers of hospitals as defined in chapter 395, who are employed, under contract, or otherwise authorized by a hospital to perform duties directly associated with the care and treatment rendered by the hospital’s emergency department or the security thereof.

(d) “Public transit employees or agents” means bus operators, train operators, revenue collectors, security personnel, equipment maintenance personnel, or field supervisors, who are employees or agents of a transit agency as described in s. 812.015(1)(l).

(2) Whenever any person is charged with knowingly committing an assault or battery upon a law enforcement officer, a firefighter, an emergency medical care provider, a traffic accident investigation officer as described in s. 316.640, a traffic infraction enforcement officer as described in s. 316.640, a parking enforcement specialist as defined in s. 316.640, or a security officer employed by the board of trustees of a community college, while the officer, firefighter, emergency medical care provider, intake officer, traffic accident investigation officer, traffic infraction enforcement officer, parking enforcement specialist, public transit employee or agent, or security officer is engaged in the lawful performance of his or her duties, the offense for which the person is charged shall be reclassified as follows:

(a) In the case of assault, from a misdemeanor of the second degree to a misdemeanor of the first degree.

(b) In the case of battery, from a misdemeanor of the first degree to a felony of the third degree.

(c) In the case of aggravated assault, from a felony of the third degree to a felony of the second degree. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, any person convicted of aggravated assault upon a law enforcement officer shall be sentenced to a minimum term of imprisonment of 3 years.

(d) In the case of aggravated battery, from a felony of the second degree to a felony of the first degree. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, any person convicted of aggravated battery of a law enforcement officer shall be sentenced to a minimum term of imprisonment of 5 years.

(3) Any person who is convicted of a battery under paragraph (2)(b) and, during the commission of the offense, such person possessed:

(a) A “firearm” or “destructive device” as those terms are defined in s. 790.001, shall be sentenced to a minimum term of imprisonment of 3 years.

(b) A semiautomatic firearm and its high-capacity detachable box magazine, as defined in s. 775.087(3), or a machine gun as defined in s. 790.001, shall be sentenced to a minimum term of imprisonment of 8 years.

Notwithstanding s. 948.01, adjudication of guilt or imposition of sentence shall not be suspended, deferred, or withheld, and the defendant is not eligible for statutory gain-time under s. 944.275 or any form of discretionary early release, other than pardon or executive clemency, or conditional medical release under s. 947.149, prior to serving the minimum sentence.

History.–s. 1, ch. 76-75; s. 1, ch. 77-174; s. 22, ch. 79-8; s. 1, ch. 80-43; s. 1, ch. 85-33; s. 39, ch. 88-122; s. 2, ch. 88-177; s. 3, ch. 88-373; ss. 52, 55, 57, ch. 88-381; s. 43, ch. 89-526; s. 3, ch. 91-174; s. 12, ch. 93-230; s. 472, ch. 94-356; s. 20, ch. 95-184; s. 1, ch. 96-293; s. 57, ch. 96-388; s. 32, ch. 97-280; s. 1, ch. 98-97; s. 96, ch. 99-3; s. 4, ch. 99-188; s. 227, ch. 99-245; s. 315, ch. 99-248; ss. 1, 2, ch. 2002-209.

Burglary of a Dwelling / Conveyance / Structure

810.02 Burglary.–

(1)(a) For offenses committed on or before July 1, 2001, “burglary” means entering or remaining in a dwelling, a structure, or a conveyance with the intent to commit an offense therein, unless the premises are at the time open to the public or the defendant is licensed or invited to enter or remain.

(b) For offenses committed after July 1, 2001, “burglary” means:

1. Entering a dwelling, a structure, or a conveyance with the intent to commit an offense therein, unless the premises are at the time open to the public or the defendant is licensed or invited to enter; or

2. Notwithstanding a licensed or invited entry, remaining in a dwelling, structure, or conveyance:

a. Surreptitiously, with the intent to commit an offense therein;

b. After permission to remain therein has been withdrawn, with the intent to commit an offense therein; or

c. To commit or attempt to commit a forcible felony, as defined in s. 776.08.

(2) Burglary is a felony of the first degree, punishable by imprisonment for a term of years not exceeding life imprisonment or as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084, if, in the course of committing the offense, the offender:

(a) Makes an assault or battery upon any person; or

(b) Is or becomes armed within the dwelling, structure, or conveyance, with explosives or a dangerous weapon; or

(c) Enters an occupied or unoccupied dwelling or structure, and:

1. Uses a motor vehicle as an instrumentality, other than merely as a getaway vehicle, to assist in committing the offense, and thereby damages the dwelling or structure; or

2. Causes damage to the dwelling or structure, or to property within the dwelling or structure in excess of $1,000.

(3) Burglary is a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084, if, in the course of committing the offense, the offender does not make an assault or battery and is not and does not become armed with a dangerous weapon or explosive, and the offender enters or remains in a:

(a) Dwelling, and there is another person in the dwelling at the time the offender enters or remains;

(b) Dwelling, and there is not another person in the dwelling at the time the offender enters or remains;

(c) Structure, and there is another person in the structure at the time the offender enters or remains; or

(d) Conveyance, and there is another person in the conveyance at the time the offender enters or remains.

(4) Burglary is a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084, if, in the course of committing the offense, the offender does not make an assault or battery and is not and does not become armed with a dangerous weapon or explosive, and the offender enters or remains in a:

(a) Structure, and there is not another person in the structure at the time the offender enters or remains; or

(b) Conveyance, and there is not another person in the conveyance at the time the offender enters or remains.

History.–RS 2434; s. 2, ch. 4405, 1895; s. 2, ch. 5411, 1905; GS 3282; RGS 5116; CGL 7217; s. 799, ch. 71-136; s. 31, ch. 74-383; s. 21, ch. 75-298; s. 2, ch. 82-87; s. 1, ch. 83-63; s. 8, ch. 95-184; s. 2, ch. 96-260; s. 2, ch. 2000-233; s. 2, ch. 2001-58; s. 2, ch. 2003-84.

810.06 Possession of burglary tools.–Whoever has in his or her possession any tool, machine, or implement with intent to use the same, or allow the same to be used, to commit any burglary or trespass shall be guilty of a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

History.–s. 30, sub-ch. 4, ch. 1637, 1868; RS 2439; GS 3286; RGS 5120; CGL 7221; s. 804, ch. 71-136; s. 32, ch. 74-383; s. 22, ch. 75-298; s. 1232, ch. 97-102.

810.061 Impairing or impeding telephone or power to a dwelling; facilitating or furthering a burglary; penalty.–

(1) As used in this section, the term “burglary” has the meaning ascribed in s. 810.02(1)(b).

(2) A person who, for the purpose of facilitating or furthering the commission or attempted commission of a burglary of a dwelling by any person, damages a wire or line that transmits or conveys telephone or power to that dwelling, impairs any other equipment necessary for telephone or power transmission or conveyance, or otherwise impairs or impedes such telephone or power transmission or conveyance commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

History.–s. 1, ch. 2003-84.

810.07 Prima facie evidence of intent.–

(1) In a trial on the charge of burglary, proof of the entering of such structure or conveyance at any time stealthily and without consent of the owner or occupant thereof is prima facie evidence of entering with intent to commit an offense.

(2) In a trial on the charge of attempted burglary, proof of the attempt to enter such structure or conveyance at any time stealthily and without the consent of the owner or occupant thereof is prima facie evidence of attempting to enter with intent to commit an offense.

History.–s. 5, ch. 4405, 1895; GS 3287; RGS 5121; CGL 7222; s. 1, ch. 70-29; s. 33, ch. 74-383; s. 44, ch. 87-243.

Computer and Internet Fraud

ec. 1029. Fraud and related activity in connection with access devices

(a) Whoever–

(1) knowingly and with intent to defraud produces, uses, or traffics in one or more counterfeit access devices;

(2) knowingly and with intent to defraud traffics in or uses one or more unauthorized access devices during any one-year period, and by such conduct obtains anything of value aggregating $1,000 or more during that period;

(3) knowingly and with intent to defraud possesses fifteen or more devices which are counterfeit or unauthorized access devices;

(4) knowingly, and with intent to defraud, produces, traffics in, has control or custody of, or possesses device-making equipment;

(5) knowingly and with intent to defraud effects transactions, with 1 or more access devices issued to another person or persons, to receive payment or any other thing of value during any 1-year period the aggregate value of which is equal to or greater than $1,000;

(6) without the authorization of the issuer of the access device, knowingly and with intent to defraud solicits a person for the purpose of–

(A) offering an access device; or

(B) selling information regarding or an application to obtain an access device;

(7) knowingly and with intent to defraud uses, produces, traffics in, has control or custody of, or possesses a telecommunications instrument that has been modified or altered to obtain unauthorized use of telecommunications services;

(8) knowingly and with intent to defraud uses, produces, traffics in, has control or custody of, or possesses a scanning receiver;

(9) knowingly uses, produces, traffics in, has control or custody of, or possesses hardware or software, knowing it has been configured to insert or modify telecommunication identifying information associated with or contained in a telecommunications instrument so that such instrument may be used to obtain telecommunications service without authorization; or

(10) without the authorization of the credit card system member or its agent, knowingly and with intent to defraud causes or arranges for another person to present tothe member or its agent, for payment, 1 or more evidences or records of transactions made by an access device;

shall, if the offense affects interstate or foreign commerce, be punished as provided in subsection (c) of this section.

(b)(1) Whoever attempts to commit an offense under subsection (a) of this section shall be subject to the same penalties as those prescribed for the offense attempted.

(2) Whoever is a party to a conspiracy of two or more persons to commit an offense under subsection (a) of this section, if any of the parties engages in any conduct in furtherance of such offense, shall be fined an amount not greater than the amount provided as the maximum fine for such offense under subsection (c) of this section or imprisoned not longer than one-half the period provided as the maximum imprisonment for such offense under subsection (c) of this section, or both.

(c) Penalties.–

(1) Generally.–The punishment for an offense under subsection (a) of this section is–

(A) in the case of an offense that does not occur after a conviction for another offense under this section–

(i) if the offense is under paragraph (1), (2), (3), (6), (7), or (10) of subsection (a), a fine under this title or imprisonment for not more than 10 years, or both; and

(ii) if the offense is under paragraph (4), (5), (8), or (9) of subsection (a), a fine under this title or imprisonment for not more than 15 years, or both;

(B) in the case of an offense that occurs after a conviction for another offense under this section, a fine under this title or imprisonment for not more than 20 years, or both; and

(C) in either case, forfeiture to the United States of any personal property used or intended to be used to commit the offense.

(2) Forfeiture procedure.–The forfeiture of property under this section, including any seizure and disposition of the property and any related administrative and judicial proceeding, shall be governed by section 413 of the Controlled Substances Act, except for subsection (d) of that section.

(d) The United States Secret Service shall, in addition to any other agency having such authority, have the authority to investigate offenses under this section. Such authority of the United States Secret Service shall be exercised in accordance with an agreement which shall be entered into by the Secretary of the Treasury and the Attorney General.

(e) As used in this section–

(1) the term “access device” means any card, plate, code, account number, electronic serial number, mobile identification number, personal identification number, or other telecommunications service, equipment, or instrument identifier, or other means of account access that can be used, alone or in conjunction with another access device, to obtain money, goods, services, or any other thing of value, or that can be used to initiate a transfer of funds (other than a transfer originated solely by paper instrument);

(2) the term “counterfeit access device” means any access device that is counterfeit, fictitious, altered, or forged, or an identifiable component of an access device or a counterfeit access device;

(3) theterm “unauthorized access device” means any access device that is lost, stolen, expired, revoked, canceled, or obtained with intent to defraud;

(4) the term “produce” includes design, alter, authenticate, duplicate, or assemble;

(5) the term “traffic” means transfer, or otherwise dispose of, to another, or obtain control of with intent to transfer or dispose of;

(6) the term “device-making equipment” means any equipment, mechanism, or impression designed or primarily used for making an access device or a counterfeit access device;

(7) The term “credit card system member” means a financial institution or other entity that is a member of a credit card system, including an entity, whether affiliated with or identical to the credit card issuer, that is the sole member of a credit card system;

(8) the term “scanning receiver” means a device or apparatus that can be used to intercept a wire or electronic communication in violation of chapter 119 or to intercept an electronic serial number, mobile identification number, or other identifier of any telecommunications service, equipment, or instrument;

(9) the term “telecommunications service” has the meaning given such term in section 3 of title I of the Communications Act of 1934 (47 U.S.C. 153);

(10) the term “facilities-based carrier” means an entity that owns communications transmission facilities, is responsible for the operation and maintenance of those facilities, and holds an operating license issued by the Federal Communications Commission under the authority of title III of the Communications Act of 1934; and

(11) the term “telecommunication identifying information” means electronic serial number or any other number or signal that identifies a specific telecommunications instrument or account, or a specific communication transmitted from a telecommunications instrument.

(f) This section does not prohibit any lawfully authorized investigative, protective, or intelligence activity of a law enforcement agency of the United States, a State, or a political subdivision of a State, or of an intelligence agency of the United States, or any activity authorized under chapter 224 of this title. For purposes of this subsection, the term “State” includes a State of the United States, the District of Columbia, and any commonwealth, territory, or possession of the United States.

(g)(1) It is not a violation of subsection (a)(9) for an officer, employee, or agent of, or a person engaged in business with, a facilities-based carrier, to engage in conduct (other than trafficking) otherwise prohibited by that subsection for the purpose of protecting the property or legal rights of that carrier, unless such conduct is for the purpose of obtaining telecommunications service provided by another facilities-based carrier without the authorization of such carrier.

(2) In a prosecution for a violation of subsection (a)(9), (other than a violation consisting of producing or trafficking) it is an affirmative defense (which the defendant must establish by a preponderance of the evidence) that the conduct charged was engaged in for research or development in connection with a lawful purpose.

(h) Any person who, outside the jurisdiction of the United States, engages in any act that, if committed within the jurisdiction of the United States, would constitute an offense under subsection (a) or (b) of this section, shall be subject to the fines, penalties, imprisonment, and forfeiture provided in this title if–

(1) the offense involves an access device issued, owned, managed, or controlled by a financial institution, account issuer, credit card system member, or other entity within the jurisdiction of the United States; and

(2) the person transports, delivers, conveys, transfers to or through, or otherwise stores, secrets, or holds within the jurisdiction of the United States, any article used to assist in the commission of the offense or the proceeds of such offense or property derived therefrom.

Sec. 1030. Fraud and related activity in connection with computers

(a) Whoever–

(1) having knowingly accessed a computer without authorization or exceeding authorized access, and by means of such conduct having obtained information that has been determined by the United States Government pursuant to an Executive order or statute to require protection against unauthorized disclosure for reasons of national defense or foreign relations, or any restricted data, as defined in paragraph y of section 11 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, with reason to believe that such information so obtained could be used to the injury of the United States, or to the advantage of any foreign nation willfully communicates, delivers, transmits, or causes to be communicated, delivered, or transmitted, or attempts to communicate, deliver, transmit or cause to be communicated, delivered, or transmitted the same to any person not entitled to receive it, or willfully retains the same and fails to deliver it to the officer or employee of the United States entitled to receive it;

(2) intentionally accesses a computer without authorization or exceeds authorized access, and thereby obtains–

(A) information contained in a financial record of a financial institution, or of a card issuer as defined in section 1602(n) of title 15, or contained in a file of a consumer reporting agency on a consumer, as such terms are defined in the Fair Credit Reporting Act (15 U.S.C. 1681 et seq.);

(B) information from any department or agency of the United States; or

(C) information from any protected computer if the conduct involved an interstate or foreign communication;

(3) intentionally, without authorization to access any nonpublic computer of a department or agency of the United States, accesses such a computer of that department or agency that is exclusively for the use of the Government of the United States or, in the case of a computer not exclusively for such use, is used by or for the Government of the United States and such conduct affects that use by or for the Government of the United States;

(4) knowingly and with intent to defraud, accesses a protected computer without authorization, or exceeds authorized access, and by means of such conduct furthers the intended fraud and obtains anything of value, unless the object of the fraud and the thing obtained consists only of the use of the computer and the value of such use is not more than $5,000 in any 1-year period;

(5)(A)(i) knowingly causes the transmission of a program, information, code, or command, and as a result of such conduct, intentionally causes damage without authorization, to a protected computer;

(ii) intentionally accesses a protected computer without authorization, and as a result of such conduct, recklessly causes damage; or

(iii) intentionally accesses a protected computer without authorization, and as a result of such conduct, causes damage; and

(B) by conduct described in clause (i), (ii), or (iii) of subparagraph (A), caused (or, in the case of an attempted offense, would, if completed, have caused)–

(i) loss to 1 or more persons during any 1-year period (and, for purposes of an investigation, prosecution, or other proceeding brought by the United States only, loss resulting from a related course of conduct affecting 1 or more other protected computers) aggregating at least $5,000 in value;
(ii) the modification or impairment, or potential modification or impairment, of the medical examination, diagnosis, treatment, or care of 1 or more individuals;

(iii) physical injury to any person;

(iv) a threat to public health or safety; or

(v) damage affecting a computer system used by or for a government entity in furtherance of the administration of justice, national defense, or national security;

(6) knowingly and with intent to defraud traffics (as defined in section 1029) in any password or similar information through which a computer may be accessed without authorization, if–

(A) such trafficking affects interstate or foreign commerce; or

(B) such computer is used by or for the Government of the United States;

(7) with intent to extort from any person any money or other thing of value, transmits in interstate or foreign commerce any communication containing any threat to cause damage to a protected computer;

shall be punished as provided in subsection (c) of this section.

(b) Whoever attempts to commit an offense under subsection (a) of this section shall be punished as provided in subsection (c) of this section.

(c) The punishment for an offense under subsection (a) or (b) of this section is–

(1)(A) a fine under this title or imprisonment for not more than ten years, or both, in the case of an offense under subsection (a)(1) of this section which does not occur after a conviction for another offense under this section, or an attempt to commit an offense punishable under this subparagraph; and

(B) a fine under this title or imprisonment for not more than twenty years, or both, in the case of an offense under subsection (a)(1) of this section which occurs after a conviction for another offense under this section, or an attempt to commit an offense punishable under this subparagraph;

(2)(A) except as provided in subparagraph (B), a fine under this title or imprisonment for not more than one year, or both, in the case of an offense under subsection (a)(2), (a)(3), (a)(5)(A)(iii), or (a)(6) of this section which does not occur after a conviction for another offense under this section, or an attempt to commit an offense punishable under this subparagraph;

(B) a fine under this title or imprisonment for not more than 5 years, or both, in the case of an offense under subsection (a)(2), or an attempt to commit an offense punishable under this subparagraph, if–

(i) the offense was committed for purposes of commercial advantage or private financial gain;

(ii) the offense was committed in furtherance of any criminal or tortious act in violation of the Constitution or laws of the United States or of any State; or

(iii) the value of the information obtained exceeds $5,000;

(C) a fine under this title or imprisonment for not more than ten years, or both, in the case of an offense under subsection (a)(2), (a)(3) or (a)(6) of this section which occurs after a conviction for another offense under this section, or an attempt to commit an offense punishable under this subparagraph;
(3)(A) a fine under this title or imprisonment for not more than five years, or both, in the case of an offense under subsection (a)(4) or (a)(7) of this section which does not occur after a conviction for another offense under this section, or an attempt to commit an offense punishable under this subparagraph; and

(B) a fine under this title or imprisonment for not more than ten years, or both, in the case of an offense under subsection (a)(4), (a)(5)(A)(iii), or (a)(7) of this section which occurs after a conviction for another offense under this section, or an attempt to commit an offense punishable under this subparagraph; and

(4)(A) a fine under this title, imprisonment for not more than 10 years, or both, in the case of an offense under subsection (a)(5)(A)(i), or an attempt to commit an offense punishable under that subsection;

(B) a fine under this title, imprisonment for not more than 5 years, or both, in the case of an offense under subsection (a)(5)(A)(ii), or an attempt to commit an offense punishable under that subsection;

(C) a fine under this title, imprisonment for not more than 20 years, or both, in the case of an offense under subsection (a)(5)(A)(i) or (a)(5)(A)(ii), or an attempt to commit an offense punishable under either subsection, that occurs after a conviction for another offense under this section.

(d)(1) The United States Secret Service shall, in addition to any other agency having such authority, have the authority to investigate offenses under this section.

(2) The Federal Bureau of Investigation shall have primary authority to investigate offenses under subsection (a)(1) for any cases involving espionage, foreign counterintelligence, information protected against unauthorized disclosure for reasons of national defense or foreign relations, or Restricted Data (as that term is defined in section 11y of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (42 U.S.C. 2014(y)), except for offenses affecting the duties of the United States Secret Service pursuant to section 3056(a) of this title.

(3) Such authority shall be exercised in accordance with an agreement which shall be entered into by the Secretary of the Treasury and the Attorney General.

(e) As used in this section–

(1) the term “computer” means an electronic, magnetic, optical, electrochemical, or other high speed data processing device performing logical, arithmetic, or storage functions, and includes any data storage facility or communications facility directly related to or operating in conjunction with such device, but such term does not include an automated typewriter or typesetter, a portable hand held calculator, or other similar device;

(2) the term “protected computer” means a computer–

(A) exclusively for the use of a financial institution or the United States Government, or, in the case of a computer not exclusively for such use, used by or for a financial institution or the United States Government and the conduct constituting the offense affects that use by or for the financial institution or the Government; or

(B) which is used in interstate or foreign commerce or communication, including a computer located outside the United States that is used in a manner that affects interstate or foreign commerce or communication of the United States;

(3) the term “State” includes the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and any other commonwealth, possession or territory of the United States;

(4) the term “financial institution” means–

(A) an institution with deposits insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation;

(B) the Federal Reserve or a member of the Federal Reserve including any Federal Reserve Bank;
(C) a credit union with accounts insured by the National Credit Union Administration;

(D) a member of the Federal home loan bank system and any home loan bank;

(E) any institution of the Farm Credit System under the Farm Credit Act of 1971;

(F) a broker-dealer registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to section 15 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934;

(G) the Securities Investor Protection Corporation;

(H) a branch or agency of a foreign bank (as such terms are defined in paragraphs (1) and (3) of section 1(b) of the International Banking Act of 1978); and

(I) an organization operating under section 25 or section 25(a) of the Federal Reserve Act.

(5) the term “financial record” means information derived from any record held by a financial institution pertaining to a customer’s relationship with the financial institution;

(6) the term “exceeds authorized access” means to access a computer with authorization and to use such access to obtain or alter information in the computer that the accesser is not entitled so to obtain or alter;

(7) the term “department of the United States” means the legislative or judicial branch of the Government or one of the executive departments enumerated in section 101 of title 5;

(8) the term “damage” means any impairment to the integrity or availability of data, a program, a system, or information;

(9) the term “government entity” includes the Government of the United States, any State or political subdivision of the United States, any foreign country, and any state, province, municipality, or other political subdivision of a foreign country;

(10) the term “conviction” shall include a conviction under the law of any State for a crime punishable by imprisonment for more than 1 year, an element of which is unauthorized access, or exceeding authorized access, to a computer;

(11) the term “loss” means any reasonable cost to any victim, including the cost of responding to an offense, conducting a damage assessment, and restoring the data, program, system, or information to its condition prior to the offense, and any revenue lost, cost incurred, or other consequential damages incurred because of interruption of service; and

(12) the term “person” means any individual, firm, corporation, educational institution, financial institution, governmental entity, or legal or other entity.

(f) This section does not prohibit any lawfully authorized investigative, protective, or intelligence activity of a law enforcement agency of the United States, a State, or a political subdivision of a State, or of an intelligence agency of the United States.

(g) Any person who suffers damage or loss by reason of a violation of this section may maintain a civil action against the violator to obtain compensatory damages and injunctive relief or other equitable relief. A civil action for a violation of this section may be brought only if the conduct involves 1 of the factors set forth in clause (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), or (v) of subsection (a)(5)(B). Damages for a violation involving only conduct described in subsection (a)(5)(B)(i) are limited to economic damages. No action may be brought under this subsection unless such action is begun within 2 years of the date of the act complained of or the date of the discovery of the damage. No action may be brought under this subsection for the negligent design or manufacture of computer hardware, computer software, or firmware.

(h) The Attorney General and the Secretary of the Treasury shall report to the Congress annually, during the first 3 years following the date of the enactment of this subsection, concerning investigations and prosecutions under subsection (a)(5).

Dealing in Stolen Property

812.019 Dealing in stolen property.–

(1) Any person who traffics in, or endeavors to traffic in, property that he or she knows or should know was stolen shall be guilty of a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in ss. 775.082, 775.083, and 775.084.

(2) Any person who initiates, organizes, plans, finances, directs, manages, or supervises the theft of property and traffics in such stolen property shall be guilty of a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in ss. 775.082, 775.083, and 775.084.

History.–s. 7, ch. 77-342; s. 1237, ch. 97-102.

812.0191 Dealing in property paid for in whole or in part by the Medicaid program.–

(1) As used in this section, the term:

(a) “Property paid for in whole or in part by the Medicaid program” means any devices, goods, services, drugs, or any other property furnished or intended to be furnished to a recipient of benefits under the Medicaid program.

(b) “Value” means the amount billed to Medicaid for the property dispensed or the market value of the devices, goods, services, or drugs at the time and place of the offense. If the market value cannot be determined, the term means the replacement cost of the devices, goods, services, or drugs within a reasonable time after the offense.

(2) Any person who traffics in, or endeavors to traffic in, property that he or she knows or should have known was paid for in whole or in part by the Medicaid program commits a felony.

(a) If the value of the property involved is less than $20,000, the crime is a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(b) If the value of the property involved is $20,000 or more but less than $100,000, the crime is a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(c) If the value of the property involved is $100,000 or more, the crime is a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

The value of individual items of the devices, goods, services, drugs, or other property involved in distinct transactions committed during a single scheme or course of conduct, whether involving a single person or several persons, may be aggregated when determining the punishment for the offense.

(3) Any person who knowingly initiates, organizes, plans, finances, directs, manages, or supervises the obtaining of property paid for in whole or in part by the Medicaid program and who traffics in, or endeavors to traffic in, such property commits a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

History.–s. 12, ch. 2004-344.

812.0195 Dealing in stolen property by use of the Internet.–Any person in this state who uses the Internet to sell or offer for sale any merchandise or other property that the person knows, or has reasonable cause to believe, is stolen commits:

(1) A misdemeanor of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083, if the value of the property is less than $300; or

(2) A felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084, if the value of the property is $300 or more.

History.–s. 6, ch. 2001-115.

812.022 Evidence of theft or dealing in stolen property.–

(1) Proof that a person presented false identification, or identification not current with respect to name, address, place of employment, or other material aspects, in connection with the leasing of personal property, or failed to return leased property within 72 hours of the termination of the leasing agreement, unless satisfactorily explained, gives rise to an inference that such property was obtained or is now used with intent to commit theft.

(2) Except as provided in subsection (5), proof of possession of property recently stolen, unless satisfactorily explained, gives rise to an inference that the person in possession of the property knew or should have known that the property had been stolen.

(3) Proof of the purchase or sale of stolen property at a price substantially below the fair market value, unless satisfactorily explained, gives rise to an inference that the person buying or selling the property knew or should have known that the property had been stolen.

(4) Proof of the purchase or sale of stolen property by a dealer in property, out of the regular course of business or without the usual indicia of ownership other than mere possession, unless satisfactorily explained, gives rise to an inference that the person buying or selling the property knew or should have known that it had been stolen.

(5) Proof that a dealer who regularly deals in used property possesses stolen property upon which a name and phone number of a person other than the offeror of the property are conspicuously displayed gives rise to an inference that the dealer possessing the property knew or should have known that the property was stolen.

(a) If the name and phone number are for a business that rents property, the dealer avoids the inference by contacting such business, prior to accepting the property, to verify that the property was not stolen from such business. If the name and phone number are not for a business that rents property, the dealer avoids the inference by contacting the local law enforcement agency in the jurisdiction where the dealer is located, prior to accepting the property, to verify that the property has not been reported stolen. An accurate written record, which contains the number called, the date and time of such call, and the name and place of employment of the person who verified that the property was not stolen, is sufficient evidence to avoid the inference pursuant to this subsection.

(b) This subsection does not apply to:

1. Persons, entities, or transactions exempt from chapter 538.

2. Used sports equipment that does not contain a serial number, printed or recorded materials, computer software, or videos or video games.

3. A dealer who implements, in a continuous and consistent manner, a program for identification and return of stolen property that meets the following criteria:

a. When a dealer is offered property for pawn or purchase that contains conspicuous identifying information that includes a name and phone number, or a dealer is offered property for pawn or purchase that contains ownership information that is affixed to the property pursuant to a written agreement with a business entity or group of associated business entities, the dealer will promptly contact the individual or company whose name is affixed to the property by phone to confirm that the property has not been stolen. If the individual or business contacted indicates that the property has been stolen, the dealer shall not accept the property.

b. If the dealer is unable to verify whether the property is stolen from the individual or business, and if the dealer accepts the property that is later determined to have been stolen, the dealer will voluntarily return the property at no cost and without the necessity of a replevin action, if the property owner files the appropriate theft reports with law enforcement and enters into an agreement with the dealer to actively participate in the prosecution of the person or persons who perpetrated the crime.

c. If a dealer is required by law to complete and submit a transaction form to law enforcement, the dealer shall include all conspicuously displayed ownership information on the transaction form.

History.–s. 8, ch. 77-342; s. 1, ch. 2004-341.

812.025 Charging theft and dealing in stolen property.–Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a single indictment or information may, under proper circumstances, charge theft and dealing in stolen property in connection with one scheme or course of conduct in separate counts that may be consolidated for trial, but the trier of fact may return a guilty verdict on one or the other, but not both, of the counts.

History.–s. 9, ch. 77-342.

812.028 Defenses precluded.–It shall not constitute a defense to a prosecution for any violation of the provisions of ss. 812.012-812.037 that:

(1) Any stratagem or deception, including the use of an undercover operative or law enforcement officer, was employed.

(2) A facility or an opportunity to engage in conduct in violation of any provision of this act was provided.

(3) Property that was not stolen was offered for sale as stolen property.

(4) A law enforcement officer solicited a person predisposed to engage in conduct in violation of any provision of ss. 812.012-812.037 in order to gain evidence against that person, provided such solicitation would not induce an ordinary law-abiding person to violate any provision of ss. 812.012-812.037.

History.–s. 10, ch. 77-342

Disorderly Conduct Statutes

877.03 Breach of the peace; disorderly conduct.–Whoever commits such acts as are of a nature to corrupt the public morals, or outrage the sense of public decency, or affect the peace and quiet of persons who may witness them, or engages in brawling or fighting, or engages in such conduct as to constitute a breach of the peace or disorderly conduct, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

History.–s. 1, ch. 59-325; s. 1147, ch. 71-136; s. 2, ch. 86-174.

509.143 Disorderly conduct on the premises of an establishment; detention; arrest; immunity from liability.–

(1) An operator may take a person into custody and detain that person in a reasonable manner and for a reasonable time if the operator has probable cause to believe that the person was engaging in disorderly conduct in violation of s. 877.03 on the premises of the licensed establishment and that such conduct was creating a threat to the life or safety of the person or others. The operator shall call a law enforcement officer to the scene immediately after detaining a person under this subsection.

(2) A law enforcement officer may arrest, either on or off the premises of the licensed establishment and without a warrant, any person the officer has probable cause to believe violated s. 877.03 on the premises of a licensed establishment and, in the course of such violation, created a threat to the life or safety of the person or others.

(3) An operator or a law enforcement officer who detains a person under subsection (1) or makes an arrest under subsection (2) is not civilly or criminally liable for false arrest, false imprisonment, or unlawful detention on the basis of any action taken in compliance with subsection (1) or subsection (2).

(4) A person who resists the reasonable efforts of an operator or a law enforcement officer to detain or arrest that person in accordance with this section is guilty of a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083, unless the person did not know or did not have reason to know that the person seeking to make such detention or arrest was the operator of the establishment or a law enforcement officer.

History.–s. 1, ch. 86-174; ss. 14, 52, ch. 90-339; s. 4, ch. 91-429.

Driver License Offenses

322.32 Unlawful use of license.–It is a misdemeanor of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083, for any person:

(1) To display, cause or permit to be displayed, or have in his or her possession any canceled, revoked, suspended, or disqualified driver’s license knowing that such license has been canceled, revoked, suspended, or disqualified.

(a) The element of knowledge is satisfied if:

1. The person has been cited as provided in s. 322.34(1), and any cancellation, revocation, or suspension in effect at that time remains in effect; or

2. The person admits to knowledge of the cancellation, suspension, or revocation; or

3. The person received notice as provided in paragraph (c).

(b) In any proceeding for a violation of this section, a court may consider evidence, other than that specified in paragraph (a), that a person knowingly possessed a canceled, suspended, or revoked driver’s license.

(c) Any judgment or order rendered by a court or adjudicatory body or any uniform traffic citation that cancels, suspends, or revokes a person’s driver’s license must contain a provision notifying the person that his or her driver’s license or driving privilege has been canceled, suspended, or revoked.

(2) To lend his or her driver’s license to any other person or knowingly permit the use thereof by another.

(3) To display, or represent as his or her own, any driver’s license not issued to him or her.

(4) To fail or refuse to surrender to the department or to any law enforcement officer, upon lawful demand, any driver’s license in his or her possession that has been suspended, revoked, disqualified, or canceled.

(5) To permit any unlawful use of a driver’s license issued to him or her.

(6) To apply for, obtain, or cause to be issued to him or her two or more photographic driver’s licenses which are in different names. The issuance of such licenses shall be prima facie evidence that the licensee has violated the provisions of this section unless the issuance was in compliance with the requirements of this chapter.

(7) To do any act forbidden, or fail to perform any act required, by this chapter.

History.–s. 44, ch. 19551, 1939; CGL 1940 Supp. 8135(59); s. 44, ch. 20451, 1941; s. 213, ch. 71-136; s. 25, ch. 78-394; s. 2, ch. 84-91; s. 24, ch. 89-282; s. 419, ch. 95-148; s. 3, ch. 97-206; s. 39, ch. 97-300.

322.33 Making false affidavit perjury.–Any person who makes any false affidavit, or knowingly swears or affirms falsely to any matter or thing required by the terms of this chapter, shall be guilty of perjury and upon conviction shall be punished accordingly.

History.–s. 45, ch. 19551, 1939; CGL 1940 Supp. 7476(9); s. 45, ch. 20451, 1941.

322.331 Habitual traffic offenders; restoration of license.–At the expiration of 5 years from the date of license revocation, a person whose license has been revoked under s. 322.27(5) may petition the department for restoration of driving privileges. Upon such petition and after investigation of the person’s qualification and fitness to drive, the department shall hold an administrative hearing to determine whether driving privileges shall be restored either on an unrestricted basis or on a restricted basis solely for business or employment purposes.

History.–s. 6, ch. 72-175.

322.34 Driving while license suspended, revoked, canceled, or disqualified.–

(1) Except as provided in subsection (2), any person whose driver’s license or driving privilege has been canceled, suspended, or revoked, except a “habitual traffic offender” as defined in s. 322.264, who drives a vehicle upon the highways of this state while such license or privilege is canceled, suspended, or revoked is guilty of a moving violation, punishable as provided in chapter 318.

(2) Any person whose driver’s license or driving privilege has been canceled, suspended, or revoked as provided by law, except persons defined in s. 322.264, who, knowing of such cancellation, suspension, or revocation, drives any motor vehicle upon the highways of this state while such license or privilege is canceled, suspended, or revoked, upon:

(a) A first conviction is guilty of a misdemeanor of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(b) A second conviction is guilty of a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(c) A third or subsequent conviction is guilty of a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

The element of knowledge is satisfied if the person has been previously cited as provided in subsection (1); or the person admits to knowledge of the cancellation, suspension, or revocation; or the person received notice as provided in subsection (4). There shall be a rebuttable presumption that the knowledge requirement is satisfied if a judgment or order as provided in subsection (4) appears in the department’s records for any case except for one involving a suspension by the department for failure to pay a traffic fine or for a financial responsibility violation.

(3) In any proceeding for a violation of this section, a court may consider evidence, other than that specified in subsection (2), that the person knowingly violated this section.

(4) Any judgment or order rendered by a court or adjudicatory body or any uniform traffic citation that cancels, suspends, or revokes a person’s driver’s license must contain a provision notifying the person that his or her driver’s license has been canceled, suspended, or revoked.

(5) Any person whose driver’s license has been revoked pursuant to s. 322.264 (habitual offender) and who drives any motor vehicle upon the highways of this state while such license is revoked is guilty of a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(6) Any person who operates a motor vehicle:

(a) Without having a driver’s license as required under s. 322.03; or

(b) While his or her driver’s license or driving privilege is canceled, suspended, or revoked pursuant to s. 316.655, s. 322.26(8), s. 322.27(2), or s. 322.28(2) or (4),

and who by careless or negligent operation of the motor vehicle causes the death of or serious bodily injury to another human being is guilty of a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(7) Any person whose driver’s license or driving privilege has been canceled, suspended, revoked, or disqualified and who drives a commercial motor vehicle on the highways of this state while such license or privilege is canceled, suspended, revoked, or disqualified, upon:

(a) A first conviction is guilty of a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(b) A second or subsequent conviction is guilty of a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(8)(a) Upon the arrest of a person for the offense of driving while the person’s driver’s license or driving privilege is suspended or revoked, the arresting officer shall determine:

1. Whether the person’s driver’s license is suspended or revoked.

2. Whether the person’s driver’s license has remained suspended or revoked since a conviction for the offense of driving with a suspended or revoked license.

3. Whether the suspension or revocation was made under s. 316.646 or s. 627.733, relating to failure to maintain required security, or under s. 322.264, relating to habitual traffic offenders.

4. Whether the driver is the registered owner or coowner of the vehicle.

(b) If the arresting officer finds in the affirmative as to all of the criteria in paragraph (a), the officer shall immediately impound or immobilize the vehicle.

(c) Within 7 business days after the date the arresting agency impounds or immobilizes the vehicle, either the arresting agency or the towing service, whichever is in possession of the vehicle, shall send notice by certified mail, return receipt requested, to any coregistered owners of the vehicle other than the person arrested and to each person of record claiming a lien against the vehicle. All costs and fees for the impoundment or immobilization, including the cost of notification, must be paid by the owner of the vehicle or, if the vehicle is leased, by the person leasing the vehicle.

(d) Either the arresting agency or the towing service, whichever is in possession of the vehicle, shall determine whether any vehicle impounded or immobilized under this section has been leased or rented or if there are any persons of record with a lien upon the vehicle. Either the arresting agency or the towing service, whichever is in possession of the vehicle, shall notify by express courier service with receipt or certified mail, return receipt requested, within 7 business days after the date of the immobilization or impoundment of the vehicle, the registered owner and all persons having a recorded lien against the vehicle that the vehicle has been impounded or immobilized. A lessor, rental car company, or lienholder may then obtain the vehicle, upon payment of any lawful towing or storage charges. If the vehicle is a rental vehicle subject to a written contract, the charges may be separately charged to the renter, in addition to the rental rate, along with other separate fees, charges, and recoupments disclosed on the rental agreement. If the storage facility fails to provide timely notice to a lessor, rental car company, or lienholder as required by this paragraph, the storage facility shall be responsible for payment of any towing or storage charges necessary to release the vehicle to a lessor, rental car company, or lienholder that accrue after the notice period, which charges may then be assessed against the driver of the vehicle if the vehicle was lawfully impounded or immobilized.

(e) Except as provided in paragraph (d), the vehicle shall remain impounded or immobilized for any period imposed by the court until:

1. The owner presents proof of insurance to the arresting agency; or

2. The owner presents proof of sale of the vehicle to the arresting agency and the buyer presents proof of insurance to the arresting agency.

If proof is not presented within 35 days after the impoundment or immobilization, a lien shall be placed upon such vehicle pursuant to s. 713.78.

(f) The owner of a vehicle that is impounded or immobilized under this subsection may, within 10 days after the date the owner has knowledge of the location of the vehicle, file a complaint in the county in which the owner resides to determine whether the vehicle was wrongfully taken or withheld. Upon the filing of a complaint, the owner may have the vehicle released by posting with the court a bond or other adequate security equal to the amount of the costs and fees for impoundment or immobilization, including towing or storage, to ensure the payment of such costs and fees if the owner does not prevail. When the vehicle owner does not prevail on a complaint that the vehicle was wrongfully taken or withheld, he or she must pay the accrued charges for the immobilization or impoundment, including any towing and storage charges assessed against the vehicle. When the bond is posted and the fee is paid as set forth in s. 28.24, the clerk of the court shall issue a certificate releasing the vehicle. At the time of release, after reasonable inspection, the owner must give a receipt to the towing or storage company indicating any loss or damage to the vehicle or to the contents of the vehicle.

(9)(a) A motor vehicle that is driven by a person under the influence of alcohol or drugs in violation of s. 316.193 is subject to seizure and forfeiture under ss. 932.701-932.707 and is subject to liens for recovering, towing, or storing vehicles under s. 713.78 if, at the time of the offense, the person’s driver’s license is suspended, revoked, or canceled as a result of a prior conviction for driving under the influence.

(b) The law enforcement officer shall notify the Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles of any impoundment or seizure for violation of paragraph (a) in accordance with procedures established by the department.

(c) Notwithstanding s. 932.703(1)(c) or s. 932.7055, when the seizing agency obtains a final judgment granting forfeiture of the motor vehicle under this section, 30 percent of the net proceeds from the sale of the motor vehicle shall be retained by the seizing law enforcement agency and 70 percent shall be deposited in the General Revenue Fund for use by regional workforce boards in providing transportation services for participants of the welfare transition program. In a forfeiture proceeding under this section, the court may consider the extent that the family of the owner has other public or private means of transportation.

History.–s. 46, ch. 19551, 1939; CGL 1940 Supp. 8135(60); s. 46, ch. 20451, 1941; s. 7, ch. 22858, 1945; s. 1, ch. s. 59-3; s. 214, ch. 71-136; s. 7, ch. 72-175; s. 4, ch. 76-153; s. 69, ch. 88-381; s. 23, ch. 89-282; s. 85, ch. 94-306; s. 941, ch. 95-148; s. 1, ch. 95-202; s. 1, ch. 95-278; s. 40, ch. 97-300; s. 12, ch. 98-223; s. 10, ch. 98-324; s. 108, ch. 99-13; s. 1, ch. 99-234; s. 46, ch. 99-248; s. 85, ch. 2000-165.

322.341 Driving while license permanently revoked.–Any person whose driver’s license or driving privilege has been permanently revoked pursuant to s. 322.26 or s. 322.28 and who drives a motor vehicle upon the highways of this state is guilty of a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

History.–s. 13, ch. 98-223.

322.35 Permitting unauthorized minor to drive.–No person shall cause or knowingly permit his or her child or ward under the age of 18 years to drive a motor vehicle upon any highway when such minor is not authorized by the provisions of this chapter.

History.–s. 47, ch. 19551, 1939; CGL 1940 Supp. 4151(658); s. 47, ch. 20451, 1941; s. 420, ch. 95-148.

322.36 Permitting unauthorized operator to drive.–No person shall authorize or knowingly permit a motor vehicle owned by him or her or under his or her dominion or control to be operated upon any highway or public street except by persons duly authorized to operate motor vehicles under the provisions of this chapter. Any person violating this provision is guilty of a misdemeanor of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

History.–s. 48, ch. 19551, 1939; CGL 1940 Supp. 4151(659); s. 48, ch. 20451, 1941; s. 1, ch. 65-497; s. 215, ch. 71-136; s. 421, ch. 95-148.

322.37 Employing unlicensed driver.–No person shall employ as a driver of a motor vehicle any person not then licensed to operate such vehicle as provided in this chapter. Violation of this section is a noncriminal traffic infraction subject to the penalty provided in s. 318.18(2).

History.–s. 49, ch. 19551, 1939; CGL 1940 Supp. 4151(660); s. 49, ch. 20451, 1941; s. 13, ch. 86-185; s. 48, ch. 89-282.

322.38 Renting motor vehicle to another.–

(1) No person shall rent a motor vehicle to any other person unless the latter person is then duly licensed, or if a nonresident he or she shall be licensed under the laws of the state or country of his or her residence, except a nonresident whose home state or country does not require that an operator be licensed.

(2) No person shall rent a motor vehicle to another until he or she has inspected the driver’s license of the person to whom the vehicle is to be rented, and compared and verified the signature thereon with the signature of such person written in his or her presence.

(3) Every person renting a motor vehicle to another shall keep a record of the registration number of the motor vehicle so rented, the name and address of the person to whom the vehicle is rented, the number of the license of said latter person, and the date and place when and where the said license was issued. Such record shall be open to inspection by any police officer, or officer or employee of the department.

History.–s. 50, ch. 19551, 1939; CGL 1940 Supp. 4151(661); s. 50, ch. 20451, 1941; s. 49, ch. 89-282; s. 422, ch. 95-148.

322.39 Penalties.–

(1) It is a misdemeanor for any person to violate any of the provisions of this chapter, unless such violation is declared to be otherwise by this chapter or other law of this state.

(2) Unless another penalty is provided in this chapter or by the laws of this state, a person convicted of a misdemeanor for the violation of a provision of this chapter is guilty of a misdemeanor of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

History.–s. 51, ch. 19551, 1939; CGL 1940 Supp. 8135(56); s. 51, ch. 20451, 1941; s. 216, ch. 71-136; s. 19, ch. 84-359.

Driving with a Suspended License (DWLS)

322.212 Unauthorized possession of, and other unlawful acts in relation to, driver’s license or identification card.–

(1) It is unlawful for any person to:

(a) Knowingly have in his or her possession or to display any blank, forged, stolen, fictitious, counterfeit, or unlawfully issued driver’s license or identification card or any instrument in the similitude of a driver’s license or identification card unless possession by such person has been duly authorized by the department;

(b) Knowingly have in his or her possession any instrument in the similitude of a driver’s license issued by the department or its duly authorized agents or those of any state or jurisdiction issuing licenses recognized in this state for the operation of a motor vehicle;

(c) Knowingly have in his or her possession any instrument in the similitude of an identification card issued by the department or its duly authorized agents or those of any state or jurisdiction issuing identification cards recognized in this state for the purpose of indicating a person’s true name and age; or

(d) Knowingly sell, manufacture, or deliver, or knowingly offer to sell, manufacture, or deliver, a blank, forged, stolen, fictitious, counterfeit, or unlawfully issued driver’s license or identification card, or an instrument in the similitude of a driver’s license or identification card, unless that person is authorized to do so by the department. A violation of this section may be investigated by any law enforcement agency, including the Division of Alcoholic Beverages and Tobacco.

The term “driver’s license” includes a driver’s license issued by the department or its agents or a driver’s license issued by any state or jurisdiction that issues licenses recognized in this state for the operation of a motor vehicle. The term “identification card” includes any identification card issued by the department or its agents or any identification card issued by any state or jurisdiction that issues identification cards recognized in this state for the purpose of indicating a person’s true name and age. This subsection does not prohibit a person from possessing or displaying another person’s driver’s license or identification card for a lawful purpose.

(2) It is unlawful for any person to barter, trade, sell, or give away any driver’s license or identification card or to perpetrate a conspiracy to barter, trade, sell, or give away any such license or identification card unless such person has been duly authorized to issue the license or identification card by the department as provided in this chapter or in the adopted rules of the department.

(3) It is unlawful for any employee of the department to allow or permit the issuance of a driver’s license or identification card when he or she knows that the applicant has not lawfully fulfilled the requirements of this chapter for the issuance of such license or identification card.

(4) It is unlawful for any person to agree to supply or to aid in supplying any person with a driver’s license or identification card by any means whatsoever not in accordance with the provisions of this chapter.

(5)(a) It is unlawful for any person to use a false or fictitious name in any application for a driver’s license or identification card or knowingly to make a false statement, knowingly conceal a material fact, or otherwise commit a fraud in any such application.

(b) It is unlawful for any person to have in his or her possession a driver’s license or identification card upon which the date of birth has been altered.

(6) Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, any person who violates any of the provisions of this section is guilty of a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. Any person who violates paragraph (5)(a) by giving a false age in any application for a driver’s license or identification card or who violates paragraph (5)(b) by possessing a driver’s license, identification card, or any instrument in the similitude thereof, on which the date of birth has been altered is guilty of a misdemeanor of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083. Any person who violates paragraph (1)(d) commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(7) The provisions of this section are in addition and supplemental to all other provisions of this chapter and of the laws of this state relating to driver’s licenses and identification cards.

History.–s. 1, ch. 65-167; ss. 24, 35, ch. 69-106; s. 212, ch. 71-136; s. 24, ch. 73-334; s. 19, ch. 78-394; s. 1, ch. 84-91; s. 410, ch. 95-148; s. 4, ch. 97-206; s. 1, ch. 2002-178; s. 6, ch. 2002-259; s. 2, ch. 2003-286.

Fleeing and Eluding

316.1935 Fleeing or attempting to elude a law enforcement officer; aggravated fleeing or eluding.–

(1) It is unlawful for the operator of any vehicle, having knowledge that he or she has been ordered to stop such vehicle by a duly authorized law enforcement officer, willfully to refuse or fail to stop the vehicle in compliance with such order or, having stopped in knowing compliance with such order, willfully to flee in an attempt to elude the officer, and a person who violates this subsection commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(2) Any person who willfully flees or attempts to elude a law enforcement officer in an authorized law enforcement patrol vehicle, with agency insignia and other jurisdictional markings prominently displayed on the vehicle, with siren and lights activated commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(3) Any person who willfully flees or attempts to elude a law enforcement officer in an authorized law enforcement patrol vehicle, with agency insignia and other jurisdictional markings prominently displayed on the vehicle, with siren and lights activated, and during the course of the fleeing or attempted eluding:

(a) Drives at high speed, or in any manner which demonstrates a wanton disregard for the safety of persons or property, commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(b) Drives at high speed, or in any manner which demonstrates a wanton disregard for the safety of persons or property, and causes serious bodily injury or death to another person, including any law enforcement officer involved in pursuing or otherwise attempting to effect a stop of the person’s vehicle, commits a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the court shall sentence any person convicted of committing the offense described in this paragraph to a mandatory minimum sentence of 3 years imprisonment. Nothing in this paragraph shall prevent a court from imposing a greater sentence of incarceration as authorized by law.

(4) Any person who, in the course of unlawfully leaving or attempting to leave the scene of a crash in violation of s. 316.027 or s. 316.061, having knowledge of an order to stop by a duly authorized law enforcement officer, willfully refuses or fails to stop in compliance with such an order, or having stopped in knowing compliance with such order, willfully flees in an attempt to elude such officer and, as a result of such fleeing or eluding:

(a) Causes injury to another person or causes damage to any property belonging to another person, commits aggravated fleeing or eluding, a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(b) Causes serious bodily injury or death to another person, including any law enforcement officer involved in pursuing or otherwise attempting to effect a stop of the person’s vehicle, commits aggravated fleeing or eluding with serious bodily injury or death, a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

The felony of aggravated fleeing or eluding and the felony of aggravated fleeing or eluding with serious bodily injury or death constitute separate offenses for which a person may be charged, in addition to the offenses under ss. 316.027 and 316.061, relating to unlawfully leaving the scene of a crash, which the person had been in the course of committing or attempting to commit when the order to stop was given. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the court shall sentence any person convicted of committing aggravated fleeing or eluding with serious bodily injury or death to a mandatory minimum sentence of 3 years imprisonment. Nothing in this subsection shall prevent a court from imposing a greater sentence of incarceration as authorized by law.

(5) The court shall revoke, for a period not less than 1 year nor exceeding 5 years, the driver’s license of any operator of a motor vehicle convicted of a violation of subsection (1), subsection (2), subsection (3), or subsection (4).

(6) Notwithstanding s. 948.01, no court may suspend, defer, or withhold adjudication of guilt or imposition of sentence for any violation of this section. A person convicted and sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of incarceration under paragraph (3)(b) or paragraph (4)(b) is not eligible for statutory gain-time under s. 944.275 or any form of discretionary early release, other than pardon or executive clemency or conditional medical release under s. 947.149, prior to serving the mandatory minimum sentence.

(7) Any motor vehicle involved in a violation of this section is deemed to be contraband, which may be seized by a law enforcement agency and is subject to forfeiture pursuant to ss. 932.701-932.704. Any vehicle not required to be titled under the laws of this state is presumed to be the property of the person in possession of the vehicle.

History.–s. 1, ch. 71-135; s. 1, ch. 76-31; s. 4, ch. 85-309; s. 52, ch. 89-282; s. 1, ch. 94-276; s. 896, ch. 95-148; s. 1, ch. 98-274; s. 140, ch. 99-248; s. 1, ch. 2004-388.

Note.–Former s. 316.019

Forgery and Counterfeiting Offenses

831.01 Forgery.

831.02 Uttering forged instruments.

831.025 Evidence in prosecution for forgery or counterfeiting.

831.03 Forging or counterfeiting private labels; possession of reproduction materials.

831.04 Penalty for changing or forging certain instruments of writing.

831.05 Vending goods or services with counterfeit trademarks or service marks.

831.06 Fictitious signature of officer of corporation.

831.07 Forging bank bills, checks, drafts, or promissory notes.

831.08 Possessing certain forged notes, bills, checks, or drafts.

831.09 Uttering forged bills, checks, drafts, or notes.

831.10 Second conviction of uttering forged bills.

831.11 Bringing into the state forged bank bills, checks, drafts, or notes.

831.12 Fraudulently connecting parts of genuine instrument.

831.13 Having in possession uncurrent bills.

831.14 Uttering uncurrent bills.

831.15 Counterfeiting coin; having 10 or more such coins in possession with intent to utter.

831.16 Having less than 10 counterfeit coins in possession, with intent to utter.

831.17 Violation of s. 831.16; second conviction.

831.18 Making or possessing instruments for forging bills.

831.19 Making or having instruments for counterfeiting coin.

831.20 Counterfeit bills and counterfeiters’ tools to be seized.

831.21 Forging or counterfeiting doctor’s certificate of examination.

831.22 Damaging bank bills.

831.23 Impeding circulation.

831.24 Issuing shop bills similar to bank notes.

831.25 Bringing private bills similar to bank bills into the state.

831.26 Circulating any substitute for regular currency.

831.27 Issuing notes.

831.28 Counterfeiting a payment instrument; possessing a counterfeit payment instrument; penalties.

831.29 Making or having instruments and material for counterfeiting driver’s licenses or identification cards.

831.30 Medicinal drugs; fraud in obtaining.

831.31 Counterfeit controlled substance; sale, manufacture, delivery, or possession with intent to sell, manufacture, or deliver.

831.01 Forgery.–Whoever falsely makes, alters, forges or counterfeits a public record, or a certificate, return or attestation of any clerk or register of a court, public register, notary public, town clerk or any public officer, in relation to a matter wherein such certificate, return or attestation may be received as a legal proof; or a charter, deed, will, testament, bond, or writing obligatory, letter of attorney, policy of insurance, bill of lading, bill of exchange or promissory note, or an order, acquittance, or discharge for money or other property, or an acceptance of a bill of exchange or promissory note for the payment of money, or any receipt for money, goods or other property, or any passage ticket, pass or other evidence of transportation issued by a common carrier, with intent to injure or defraud any person, shall be guilty of a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

History.–s. 1, ch. 1637, 1868; RS 2479; s. 6, ch. 4702, 1899; GS 3359; RGS 5206; CGL 7324; s. 1, ch. 59-31; s. 1, ch. 61-98; s. 959, ch. 71-136; s. 32, ch. 73-334.

831.02 Uttering forged instruments.–Whoever utters and publishes as true a false, forged or altered record, deed, instrument or other writing mentioned in s. 831.01 knowing the same to be false, altered, forged or counterfeited, with intent to injure or defraud any person, shall be guilty of a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

History.–s. 2, ch. 1637, 1868; RS 2480; GS 3360; RGS 5208; CGL 7326; s. 2, ch. 59-31; s. 2, ch. 61-98; s. 960, ch. 71-136.

831.025 Evidence in prosecution for forgery or counterfeiting.–In prosecutions for forging or counterfeiting notes or bills of banks, or for uttering, publishing, or tendering in payment as true, any forged or counterfeit bank bills, or notes, or for being possessed thereof with intent to utter and pass the same as true, the testimony of the president and cashier of such banks may be dispensed with, if their place of residence is out of the state or more than 40 miles from the place of trial; and the testimony of any person acquainted with the signature of such president or cashier, or who has knowledge of the difference in the appearance of the true and counterfeit bills or notes of such banks may be admitted to prove that such bills or notes are counterfeit.

History.–s. 122g, ch. 19554, 1939; CGL 1940 Supp. 8663(128); s. 179, ch. 70-339.

Note.–Former s. 906.22.

831.03 Forging or counterfeiting private labels; possession of reproduction materials.–

(1) Whoever, knowingly and willfully, forges or counterfeits, or causes or procures to be forged or counterfeited, upon or in connection with any goods or services, the trademark or service mark of any person, entity, or association, which goods or services are intended for resale, or knowingly possesses tools or other reproduction materials for reproduction of specific forged or counterfeit trademarks or service marks shall be guilty of the crime of counterfeiting. The crime of counterfeiting shall be punishable as follows:

(a) If the goods or services to which the forged or counterfeit trademarks or service marks are attached, affixed, or used in connection with, or to which the offender intended they be attached, affixed, or used in connection with, have a retail sale value of $1,000 or more, the offender commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(b) If the goods or services to which the forged or counterfeit trademarks or service marks are attached, affixed, or used in connection with, or to which the offender intended they be attached, affixed, or used in connection with, have a retail sale value of less than $1,000, the offender commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(c) When an offender has in the last 5 years been convicted of counterfeiting under this section, or vending counterfeit goods under s. 831.05, and is convicted of counterfeiting goods or services, irrespective of their retail sale value, the offender commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(2) All defenses, affirmative defenses, and limitations on remedies that would be applicable in an action under the Lanham Act, 15 U.S.C. ss. 1051 et seq., or to an action under s. 495.131 shall be applicable in a prosecution under this section.

(3) The term “forged or counterfeit trademark or service mark” refers to a mark:

(a) That is identical with or an imitation of a mark registered for those goods or services on the principal register in the United States Patent and Trademark Office or the trademark register for the State of Florida or any other state, or protected by the Amateur Sports Act of 1978, 36 U.S.C. s. 380, whether or not the offender knew such mark was so registered or protected; and

(b) The use of which is unauthorized by the owner of the registered mark.

(4)(a) Any goods to which the forged or counterfeit trademarks or service marks are attached or affixed, or any tools or other reproduction materials for the reproduction of any specific forged or counterfeit trademark or service mark, which are produced or possessed in violation of this section, may be seized by any law enforcement officer and shall be destroyed upon the written consent of the offender or by judicial determination that the seized goods, tools, or other reproduction materials have attached or affixed to them a forged or counterfeit trademark or service mark, unless the owner of the registered or protected trademark or service mark which has been forged or counterfeited approves a different disposition. The owner of the registered or protected trademark shall be responsible for the actual costs incurred in the disposition of said forged or counterfeited goods.

(b) Any personal property, including, but not limited to, any item, object, tool, machine, or vehicle of any kind, employed as an instrumentality in the commission of, or in aiding or abetting in the commission of, the crime of counterfeiting, as proscribed by paragraphs (1)(a)-(c), and not otherwise included in paragraph (a), may be seized and is subject to forfeiture pursuant to ss. 932.701-932.704.

History.–s. 1, ch. 3621, 1885; RS 2481; GS 3361; RGS 5209; CGL 7327; s. 961, ch. 71-136; s. 1, ch. 95-300.

831.04 Penalty for changing or forging certain instruments of writing.–

(1) Any person making any erasure, alteration, interlineation or interpolation in any writing or instrument mentioned in s. 92.28, and made admissible in evidence, with the fraudulent intent to change the same in any substantial manner after the same has once been made, shall be guilty of the crime of forgery, which, for the purposes of this section, constitutes a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(2) Any person who may be in the business of making writings or written entries, maps or plats concerning or relating to lands or real estate, in any county in this state to which said sections apply, and of furnishing to persons applying therefor abstracts or copies of such writing or written entries, maps or plats as aforesaid, for a fee, reward or compensation therefor, and shall make the same with an alteration or interpolation in any matter of substance, with fraudulent intent to alter or change the same in any material manner or matter of substance, shall be guilty of the crime of forgery, and shall be punished as provided in subsection (1).

History.–s. 6, ch. 4951, 1901; GS 3362; RGS 5210; CGL 7328; s. 962, ch. 71-136.

831.05 Vending goods or services with counterfeit trademarks or service marks.–

(1) Whoever knowingly sells or offers for sale, or knowingly purchases and keeps or has in his or her possession, with intent that the same shall be sold or disposed, or vends any goods having thereon a forged or counterfeit trademark, or who knowingly sells or offers for sale any service which service is sold in conjunction with a forged or counterfeit service mark, of any person, entity, or association, knowing the same to be forged or counterfeited, shall be guilty of the crime of selling or offering for sale counterfeit goods or services, punishable as follows:

(a) If the goods or services which the offender sells, or offers for sale, have a retail sale value of $1,000 or more, the offender commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(b) If the goods or services which the offender sells, or offers for sale, have a retail sale value of less than $1,000, the offender commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(2) All defenses, affirmative defenses, and limitations on remedies that would be applicable in an action under the Lanham Act, 15 U.S.C. ss. 1051 et seq., or to an action under s. 495.131, shall be applicable in a prosecution under this section.

(3) The terms “forged or counterfeit trademark” or “forged or counterfeit service mark” refer to a mark:

(a) That is identical with or an imitation of a mark registered for those goods or services on the principal register in the United States Patent and Trademark Office or the trademark register for the State of Florida or any other state, or protected by the Amateur Sports Act of 1978, 36 U.S.C. s. 380, whether or not the offender knew such mark was so registered or protected; and

(b) The use of which is unauthorized by the owner of the mark.

(4)(a) Any goods to which the forged or counterfeit trademarks or service marks are attached or affixed may be seized by any law enforcement officer and shall be destroyed upon the written consent of the offender or by judicial determination that the seized goods have attached or affixed to them a forged or counterfeit trademark or service mark, unless the owner of the registered or protected trademark or service mark which has been forged or counterfeited approves a different disposition. The owner of the registered or protected trademark shall be responsible for the actual costs incurred in the disposition of said forged or counterfeited goods.

(b) Any personal property, including, but not limited to, any item, object, tool, machine, or vehicle of any kind, employed as an instrumentality in the commission of, or in aiding or abetting in the commission of, the crime of selling or offering for sale counterfeit goods or services, as proscribed by paragraphs (1)(a)-(b), and not otherwise included in paragraph (a), may be seized and is subject to forfeiture pursuant to ss. 932.701-932.704.

(5) No owner, officer, employee, or agent who provides, rents, leases, licenses, or sells real property upon which a violation of subsection (1) occurs shall be subject to criminal penalty under this section unless he or she is proven to have actual knowledge that the mark is counterfeit and is either a principal to the offense or an accessory after the fact. The above shall not be deemed to create, delete, or in any way affect any civil claim which may exist against such person.

History.–s. 52, ch. 1637, 1868; RS 2482; GS 3363; RGS 5211; CGL 7329; s. 963, ch. 71-136; s. 2, ch. 95-300.

831.06 Fictitious signature of officer of corporation.–If a fictitious or pretended signature, purporting to be the signature of an officer or agent of a corporation, is fraudulently affixed to any instrument or writing purporting to be a note, draft or evidence of debt issued by such corporation, with intent to pass the same as true, it shall be deemed a forgery, though no such person may ever have been an officer or agent of such corporation, or ever have existed.

History.–s. 12, ch. 1637, 1868; RS 2483; GS 3364; RGS 5212; CGL 7330.

831.07 Forging bank bills, checks, drafts, or promissory notes.–Whoever falsely makes, alters, forges, or counterfeits a bank bill, check, draft, or promissory note payable to the bearer thereof, or to the order of any person, issued by an incorporated banking company established in this state, or within the United States, or any foreign province, state, or government, with intent to injure any person, commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

History.–s. 4, ch. 1637, 1868; RS 2485; GS 3366; RGS 5214; CGL 7332; s. 964, ch. 71-136; s. 8, ch. 2001-115.

831.08 Possessing certain forged notes, bills, checks, or drafts.–Whoever has in his or her possession 10 or more similar false, altered, forged, or counterfeit notes, bills of credit, bank bills, checks, drafts, or notes, such as are mentioned in any of the preceding sections of this chapter, payable to the bearer thereof or to the order of any person, knowing the same to be false, altered, forged, or counterfeit, with intent to utter and pass the same as true, and thereby to injure or defraud any person, commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

History.–s. 5, ch. 1637, 1868; RS 2486; GS 3367; RGS 5215; CGL 7333; s. 965, ch. 71-136; s. 1291, ch. 97-102; s. 9, ch. 2001-115.

831.09 Uttering forged bills, checks, drafts, or notes.–Whoever utters or passes or tenders in payment as true, any such false, altered, forged, or counterfeit note, or any bank bill, check, draft, or promissory note, payable to the bearer thereof or to the order of any person, issued as aforesaid, knowing the same to be false, altered, forged, or counterfeit, with intent to injure or defraud any person, commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

History.–s. 6, ch. 1637, 1868; RS 2487; GS 3368; RGS 5216; CGL 7334; s. 966, ch. 71-136; s. 10, ch. 2001-115.

831.10 Second conviction of uttering forged bills.–Whoever, having been convicted of the offense mentioned in s. 831.09 is again convicted of the like offense committed after the former conviction, and whoever is at the same term of the court convicted upon three distinct charges of such offense, shall be deemed a common utterer of counterfeit bills, and shall be punished as provided in s. 775.084.

History.–s. 7, ch. 1637, 1868; RS 2488; GS 3369; RGS 5217; CGL 7335; s. 967, ch. 71-136; s. 11, ch. 2001-115.

831.11 Bringing into the state forged bank bills, checks, drafts, or notes.–Whoever brings into this state or has in his or her possession a false, forged, or counterfeit bill, check, draft, or note in the similitude of the bills or notes payable to the bearer thereof or to the order of any person issued by or for any bank or banking company established in this state, or within the United States, or any foreign province, state or government, with intent to utter and pass the same or to render the same current as true, knowing the same to be false, forged, or counterfeit, commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

History.–s. 8, ch. 1637, 1868; RS 2489; GS 3370; RGS 5218; CGL 7336; s. 968, ch. 71-136; s. 1292, ch. 97-102; s. 12, ch. 2001-115.

831.12 Fraudulently connecting parts of genuine instrument.–Whoever fraudulently connects together parts of several banknotes, checks, drafts, or other genuine instruments in such a manner as to produce one additional note, check, draft, or instrument, with intent to pass all of them as genuine, commits forgery as if each of them had been falsely made or forged.

History.–s. 19, ch. 1637, 1868; RS 2490; GS 3371; RGS 5219; CGL 7337; s. 13, ch. 2001-115.

831.13 Having in possession uncurrent bills.–Whoever has in his or her possession at the same time five or more uncurrent bank bills or notes, knowing the same to be worthless, or has papers, not bank bills or notes but made in the similitude of bank bills or notes of any bank which has never existed, knowing the character of such papers, with intent to pass, utter or circulate the same, or to procure any other person to do so, for the purpose of injuring or defrauding, shall be guilty of a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

History.–s. 22, ch. 1637, 1868; RS 2491; GS 3372; RGS 5220; CGL 7338; s. 969, ch. 71-136; s. 1293, ch. 97-102.

831.14 Uttering uncurrent bills.–Whoever utters, or passes or tenders in payment as true, any such worthless and uncurrent bank bill or note, or any paper not a bank bill or note but made in the similitude of a bank bill or note, or any paper purporting to be the bill or note of any bank which has never existed, knowing the same to be worthless and uncurrent, as aforesaid, with intent to injure and defraud, shall be guilty of a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

History.–s. 23, ch. 1637, 1868; RS 2492; GS 3373; RGS 5221; CGL 7339; s. 970, ch. 71-136.

831.15 Counterfeiting coin; having 10 or more such coins in possession with intent to utter.–Whoever counterfeits any gold, silver, or any metallic money coin, current by law or usage within this state, or has in his or her possession at the same time 10 or more pieces of false money, or coin counterfeited in the similitude of any gold, silver or metallic coin; current as aforesaid, knowing the same to be false and counterfeit, and with intent to utter or pass the same as true, shall be guilty of a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

History.–s. 14, ch. 1637, 1868; RS 2493; GS 3374; RGS 5222; CGL 7340; s. 971, ch. 71-136; s. 1294, ch. 97-102.

831.16 Having less than 10 counterfeit coins in possession, with intent to utter.–Whoever has in his or her possession any number of pieces less than 10 of the counterfeit coin mentioned in the preceding section, knowing the same to be counterfeit, with intent to utter or pass the same as true, or who utters, passes or tenders in payment as true any such counterfeit coin, knowing the same to be false and counterfeit, shall be punished by imprisonment in the state prison not exceeding 10 years, or in the county jail not exceeding 12 months, or by fine not exceeding $1,000.

History.–s. 15, ch. 1637, 1868; RS 2494; GS 3375; RGS 5223; CGL 7341; s. 1295, ch. 97-102.

831.17 Violation of s. 831.16; second conviction.–Whoever having been convicted of either of the offenses mentioned in the preceding section, is again convicted of either of the same offenses, committed after the former conviction, and whoever is at the same term of the court convicted upon three distinct charges of said offenses, shall be deemed a common utterer of counterfeit coin and punished by imprisonment in the state prison not exceeding 20 years.

History.–s. 16, ch. 1637, 1868; RS 2495; GS 3376; RGS 5224; CGL 7342.

831.18 Making or possessing instruments for forging bills.–Whoever engraves, makes or amends, or begins to engrave, make or amend, any plate, block, press, or other tool, instrument or implement, or makes or provides any paper or other material, adapted and designed for the making of a false and counterfeit note, certificate, or other bill of credit, purporting to be issued by lawful authority for a debt of this state, or a false or counterfeit note or bill, in the similitude of the notes or bills issued by any bank or banking company established in this state, or within the United States, or in any foreign province, state or government; and whoever has in his or her possession any such plate or block engraved in any part, or any press or other tool, instrument or any paper or other material adapted and designed as aforesaid, with intent to issue the same, or to cause or permit the same to be used in forging or making any such false and counterfeit certificates, bills or notes, shall be punished by imprisonment in the state prison not exceeding 10 years, or by fine not exceeding $1,000.

History.–s. 9, ch. 1637, 1868; RS 2496; GS 3377; RGS 5225; CGL 7343; s. 1296, ch. 97-102.

831.19 Making or having instruments for counterfeiting coin.–Whoever casts, stamps, engraves, makes or amends, or knowingly has in his or her possession any mould, pattern, die, puncheon, engine, press or other tool or instrument, adapted and designed for coining or making counterfeit coin in the similitude of any gold, silver or metallic coin, current by law or usage in this state, with intent to use or employ the same, or to cause or to permit the same to be used or employed in coining and making any such false and counterfeit coin as aforesaid, shall be punished by imprisonment in the state prison not exceeding 10 years, or by fine not exceeding $1,000.

History.–s. 17, ch. 1637, 1868; RS 2497; GS 3378; RGS 5226; CGL 7344; s. 1297, ch. 97-102.

831.20 Counterfeit bills and counterfeiters’ tools to be seized.–When false, forged or counterfeit bank bills or notes, or plates, dies or other tools, instruments or implements used by counterfeiters, designed for the forging or making of false or counterfeit notes, coin or bills, or worthless and uncurrent bank bills or notes described in this chapter shall come to the knowledge of any sheriff, police officer or other officer of justice in this state, such officer shall immediately seize and take possession of and deliver the same into the custody of the court having jurisdiction of the offense of counterfeiting in the county, and the court shall, as soon as the ends of justice will permit, cause the same to be destroyed by an officer of the court who shall make return to the court of his or her doings in the premises.

History.–s. 25, ch. 1637, 1868; RS 2498; GS 3379; RGS 5227; CGL 7345; s. 32, ch. 73-334; s. 1298, ch. 97-102.

831.21 Forging or counterfeiting doctor’s certificate of examination.–Whoever falsely makes, alters, forges or counterfeits any doctor’s certificate or record of examination to an application for a policy of insurance, or knowing such doctor’s certificate or record of examination to be falsely made, altered, forged or counterfeited, shall pass, utter or publish such certificate as true, with intent to injure or defraud any person, shall be deemed guilty of forgery, and upon conviction thereof shall be punished by imprisonment in the state penitentiary not exceeding 5 years, or by fine not exceeding $500.

History.–s. 1, ch. 4525, 1897; GS 3380; RGS 5228; CGL 7346.

831.22 Damaging bank bills.–Whoever willfully and maliciously cuts, or in any manner damages and impairs the usefulness for circulation of any bank bill or note of any bank in this state, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.083, but the possession or uttering of a bill so damaged shall not be evidence against the party charged, unless connected with other circumstances tending to prove that the note or bill was damaged by him or her.

History.–s. 20, ch. 1637, 1868; RS 2725; GS 3717; RGS 5700; CGL 7914; s. 972, ch. 71-136; s. 1299, ch. 97-102.

831.23 Impeding circulation.–Whoever maliciously gathers up or retains or maliciously does any gathering up or retaining any bills or notes of any bank or banking company current by law or usage in this state for the purpose of endangering or impeding the circulation or business of such bank or banking company, or to compel it to do any act whatever out of its usual course of business, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083. In the prosecution of any such offense it will not be necessary to set out and describe each bill, but it shall be sufficient to aver and prove any amount of the bills of any bank which has been gathered up or retained.

History.–s. 21, ch. 1637, 1868; RS 2726; GS 3718; RGS 5701; CGL 7915; s. 973, ch. 71-136.

831.24 Issuing shop bills similar to bank notes.–Whoever engraves, prints, issues, utters or circulates a shop bill or advertisement in the similitude, form and appearance of a bank bill, on paper similar to paper used for bank bills, with vignettes, figures or decoration used on bank bills, or having the general appearance of a bank bill, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

History.–s. 24, ch. 1637, 1868; RS 2727; GS 3719; RGS 5702; CGL 7916; s. 974, ch. 71-136.

831.25 Bringing private bills similar to bank bills into the state.–Whoever brings into this state, with intent to pass the same therein, any bills or notes in the likeness of banknotes, which said bills or notes are or have been issued by private individuals or private unincorporated companies in any or either of the states in the United States, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.083.

History.–s. 1, Dec. 22, 1824; RS 2728; GS 3720; RGS 5703; CGL 7917; s. 975, ch. 71-136.

831.26 Circulating any substitute for regular currency.–Whoever issues or circulates, or causes to be issued or circulated, or assists in issuing or circulating as a substitute in any respect for the currency recognized by law, any scrip, notes, bills, or any other written, engraved or lithographed paper payable in anything other than money, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.083.

History.–s. 1, ch. 3140, 1879; RS 2729; GS 3721; RGS 5704; CGL 7918; s. 976, ch. 71-136; s. 242, ch. 77-104.

831.27 Issuing notes.–Whoever issues any note, bill, order or check, other than foreign bills of exchange and notes or bills of some bank or company incorporated by the laws of this state, or by the laws of the United States, or by the laws of either of the British provinces in North America, with intent that the same shall be circulated as currency, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.083.

History.–s. 18, ch. 1637, 1868; RS 2730; GS 3722; RGS 5705; CGL 7919; s. 977, ch. 71-136.

831.28 Counterfeiting a payment instrument; possessing a counterfeit payment instrument; penalties.–

(1) As used in this section, the term “counterfeit” means the manufacture of or arrangement to manufacture a payment instrument, as defined in s. 560.103, without the permission of the financial institution, account holder, or organization whose name, routing number, or account number appears on the payment instrument, or the manufacture of any payment instrument with a fictitious name, routing number, or account number.

(2)(a) It is unlawful to counterfeit a payment instrument with the intent to defraud a financial institution, account holder, or any other person or organization or for a person to have any counterfeit payment instrument in such person’s possession. Any person who violates this subsection commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(b) The printing of a payment instrument in the name of a person or entity or with the routing number or account number of a person or entity without the permission of the person or entity to manufacture or reproduce such payment instrument with such name, routing number, or account number is prima facie evidence of intent to defraud.

(3) This section does not apply to a law enforcement agency that produces or displays counterfeit payment instruments for investigative or educational purposes.

History.–s. 14, ch. 2001-115.

831.29 Making or having instruments and material for counterfeiting driver’s licenses or identification cards.–Any person who has control, custody, or possession of any plate, block, press, stone, or other tool, instrument, or implement, or any part thereof; engraves, makes, or amends, or begins to engrave, make, or amend, any plate, block, press, stone, or other tool, instrument, or implement; brings into the state any such plate, block, press, stone, or other tool, instrument, or implement, or any part thereof, in the similitude of the driver’s licenses or identification cards issued by the Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles or its duly authorized agents or those of any state or jurisdiction that issues licenses recognized in this state for the operation of a motor vehicle or that issues identification cards recognized in this state for the purpose of indicating a person’s true name and age; has control, custody, or possession of or makes or provides any paper or other material adapted and designed for the making of a false and counterfeit driver’s license or identification card purporting to be issued by the Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles or its duly authorized agents or those of any state or jurisdiction that issues licenses recognized in this state for the operation of a motor vehicle or that issues identification cards recognized in this state for the purpose of indicating a person’s true name and age; has in his or her possession, control, or custody any such plate or block engraved in any part, or any press or other tool or instrument or any paper or other material adapted and designed as aforesaid with intent to sell, issue, publish, pass, or utter the same or to cause or permit the same to be used in forging or making any such false or counterfeit driver’s license or identification card; or prints, photographs, or in any manner makes or executes any engraved photograph, print, or impression by any process whatsoever in the similitude of any such licenses or identification cards with the intent to sell, issue, publish, or utter the same or to cause or permit the same to be used in forging or making any such false and counterfeit driver’s license or identification card of this state or any state or jurisdiction that issues licenses recognized in this state for the operation of a motor vehicle or that issues identification cards recognized in this state for the purpose of indicating a person’s true name and age is guilty of a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

History.–s. 1, ch. 65-278; s. 1, ch. 69-313; ss. 24, 35, ch. 69-106; s. 978, ch. 71-136; s. 32, ch. 73-334; s. 58, ch. 89-282; s. 1300, ch. 97-102; s. 5, ch. 97-206.

831.30 Medicinal drugs; fraud in obtaining.–Whoever:

(1) Falsely makes, alters, or forges any prescription, as defined in 1s. 465.031(2), for a medicinal drug other than a drug controlled by chapter 893;

(2) Knowingly causes such prescription to be falsely made, altered, forged, or counterfeited; or

(3) Passes, utters or publishes such prescription or otherwise knowingly holds out such false or forged prescription as true,

with intent to obtain such drug, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083. A second or subsequent conviction shall constitute a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

History.–s. 1, ch. 71-331; s. 1, ch. 72-234; s. 30, ch. 73-331.

1Note.–Repealed by s. 4, ch. 79-226.

831.31 Counterfeit controlled substance; sale, manufacture, delivery, or possession with intent to sell, manufacture, or deliver.–

(1) It is unlawful for any person to sell, manufacture, or deliver, or to possess with intent to sell, manufacture, or deliver, a counterfeit controlled substance. Any person who violates this subsection with respect to:

(a) A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1), (2), (3), or (4) is guilty of a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(b) A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(5) is guilty of a misdemeanor of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(2) For purposes of this section, “counterfeit controlled substance” means:

(a) A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03 which, or the container or labeling of which, without authorization bears the trademark, trade name, or other identifying mark, imprint, or number, or any likeness thereof, of a manufacturer other than the person who in fact manufactured the controlled substance; or

(b) Any substance which is falsely identified as a controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03.

History.–s. 2, ch. 81-53; s. 4, ch. 89-281; s. 2, ch. 92-19; s. 102, ch. 97-264; s. 104, ch. 99-3; s. 8, ch. 99-186; s. 18, ch. 2000-320; s. 8, ch. 2002-78.

Grand Theft

812.014 Theft.–

(1) A person commits theft if he or she knowingly obtains or uses, or endeavors to obtain or to use, the property of another with intent to, either temporarily or permanently:

(a) Deprive the other person of a right to the property or a benefit from the property.

(b) Appropriate the property to his or her own use or to the use of any person not entitled to the use of the property.

(2)(a)1. If the property stolen is valued at $100,000 or more; or

2. If the property stolen is cargo valued at $50,000 or more that has entered the stream of interstate or intrastate commerce from the shipper’s loading platform to the consignee’s receiving dock; or

3. If the offender commits any grand theft and:

a. In the course of committing the offense the offender uses a motor vehicle as an instrumentality, other than merely as a getaway vehicle, to assist in committing the offense and thereby damages the real property of another; or

b. In the course of committing the offense the offender causes damage to the real or personal property of another in excess of $1,000,

the offender commits grand theft in the first degree, punishable as a felony of the first degree, as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(b)1. If the property stolen is valued at $20,000 or more, but less than $100,000;

2. The property stolen is cargo valued at less than $50,000 that has entered the stream of interstate or intrastate commerce from the shipper’s loading platform to the consignee’s receiving dock; or

3. The property stolen is emergency medical equipment, valued at $300 or more, that is taken from a facility licensed under chapter 395 or from an aircraft or vehicle permitted under chapter 401,

the offender commits grand theft in the second degree, punishable as a felony of the second degree, as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. Emergency medical equipment means mechanical or electronic apparatus used to provide emergency services and care as defined in s. 395.002(10) or to treat medical emergencies.

(c) It is grand theft of the third degree and a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084, if the property stolen is:

1. Valued at $300 or more, but less than $5,000.

2. Valued at $5,000 or more, but less than $10,000.

3. Valued at $10,000 or more, but less than $20,000.

4. A will, codicil, or other testamentary instrument.

5. A firearm.

6. A motor vehicle, except as provided in paragraph (2)(a).

7. Any commercially farmed animal, including any animal of the equine, bovine, or swine class, or other grazing animal, and including aquaculture species raised at a certified aquaculture facility. If the property stolen is aquaculture species raised at a certified aquaculture facility, then a $10,000 fine shall be imposed.

8. Any fire extinguisher.

9. Any amount of citrus fruit consisting of 2,000 or more individual pieces of fruit.

10. Taken from a designated construction site identified by the posting of a sign as provided for in s. 810.09(2)(d).

11. Any stop sign.

12. Anhydrous ammonia.

(d) It is grand theft of the third degree and a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084, if the property stolen is valued at $100 or more, but less than $300, and is taken from a dwelling as defined in s. 810.011(2) or from the unenclosed curtilage of a dwelling pursuant to s. 810.09(1).

(e) Except as provided in paragraph (d), if the property stolen is valued at $100 or more, but less than $300, the offender commits petit theft of the first degree, punishable as a misdemeanor of the first degree, as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(3)(a) Theft of any property not specified in subsection (2) is petit theft of the second degree and a misdemeanor of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083, and as provided in subsection (5), as applicable.

(b) A person who commits petit theft and who has previously been convicted of any theft commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(c) A person who commits petit theft and who has previously been convicted two or more times of any theft commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(d)1. Every judgment of guilty or not guilty of a petit theft shall be in writing, signed by the judge, and recorded by the clerk of the circuit court. The judge shall cause to be affixed to every such written judgment of guilty of petit theft, in open court and in the presence of such judge, the fingerprints of the defendant against whom such judgment is rendered. Such fingerprints shall be affixed beneath the judge’s signature to such judgment. Beneath such fingerprints shall be appended a certificate to the following effect:

“I hereby certify that the above and foregoing fingerprints on this judgment are the fingerprints of the defendant, _____, and that they were placed thereon by said defendant in my presence, in open court, this the _____ day of _____, (year) .”

Such certificate shall be signed by the judge, whose signature thereto shall be followed by the word “Judge.”

2. Any such written judgment of guilty of a petit theft, or a certified copy thereof, is admissible in evidence in the courts of this state as prima facie evidence that the fingerprints appearing thereon and certified by the judge are the fingerprints of the defendant against whom such judgment of guilty of a petit theft was rendered.

(4) Failure to comply with the terms of a lease when the lease is for a term of 1 year or longer shall not constitute a violation of this section unless demand for the return of the property leased has been made in writing and the lessee has failed to return the property within 7 days of his or her receipt of the demand for return of the property. A demand mailed by certified or registered mail, evidenced by return receipt, to the last known address of the lessee shall be deemed sufficient and equivalent to the demand having been received by the lessee, whether such demand shall be returned undelivered or not.

(5)(a) No person shall drive a motor vehicle so as to cause it to leave the premises of an establishment at which gasoline offered for retail sale was dispensed into the fuel tank of such motor vehicle unless the payment of authorized charge for the gasoline dispensed has been made.

(b) In addition to the penalties prescribed in paragraph (3)(a), every judgment of guilty of a petit theft for property described in this subsection shall provide for the suspension of the convicted person’s driver’s license. The court shall forward the driver’s license to the Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles in accordance with s. 322.25.

1. The first suspension of a driver’s license under this subsection shall be for a period of up to 6 months.

2. The second or subsequent suspension of a driver’s license under this subsection shall be for a period of 1 year.

History.–s. 4, ch. 77-342; s. 1, ch. 78-348; s. 1, ch. 79-124; s. 1, ch. 80-389; s. 1, ch. 82-164; s. 1, ch. 86-161; s. 1, ch. 87-376; s. 1, ch. 88-312; s. 8, ch. 90-92; s. 1, ch. 92-79; s. 9, ch. 95-184; s. 30, ch. 96-247; s. 3, ch. 96-260; s. 49, ch. 96-388; s. 1819, ch. 97-102; s. 102, ch. 99-3; s. 36, ch. 99-6; ss. 67, 79, ch. 99-248; s. 2, ch. 2001-115; s. 1, ch. 2003-15; s. 2, ch. 2004-341.

Indecent Exposure/ Lewd and Lascivious Conduct

800.02 Unnatural and lascivious act.–A person who commits any unnatural and lascivious act with another person commits a misdemeanor of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083. A mother’s breastfeeding of her baby does not under any circumstance violate this section.

History.–s. 1, ch. 7361, 1917; RGS 5425; CGL 7568; s. 778, ch. 71-136; s. 2, ch. 93-4.

800.03 Exposure of sexual organs.–It is unlawful to expose or exhibit one’s sexual organs in public or on the private premises of another, or so near thereto as to be seen from such private premises, in a vulgar or indecent manner, or to be naked in public except in any place provided or set apart for that purpose. Violation of this section is a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083. A mother’s breastfeeding of her baby does not under any circumstance violate this section.

History.–s. 1, ch. 7360, 1917; RGS 5445; CGL 7588; s. 1, ch. 61-51; s. 779, ch. 71-136; s. 3, ch. 93-4.

800.04 Lewd or lascivious offenses committed upon or in the presence of persons less than 16 years of age.–

(1) DEFINITIONS.–As used in this section:

(a) “Sexual activity” means the oral, anal, or vaginal penetration by, or union with, the sexual organ of another or the anal or vaginal penetration of another by any other object; however, sexual activity does not include an act done for a bona fide medical purpose.

(b) “Consent” means intelligent, knowing, and voluntary consent, and does not include submission by coercion.

(c) “Coercion” means the use of exploitation, bribes, threats of force, or intimidation to gain cooperation or compliance.

(d) “Victim” means a person upon whom an offense described in this section was committed or attempted or a person who has reported a violation of this section to a law enforcement officer.

(2) PROHIBITED DEFENSES.–Neither the victim’s lack of chastity nor the victim’s consent is a defense to the crimes proscribed by this section.

(3) IGNORANCE OR BELIEF OF VICTIM’S AGE.–The perpetrator’s ignorance of the victim’s age, the victim’s misrepresentation of his or her age, or the perpetrator’s bona fide belief of the victim’s age cannot be raised as a defense in a prosecution under this section.

(4) LEWD OR LASCIVIOUS BATTERY.–A person who:

(a) Engages in sexual activity with a person 12 years of age or older but less than 16 years of age; or

(b) Encourages, forces, or entices any person less than 16 years of age to engage in sadomasochistic abuse, sexual bestiality, prostitution, or any other act involving sexual activity

commits lewd or lascivious battery, a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(5) LEWD OR LASCIVIOUS MOLESTATION.–

(a) A person who intentionally touches in a lewd or lascivious manner the breasts, genitals, genital area, or buttocks, or the clothing covering them, of a person less than 16 years of age, or forces or entices a person under 16 years of age to so touch the perpetrator, commits lewd or lascivious molestation.

(b) An offender 18 years of age or older who commits lewd or lascivious molestation against a victim less than 12 years of age commits a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(c)1. An offender less than 18 years of age who commits lewd or lascivious molestation against a victim less than 12 years of age; or

2. An offender 18 years of age or older who commits lewd or lascivious molestation against a victim 12 years of age or older but less than 16 years of age

commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(d) An offender less than 18 years of age who commits lewd or lascivious molestation against a victim 12 years of age or older but less than 16 years of age commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(6) LEWD OR LASCIVIOUS CONDUCT.–

(a) A person who:

1. Intentionally touches a person under 16 years of age in a lewd or lascivious manner; or

2. Solicits a person under 16 years of age to commit a lewd or lascivious act

commits lewd or lascivious conduct.

(b) An offender 18 years of age or older who commits lewd or lascivious conduct commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(c) An offender less than 18 years of age who commits lewd or lascivious conduct commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(7) LEWD OR LASCIVIOUS EXHIBITION.–

(a) A person who:

1. Intentionally masturbates;

2. Intentionally exposes the genitals in a lewd or lascivious manner; or

3. Intentionally commits any other sexual act that does not involve actual physical or sexual contact with the victim, including, but not limited to, sadomasochistic abuse, sexual bestiality, or the simulation of any act involving sexual activity

in the presence of a victim who is less than 16 years of age, commits lewd or lascivious exhibition.

(b) A person who:

1. Intentionally masturbates;

2. Intentionally exposes the genitals in a lewd or lascivious manner; or

3. Intentionally commits any other sexual act that does not involve actual physical or sexual contact with the victim, including, but not limited to, sadomasochistic abuse, sexual bestiality, or the simulation of any act involving sexual activity

live over a computer on-line service, Internet service, or local bulletin board service and who knows or should know or has reason to believe that the transmission is viewed on a computer or television monitor by a victim in this state who is less than 16 years of age, commits lewd or lascivious exhibition. The fact that an undercover operative or law enforcement officer was involved in the detection and investigation of an offense under this paragraph shall not constitute a defense to a prosecution under this paragraph.

(c) An offender 18 years of age or older who commits a lewd or lascivious exhibition commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(d) An offender less than 18 years of age who commits a lewd or lascivious exhibition commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(8) EXCEPTION.–A mother’s breastfeeding of her baby does not under any circumstance constitute a violation of this section.

History.–s. 1, ch. 21974, 1943; s. 1, ch. 26580, 1951; s. 780, ch. 71-136; s. 66, ch. 74-383; s. 1, ch. 75-24; s. 40, ch. 75-298; s. 291, ch. 79-400; s. 5, ch. 84-86; s. 1, ch. 90-120; s. 5, ch. 93-4; s. 6, ch. 99-201; s. 1, ch. 2000-246

Manufacture of Drugs

893.13 Prohibited acts; penalties.

(1)(a) Except as authorized by this chapter and chapter 499, it is unlawful for any person to sell, manufacture, or deliver, or possess with intent to sell, manufacture, or deliver, a controlled substance. Any person who violates this provision with respect to:

1. A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(a), (1)(b), (1)(d), (2)(a), (2)(b), or (2)(c)4., commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

2. A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(c), (2)(c)1., (2)(c)2., (2)(c)3., (2)(c)5., (2)(c)6., (2)(c)7., (2)(c)8., (2)(c)9., (3), or (4) commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

3. A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(5) commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(b) Except as provided in this chapter, it is unlawful to sell or deliver in excess of 10 grams of any substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(a) or (1)(b), or any combination thereof, or any mixture containing any such substance. Any person who violates this paragraph commits a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(c) Except as authorized by this chapter, it is unlawful for any person to sell, manufacture, or deliver, or possess with intent to sell, manufacture, or deliver, a controlled substance in, on, or within 1,000 feet of the real property comprising a child care facility as defined in s. 402.302 or a public or private elementary, middle, or secondary school between the hours of 6 a.m. and 12 midnight, or at any time in, on, or within 1,000 feet of real property comprising a state, county, or municipal park, a community center, or a publicly owned recreational facility. For the purposes of this paragraph, the term “community center” means a facility operated by a nonprofit community-based organization for the provision of recreational, social, or educational services to the public. Any person who violates this paragraph with respect to:

1. A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(a), (1)(b), (1)(d), (2)(a), (2)(b), or (2)(c)4., commits a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. The defendant must be sentenced to a minimum term of imprisonment of 3 calendar years unless the offense was committed within 1,000 feet of the real property comprising a child care facility as defined in s. 402.302.

2. A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(c), (2)(c)1., (2)(c)2., (2)(c)3., (2)(c)5., (2)(c)6., (2)(c)7., (2)(c)8., (2)(c)9., (3), or (4) commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

3. Any other controlled substance, except as lawfully sold, manufactured, or delivered, must be sentenced to pay a $500 fine and to serve 100 hours of public service in addition to any other penalty prescribed by law.

This paragraph does not apply to a child care facility unless the owner or operator of the facility posts a sign that is not less than 2 square feet in size with a word legend identifying the facility as a licensed child care facility and that is posted on the property of the child care facility in a conspicuous place where the sign is reasonably visible to the public.

(d) Except as authorized by this chapter, it is unlawful for any person to sell, manufacture, or deliver, or possess with intent to sell, manufacture, or deliver, a controlled substance in, on, or within 1,000 feet of the real property comprising a public or private college, university, or other postsecondary educational institution. Any person who violates this paragraph with respect to:

1. A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(a), (1)(b), (1)(d), (2)(a), (2)(b), or (2)(c)4., commits a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

2. A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(c), (2)(c)1., (2)(c)2., (2)(c)3., (2)(c)5., (2)(c)6., (2)(c)7., (2)(c)8., (2)(c)9., (3), or (4) commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

3. Any other controlled substance, except as lawfully sold, manufactured, or delivered, must be sentenced to pay a $500 fine and to serve 100 hours of public service in addition to any other penalty prescribed by law.

(e) Except as authorized by this chapter, it is unlawful for any person to sell, manufacture, or deliver, or possess with intent to sell, manufacture, or deliver, a controlled substance not authorized by law in, on, or within 1,000 feet of a physical place for worship at which a church or religious organization regularly conducts religious services or within 1,000 feet of a convenience business as defined in s. 812.171. Any person who violates this paragraph with respect to:

1. A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(a), (1)(b), (1)(d), (2)(a), (2)(b), or (2)(c)4., commits a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

2. A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(c), (2)(c)1., (2)(c)2., (2)(c)3., (2)(c)5., (2)(c)6., (2)(c)7., (2)(c)8., (2)(c)9., (3), or (4) commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

3. Any other controlled substance, except as lawfully sold, manufactured, or delivered, must be sentenced to pay a $500 fine and to serve 100 hours of public service in addition to any other penalty prescribed by law.

(f) Except as authorized by this chapter, it is unlawful for any person to sell, manufacture, or deliver, or possess with intent to sell, manufacture, or deliver, a controlled substance in, on, or within 1,000 feet of the real property comprising a public housing facility at any time. For purposes of this section, the term “real property comprising a public housing facility” means real property, as defined in s. 421.03(12), of a public corporation created as a housing authority pursuant to part I of chapter 421. Any person who violates this paragraph with respect to:

1. A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(a), (1)(b), (1)(d), (2)(a), (2)(b), or (2)(c)4., commits a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

2. A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(c), (2)(c)1., (2)(c)2., (2)(c)3., (2)(c)5., (2)(c)6., (2)(c)7., (2)(c)8., (2)(c)9., (3), or (4) commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

3. Any other controlled substance, except as lawfully sold, manufactured, or delivered, must be sentenced to pay a $500 fine and to serve 100 hours of public service in addition to any other penalty prescribed by law.

(2)(a) Except as authorized by this chapter and chapter 499, it is unlawful for any person to purchase, or possess with intent to purchase, a controlled substance. Any person who violates this provision with respect to:

1. A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(a), (1)(b), (1)(d), (2)(a), (2)(b), or (2)(c)4., commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

2. A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(c), (2)(c)1., (2)(c)2., (2)(c)3., (2)(c)5., (2)(c)6., (2)(c)7., (2)(c)8., (2)(c)9., (3), or (4) commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

3. A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(5) commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(b) Except as provided in this chapter, it is unlawful to purchase in excess of 10 grams of any substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(a) or (1)(b), or any combination thereof, or any mixture containing any such substance. Any person who violates this paragraph commits a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(3) Any person who delivers, without consideration, not more than 20 grams of cannabis, as defined in this chapter, commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083. For the purposes of this paragraph, “cannabis” does not include the resin extracted from the plants of the genus Cannabis or any compound manufacture, salt, derivative, mixture, or preparation of such resin.

(4) Except as authorized by this chapter, it is unlawful for any person 18 years of age or older to deliver any controlled substance to a person under the age of 18 years, or to use or hire a person under the age of 18 years as an agent or employee in the sale or delivery of such a substance, or to use such person to assist in avoiding detection or apprehension for a violation of this chapter. Any person who violates this provision with respect to:

(a) A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(a), (1)(b), (1)(d), (2)(a), (2)(b), or (2)(c)4., commits a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(b) A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(c), (2)(c)1., (2)(c)2., (2)(c)3., (2)(c)5., (2)(c)6., (2)(c)7., (2)(c)8., (2)(c)9., (3), or (4) commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

Imposition of sentence may not be suspended or deferred, nor shall the person so convicted be placed on probation.

(5) It is unlawful for any person to bring into this state any controlled substance unless the possession of such controlled substance is authorized by this chapter or unless such person is licensed to do so by the appropriate federal agency. Any person who violates this provision with respect to:

(a) A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(a), (1)(b), (1)(d), (2)(a), (2)(b), or (2)(c)4., commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(b) A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(c), (2)(c)1., (2)(c)2., (2)(c)3., (2)(c)5., (2)(c)6., (2)(c)7., (2)(c)8., (2)(c)9., (3), or (4) commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(c) A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(5) commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(6)(a) It is unlawful for any person to be in actual or constructive possession of a controlled substance unless such controlled substance was lawfully obtained from a practitioner or pursuant to a valid prescription or order of a practitioner while acting in the course of his or her professional practice or to be in actual or constructive possession of a controlled substance except as otherwise authorized by this chapter. Any person who violates this provision commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(b) If the offense is the possession of not more than 20 grams of cannabis, as defined in this chapter, the person commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083. For the purposes of this subsection, “cannabis” does not include the resin extracted from the plants of the genus Cannabis, or any compound manufacture, salt, derivative, mixture, or preparation of such resin.

(c) Except as provided in this chapter, it is unlawful to possess in excess of 10 grams of any substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(a) or (1)(b), or any combination thereof, or any mixture containing any such substance. Any person who violates this paragraph commits a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(d) Notwithstanding any provision to the contrary of the laws of this state relating to arrest, a law enforcement officer may arrest without warrant any person who the officer has probable cause to believe is violating the provisions of this chapter relating to possession of cannabis.

(7)(a) It is unlawful for any person:

1. To distribute or dispense a controlled substance in violation of this chapter.

2. To refuse or fail to make, keep, or furnish any record, notification, order form, statement, invoice, or information required under this chapter.

3. To refuse an entry into any premises for any inspection or to refuse to allow any inspection authorized by this chapter.

4. To distribute a controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1) or (2) except pursuant to an order form as required by s. 893.06.

5. To keep or maintain any store, shop, warehouse, dwelling, building, vehicle, boat, aircraft, or other structure or place which is resorted to by persons using controlled substances in violation of this chapter for the purpose of using these substances, or which is used for keeping or selling them in violation of this chapter.

6. To use to his or her own personal advantage, or to reveal, any information obtained in enforcement of this chapter except in a prosecution or administrative hearing for a violation of this chapter.

7. To possess a prescription form which has not been completed and signed by the practitioner whose name appears printed thereon, unless the person is that practitioner, is an agent or employee of that practitioner, is a pharmacist, or is a supplier of prescription forms who is authorized by that practitioner to possess those forms.

8. To withhold information from a practitioner from whom the person seeks to obtain a controlled substance or a prescription for a controlled substance that the person making the request has received a controlled substance or a prescription for a controlled substance of like therapeutic use from another practitioner within the previous 30 days.

9. To acquire or obtain, or attempt to acquire or obtain, possession of a controlled substance by misrepresentation, fraud, forgery, deception, or subterfuge.

10. To affix any false or forged label to a package or receptacle containing a controlled substance.

11. To furnish false or fraudulent material information in, or omit any material information from, any report or other document required to be kept or filed under this chapter or any record required to be kept by this chapter.

(b) Any person who violates the provisions of subparagraphs (a)1.-7. commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083; except that, upon a second or subsequent violation, the person commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(c) Any person who violates the provisions of subparagraphs (a)8.-11. commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(8)(a) Notwithstanding subsection (9), a prescribing practitioner may not:

1. Knowingly assist a patient, other person, or the owner of an animal in obtaining a controlled substance through deceptive, untrue, or fraudulent representations in or related to the practice of the prescribing practitioner’s professional practice;

2. Employ a trick or scheme in the practice of the prescribing practitioner’s professional practice to assist a patient, other person, or the owner of an animal in obtaining a controlled substance;

3. Knowingly write a prescription for a controlled substance for a fictitious person; or

4. Write a prescription for a controlled substance for a patient, other person, or an animal if the sole purpose of writing such prescription is to provide a monetary benefit to, or obtain a monetary benefit for, the prescribing practitioner.

(b) If the prescribing practitioner wrote a prescription or multiple prescriptions for a controlled substance for the patient, other person, or animal for which there was no medical necessity, or which was in excess of what was medically necessary to treat the patient, other person, or animal, that fact does not give rise to any presumption that the prescribing practitioner violated subparagraph (a)1., but may be considered with other competent evidence in determining whether the prescribing practitioner knowingly assisted a patient, other person, or the owner of an animal to obtain a controlled substance in violation of subparagraph (a)1.

(c) A person who violates paragraph (a) commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(d) Notwithstanding paragraph (c), if a prescribing practitioner has violated paragraph (a) and received $1,000 or more in payment for writing one or more prescriptions or, in the case of a prescription written for a controlled substance described in s. 893.135, has written one or more prescriptions for a quantity of a controlled substance which, individually or in the aggregate, meets the threshold for the offense of trafficking in a controlled substance under s. 893.15, the violation is reclassified as a felony of the second degree and ranked in level 4 of the Criminal Punishment Code.

(9) The provisions of subsections (1)-(8) are not applicable to the delivery to, or actual or constructive possession for medical or scientific use or purpose only of controlled substances by, persons included in any of the following classes, or the agents or employees of such persons, for use in the usual course of their business or profession or in the performance of their official duties:

(a) Pharmacists.

(b) Practitioners.

(c) Persons who procure controlled substances in good faith and in the course of professional practice only, by or under the supervision of pharmacists or practitioners employed by them, or for the purpose of lawful research, teaching, or testing, and not for resale.

(d) Hospitals that procure controlled substances for lawful administration by practitioners, but only for use by or in the particular hospital.

(e) Officers or employees of state, federal, or local governments acting in their official capacity only, or informers acting under their jurisdiction.

(f) Common carriers.

(g) Manufacturers, wholesalers, and distributors.

(h) Law enforcement officers for bona fide law enforcement purposes in the course of an active criminal investigation.

(10) Notwithstanding any provision of the sentencing guidelines or the Criminal Punishment Code to the contrary, on or after October 1, 1993, any defendant who:

(a) Violates subparagraph (1)(a)1., subparagraph (1)(c)2., subparagraph (1)(d)2., subparagraph (2)(a)1., or paragraph (5)(a); and

(b) Has not previously been convicted, regardless of whether adjudication was withheld, of any felony, other than a violation of subparagraph (1)(a)1., subparagraph (1)(c)2., subparagraph (1)(d)2., subparagraph (2)(a)1., or paragraph (5)(a),

may be required by the court to successfully complete a term of probation pursuant to the terms and conditions set forth in s. 948.034(1), in lieu of serving a term of imprisonment.

(11) Notwithstanding any provision of the sentencing guidelines or the Criminal Punishment Code to the contrary, on or after January 1, 1994, any defendant who:

(a) Violates subparagraph (1)(a)2., subparagraph (2)(a)2., paragraph (5)(b), or paragraph (6)(a); and

(b) Has not previously been convicted, regardless of whether adjudication was withheld, of any felony, other than a violation of subparagraph (1)(a)2., subparagraph (2)(a)2., paragraph (5)(b), or paragraph (6)(a),

may be required by the court to successfully complete a term of probation pursuant to the terms and conditions set forth in s. 948.034(2), in lieu of serving a term of imprisonment.

History.–s. 13, ch. 73-331; s. 1, ch. 76-200; s. 1, ch. 77-174; s. 2, ch. 79-1; s. 3, ch. 79-325; s. 5, ch. 80-30; s. 2, ch. 80-70; s. 490, ch. 81-259; s. 2, ch. 82-16; s. 52, ch. 83-215; s. 1, ch. 84-77; s. 5, ch. 85-242; s. 4, ch. 87-243; s. 2, ch. 88-381; s. 4, ch. 89-281; s. 1, ch. 89-524; ss. 1, 6, ch. 90-111; s. 1, ch. 93-59; s. 2, ch. 93-92; s. 1, ch. 93-194; ss. 22, 23, ch. 93-406; s. 2, ch. 96-360; s. 2, ch. 97-1; s. 1, ch. 97-43; s. 1827, ch. 97-102; s. 22, ch. 97-194; s. 106, ch. 97-264; s. 1, ch. 97-269; s. 47, ch. 97-271; s. 1, ch. 98-22; s. 1, ch. 99-154; s. 14, ch. 99-186; s. 3, ch. 2000-320; s. 11, ch. 2002-78; s. 2, ch. 2002-81; s. 3, ch. 2003-10; s. 1, ch. 2003-95.

Organized Fraud

817.034 Florida Communications Fraud Act (Organized Fraud).–

(1) LEGISLATIVE INTENT.–

(a) The Legislature recognizes that schemes to defraud have proliferated in the United States in recent years and that many operators of schemes to defraud use communications technology to solicit victims and thereby conceal their identities and overcome a victim’s normal resistance to sales pressure by delivering a personalized sales message.

(b) It is the intent of the Legislature to prevent the use of communications technology in furtherance of schemes to defraud by consolidating former statutes concerning schemes to defraud and organized fraud to permit prosecution of these crimes utilizing the legal precedent available under federal mail and wire fraud statutes.

(2) SHORT TITLE.–This section may be cited as the “Florida Communications Fraud Act.”

(3) DEFINITIONS.–As used in this section, the term:

(a) “Communicate” means to transmit or transfer or to cause another to transmit or transfer signs, signals, writing, images, sounds, data, or intelligences of any nature in whole or in part by mail, or by wire, radio, electromagnetic, photoelectronic, or photooptical system.

(b) “Obtain” means temporarily or permanently to deprive any person of the right to property or a benefit therefrom, or to appropriate the property to one’s own use or to the use of any other person not entitled thereto.

(c) “Property” means anything of value, and includes:

1. Real property, including things growing on, affixed to, or found in land;

2. Tangible or intangible personal property, including rights, privileges, interests, and claims; and

3. Services.

(d) “Scheme to defraud” means a systematic, ongoing course of conduct with intent to defraud one or more persons, or with intent to obtain property from one or more persons by false or fraudulent pretenses, representations, or promises or willful misrepresentations of a future act.

(e) “Value” means value determined according to any of the following:

1.a. The market value of the property at the time and place of the offense, or, if such cannot be satisfactorily ascertained, the cost of replacement of the property within a reasonable time after the offense.

b. The value of a written instrument that does not have a readily ascertainable market value, in the case of an instrument such as a check, draft, or promissory note, is the amount due or collectible or is, in the case of any other instrument which creates, releases, discharges, or otherwise affects any valuable legal right, privilege, or obligation, the greatest amount of economic loss that the owner of the instrument might reasonably suffer by virtue of the loss of the instrument.

c. The value of a trade secret that does not have a readily ascertainable market value is any reasonable value representing the damage to the owner, suffered by reason of losing an advantage over those who do not know of or use the trade secret.

2. If the value of property cannot be ascertained, the trier of fact may find the value to be not less than a certain amount; if no such minimum value can be ascertained, the value is an amount less than $300.

3. Amounts of value of separate properties obtained in one scheme to defraud, whether from the same person or from several persons, shall be aggregated in determining the grade of the offense under paragraph (4)(a).

(4) OFFENSES.–

(a) Any person who engages in a scheme to defraud and obtains property thereby is guilty of organized fraud, punishable as follows:

1. If the amount of property obtained has an aggregate value of $50,000 or more, the violator is guilty of a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

2. If the amount of property obtained has an aggregate value of $20,000 or more, but less than $50,000, the violator is guilty of a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

3. If the amount of property obtained has an aggregate value of less than $20,000, the violator is guilty of a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(b) Any person who engages in a scheme to defraud and, in furtherance of that scheme, communicates with any person with intent to obtain property from that person is guilty, for each such act of communication, of communications fraud, punishable as follows:

1. If the value of property obtained or endeavored to be obtained by the communication is valued at $300 or more, the violator is guilty of a third degree felony, punishable as set forth in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

2. If the value of the property obtained or endeavored to be obtained by the communication is valued at less than $300, the violator is guilty of a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as set forth in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(c) Notwithstanding any contrary provisions of law, separate judgments and sentences for organized fraud under paragraph (a) and for each offense of communications fraud under paragraph (b) may be imposed when all such offenses involve the same scheme to defraud.
History.–s. 1, ch. 87-382.

Possession of Drug Paraphernalia

893.145 “Drug paraphernalia” defined.–The term “drug paraphernalia” means all equipment, products, and materials of any kind which are used, intended for use, or designed for use in planting, propagating, cultivating, growing, harvesting, manufacturing, compounding, converting, producing, processing, preparing, testing, analyzing, packaging, repackaging, storing, containing, concealing, transporting, injecting, ingesting, inhaling, or otherwise introducing into the human body a controlled substance in violation of this chapter or s. 877.111. Drug paraphernalia is deemed to be contraband which shall be subject to civil forfeiture. The term includes, but is not limited to:

(1) Kits used, intended for use, or designed for use in the planting, propagating, cultivating, growing, or harvesting of any species of plant which is a controlled substance or from which a controlled substance can be derived.

(2) Kits used, intended for use, or designed for use in manufacturing, compounding, converting, producing, processing, or preparing controlled substances.

(3) Isomerization devices used, intended for use, or designed for use in increasing the potency of any species of plant which is a controlled substance.

(4) Testing equipment used, intended for use, or designed for use in identifying, or in analyzing the strength, effectiveness, or purity of, controlled substances.

(5) Scales and balances used, intended for use, or designed for use in weighing or measuring controlled substances.

(6) Diluents and adulterants, such as quinine hydrochloride, mannitol, mannite, dextrose, and lactose, used, intended for use, or designed for use in cutting controlled substances.

(7) Separation gins and sifters used, intended for use, or designed for use in removing twigs and seeds from, or in otherwise cleaning or refining, cannabis.

(8) Blenders, bowls, containers, spoons, and mixing devices used, intended for use, or designed for use in compounding controlled substances.

(9) Capsules, balloons, envelopes, and other containers used, intended for use, or designed for use in packaging small quantities of controlled substances.

(10) Containers and other objects used, intended for use, or designed for use in storing, concealing, or transporting controlled substances.

(11) Hypodermic syringes, needles, and other objects used, intended for use, or designed for use in parenterally injecting controlled substances into the human body.

(12) Objects used, intended for use, or designed for use in ingesting, inhaling, or otherwise introducing cannabis, cocaine, hashish, hashish oil, or nitrous oxide into the human body, such as:

(a) Metal, wooden, acrylic, glass, stone, plastic, or ceramic pipes, with or without screens, permanent screens, hashish heads, or punctured metal bowls.

(b) Water pipes.

(c) Carburetion tubes and devices.

(d) Smoking and carburetion masks.

(e) Roach clips: meaning objects used to hold burning material, such as a cannabis cigarette, that has become too small or too short to be held in the hand.

(f) Miniature cocaine spoons, and cocaine vials.

(g) Chamber pipes.

(h) Carburetor pipes.

(i) Electric pipes.

(j) Air-driven pipes.

(k) Chillums.

(l) Bongs.

(m) Ice pipes or chillers.

(n) A cartridge or canister, which means a small metal device used to contain nitrous oxide.

(o) A charger, sometimes referred to as a “cracker,” which means a small metal or plastic device that contains an interior pin that may be used to expel nitrous oxide from a cartridge or container.

(p) A charging bottle, which means a device that may be used to expel nitrous oxide from a cartridge or canister.

(q) A whip-it, which means a device that may be used to expel nitrous oxide.

(r) A tank.

(s) A balloon.

(t) A hose or tube.

(u) A 2-liter-type soda bottle.

(v) Duct tape.

History.–s. 1, ch. 80-30; s. 6, ch. 2000-320; s. 15, ch. 2000-360.

893.146 Determination of paraphernalia.–In determining whether an object is drug paraphernalia, a court or other authority or jury shall consider, in addition to all other logically relevant factors, the following:

(1) Statements by an owner or by anyone in control of the object concerning its use.

(2) The proximity of the object, in time and space, to a direct violation of this act.

(3) The proximity of the object to controlled substances.

(4) The existence of any residue of controlled substances on the object.

(5) Direct or circumstantial evidence of the intent of an owner, or of anyone in control of the object, to deliver it to persons who he or she knows, or should reasonably know, intend to use the object to facilitate a violation of this act. The innocence of an owner, or of anyone in control of the object, as to a direct violation of this act shall not prevent a finding that the object is intended for use, or designed for use, as drug paraphernalia.

(6) Instructions, oral or written, provided with the object concerning its use.

(7) Descriptive materials accompanying the object which explain or depict its use.

(8) Any advertising concerning its use.

(9) The manner in which the object is displayed for sale.

(10) Whether the owner, or anyone in control of the object, is a legitimate supplier of like or related items to the community, such as a licensed distributor of or dealer in tobacco products.

(11) Direct or circumstantial evidence of the ratio of sales of the object or objects to the total sales of the business enterprise.

(12) The existence and scope of legitimate uses for the object in the community.

(13) Expert testimony concerning its use.

History.–s. 2, ch. 80-30; s. 1445, ch. 97-102.

893.147 Use, possession, manufacture, delivery, transportation, or advertisement of drug paraphernalia.–

(1) USE OR POSSESSION OF DRUG PARAPHERNALIA.–It is unlawful for any person to use, or to possess with intent to use, drug paraphernalia:

(a) To plant, propagate, cultivate, grow, harvest, manufacture, compound, convert, produce, process, prepare, test, analyze, pack, repack, store, contain, or conceal a controlled substance in violation of this chapter; or

(b) To inject, ingest, inhale, or otherwise introduce into the human body a controlled substance in violation of this chapter.

Any person who violates this subsection is guilty of a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(2) MANUFACTURE OR DELIVERY OF DRUG PARAPHERNALIA.–It is unlawful for any person to deliver, possess with intent to deliver, or manufacture with intent to deliver drug paraphernalia, knowing, or under circumstances where one reasonably should know, that it will be used:

(a) To plant, propagate, cultivate, grow, harvest, manufacture, compound, convert, produce, process, prepare, test, analyze, pack, repack, store, contain, or conceal a controlled substance in violation of this act; or

(b) To inject, ingest, inhale, or otherwise introduce into the human body a controlled substance in violation of this act.

Any person who violates this subsection is guilty of a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(3) DELIVERY OF DRUG PARAPHERNALIA TO A MINOR.–

(a) Any person 18 years of age or over who violates subsection (2) by delivering drug paraphernalia to a person under 18 years of age is guilty of a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(b) It is unlawful for any person to sell or otherwise deliver hypodermic syringes, needles, or other objects which may be used, are intended for use, or are designed for use in parenterally injecting substances into the human body to any person under 18 years of age, except that hypodermic syringes, needles, or other such objects may be lawfully dispensed to a person under 18 years of age by a licensed practitioner, parent, or legal guardian or by a pharmacist pursuant to a valid prescription for same. Any person who violates the provisions of this paragraph is guilty of a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(4) TRANSPORTATION OF DRUG PARAPHERNALIA.–It is unlawful to use, possess with the intent to use, or manufacture with the intent to use drug paraphernalia, knowing or under circumstances in which one reasonably should know that it will be used to transport:

(a) A controlled substance in violation of this chapter; or

(b) Contraband as defined in s. 932.701(2)(a)1.

Any person who violates this subsection commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(5) ADVERTISEMENT OF DRUG PARAPHERNALIA.–It is unlawful for any person to place in any newspaper, magazine, handbill, or other publication any advertisement, knowing, or under circumstances where one reasonably should know, that the purpose of the advertisement, in whole or in part, is to promote the sale of objects designed or intended for use as drug paraphernalia. Any person who violates this subsection is guilty of a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

History.–s. 3, ch. 80-30; s. 1, ch. 81-149; s. 54, ch. 83-215; s. 1, ch. 85-8; s. 223, ch. 91-224; s. 16, ch. 2000-360.

Probation Violations / Community Control Violations

948.06 Violation of probation or community control; revocation; modification; continuance; failure to pay restitution or cost of supervision.–

(1)(a) Whenever within the period of probation or community control there are reasonable grounds to believe that a probationer or offender in community control has violated his or her probation or community control in a material respect, any law enforcement officer who is aware of the probationary or community control status of the probationer or offender in community control or any parole or probation supervisor may arrest or request any county or municipal law enforcement officer to arrest such probationer or offender without warrant wherever found and forthwith return him or her to the court granting such probation or community control.

(b) Any committing trial court judge may issue a warrant, upon the facts being made known to him or her by affidavit of one having knowledge of such facts, for the arrest of the probationer or offender, returnable forthwith before the court granting such probation or community control.

(c) Any parole or probation supervisor, any officer authorized to serve criminal process, or any peace officer of this state is authorized to serve and execute such warrant.

(d) Upon the filing of an affidavit alleging a violation of probation or community control and following issuance of a warrant under s. 901.02, the probationary period is tolled until the court enters a ruling on the violation. Notwithstanding the tolling of probation as provided in this subsection, the court shall retain jurisdiction over the offender for any violation of the conditions of probation or community control that is alleged to have occurred during the tolling period. The probation officer is permitted to continue to supervise any offender who remains available to the officer for supervision until the supervision expires pursuant to the order of probation or community control or until the court revokes or terminates the probation or community control, whichever comes first.

(2)(a) The court, upon the probationer or offender being brought before it, shall advise him or her of such charge of violation and, if such charge is admitted to be true, may forthwith revoke, modify, or continue the probation or community control or place the probationer into a community control program.

(b) If probation or community control is revoked, the court shall adjudge the probationer or offender guilty of the offense charged and proven or admitted, unless he or she has previously been adjudged guilty, and impose any sentence which it might have originally imposed before placing the probationer on probation or the offender into community control.

(c) If such violation of probation or community control is not admitted by the probationer or offender, the court may commit him or her or release him or her with or without bail to await further hearing, or it may dismiss the charge of probation or community control violation.

(d) If such charge is not at that time admitted by the probationer or offender and if it is not dismissed, the court, as soon as may be practicable, shall give the probationer or offender an opportunity to be fully heard on his or her behalf in person or by counsel.

(e) After such hearing, the court may revoke, modify, or continue the probation or community control or place the probationer into community control. If such probation or community control is revoked, the court shall adjudge the probationer or offender guilty of the offense charged and proven or admitted, unless he or she has previously been adjudged guilty, and impose any sentence which it might have originally imposed before placing the probationer or offender on probation or into community control.

(f) Notwithstanding s. 775.082, when a period of probation or community control has been tolled, upon revocation or modification of the probation or community control, the court may impose a sanction with a term that when combined with the amount of supervision served and tolled, exceeds the term permissible pursuant to s. 775.082 for a term up to the amount of the tolled period of supervision.

(g) If the court dismisses an affidavit alleging a violation of probation or community control, the offender’s probation or community control shall continue as previously imposed, and the offender shall receive credit for all tolled time against his or her term of probation or community control.

(3) When the court imposes a subsequent term of supervision following a revocation of probation or community control, it shall not provide credit for time served while on probation or community control toward any subsequent term of probation or community control. However, the court may not impose a subsequent term of probation or community control which, when combined with any amount of time served on preceding terms of probation or community control for offenses before the court for sentencing, would exceed the maximum penalty allowable as provided by s. 775.082. No part of the time that the defendant is on probation or in community control shall be considered as any part of the time that he or she shall be sentenced to serve.

(4) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, a probationer or an offender in community control who is arrested for violating his or her probation or community control in a material respect may be taken before the court in the county or circuit in which the probationer or offender was arrested. That court shall advise him or her of such charge of a violation and, if such charge is admitted, shall cause him or her to be brought before the court which granted the probation or community control. If such violation is not admitted by the probationer or offender, the court may commit him or her or release him or her with or without bail to await further hearing. The court, as soon as is practicable, shall give the probationer or offender an opportunity to be fully heard on his or her behalf in person or by counsel. After such hearing, the court shall make findings of fact and forward the findings to the court which granted the probation or community control and to the probationer or offender or his or her attorney. The findings of fact by the hearing court are binding on the court which granted the probation or community control. Upon the probationer or offender being brought before it, the court which granted the probation or community control may revoke, modify, or continue the probation or community control or may place the probationer into community control as provided in this section.

(5) In any hearing in which the failure of a probationer or offender in community control to pay restitution or the cost of supervision as provided in s. 948.09, as directed, is established by the state, if the probationer or offender asserts his or her inability to pay restitution or the cost of supervision, it is incumbent upon the probationer or offender to prove by clear and convincing evidence that he or she does not have the present resources available to pay restitution or the cost of supervision despite sufficient bona fide efforts legally to acquire the resources to do so. If the probationer or offender cannot pay restitution or the cost of supervision despite sufficient bona fide efforts, the court shall consider alternate measures of punishment other than imprisonment. Only if alternate measures are not adequate to meet the state’s interests in punishment and deterrence may the court imprison a probationer or offender in community control who has demonstrated sufficient bona fide efforts to pay restitution or the cost of supervision.

(6) Any parolee in a community control program who has allegedly violated the terms and conditions of such placement is subject to the provisions of ss. 947.22 and 947.23.

(7) Any provision of law to the contrary notwithstanding, whenever probation, community control, or control release, including the probationary, community control portion of a split sentence, is violated and the probation or community control is revoked, the offender, by reason of his or her misconduct, shall be deemed to have forfeited all gain-time or commutation of time for good conduct, as provided by law, earned up to the date of his or her release on probation, community control, or control release. This subsection does not deprive the prisoner of his or her right to gain-time or commutation of time for good conduct, as provided by law, from the date on which the prisoner is returned to prison. However, if a prisoner is sentenced to incarceration following termination from a drug punishment program imposed as a condition of probation, the sentence may include incarceration without the possibility of gain-time or early release for the period of time remaining in his or her treatment program placement term.

History.–s. 26, ch. 20519, 1941; s. 2, ch. 59-130; s. 2, ch. 61-498; s. 1, ch. 69-71; s. 20, ch. 83-131; ss. 2, 3, ch. 84-337; ss. 8, 9, 38, 48, ch. 89-526; s. 13, ch. 89-531; s. 11, ch. 90-287; s. 2, ch. 91-225; s. 8, ch. 91-280; s. 23, ch. 97-78; s. 1687, ch. 97-102; s. 5, ch. 97-239; s. 13, ch. 97-299; s. 3, ch. 2000-246; s. 1, ch. 2001-109; s. 50, ch. 2004-11; ss. 27, 28, 41, ch. 2004-373

Reckless Driving

316.192 Reckless driving.–

(1) Any person who drives any vehicle in willful or wanton disregard for the safety of persons or property is guilty of reckless driving.

(2) Except as provided in subsection (3), any person convicted of reckless driving shall be punished:

(a) Upon a first conviction, by imprisonment for a period of not more than 90 days or by fine of not less than $25 nor more than $500, or by both such fine and imprisonment.

(b) On a second or subsequent conviction, by imprisonment for not more than 6 months or by a fine of not less than $50 nor more than $1,000, or by both such fine and imprisonment.

(3) Any person:

(a) Who is in violation of subsection (1);

(b) Who operates a vehicle; and

(c) Who, by reason of such operation, causes:

1. Damage to the property or person of another commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

2. Serious bodily injury to another commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. The term “serious bodily injury” means an injury to another person, which consists of a physical condition that creates a substantial risk of death, serious personal disfigurement, or protracted loss or impairment of the function of any bodily member or organ.

(4) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, $5 shall be added to a fine imposed pursuant to this section. The clerk shall remit the $5 to the Department of Revenue for deposit in the Emergency Medical Services Trust Fund.

(5) In addition to any other penalty provided under this section, if the court has reasonable cause to believe that the use of alcohol, chemical substances set forth in s. 877.111, or substances controlled under chapter 893 contributed to a violation of this section, the court shall direct the person so convicted to complete a DUI program substance abuse education course and evaluation as provided in s. 316.193(5) within a reasonable period of time specified by the court. If the DUI program conducting such course and evaluation refers the person to an authorized substance abuse treatment provider for substance abuse evaluation and treatment, the directive of the court requiring completion of such course, evaluation, and treatment shall be enforced as provided in s. 322.245. The referral to treatment resulting from the DUI program evaluation may not be waived without a supporting independent psychosocial evaluation conducted by an authorized substance abuse treatment provider, appointed by the court, which shall have access to the DUI program psychosocial evaluation before the independent psychosocial evaluation is conducted. The court shall review the results and recommendations of both evaluations before determining the request for waiver. The offender shall bear the full cost of this procedure. If a person directed to a DUI program substance abuse education course and evaluation or referred to treatment under this subsection fails to report for or complete such course, evaluation, or treatment, the DUI program shall notify the court and the department of the failure. Upon receipt of such notice, the department shall cancel the person’s driving privilege, notwithstanding the terms of the court order or any suspension or revocation of the driving privilege. The department may reinstate the driving privilege upon verification from the DUI program that the education, evaluation, and treatment are completed. The department may temporarily reinstate the driving privilege on a restricted basis upon verification that the offender is currently participating in treatment and has completed the DUI education course and evaluation requirement. If the DUI program notifies the department of the second failure to complete treatment, the department shall reinstate the driving privilege only after notice of successful completion of treatment from the DUI program.

History.–s. 1, ch. 71-135; s. 1, ch. 76-31; s. 23, ch. 85-167; s. 1, ch. 85-337; s. 1, ch. 88-5; s. 17, ch. 91-255; s. 31, ch. 92-78; s. 10, ch. 94-306; s. 4, ch. 99-234; s. 9, ch. 2001-122; s. 1, ch. 2001-147.

Note.–Former s. 316.029.

Resisting Without Violence

843.01 Resisting officer with violence to his or her person.–

Whoever knowingly and willfully resists, obstructs, or opposes any officer as defined in s. 943.10(1), (2), (3), (6), (7), (8), or (9); member of the Parole Commission or any administrative aide or supervisor employed by the commission; parole and probation supervisor; county probation officer; personnel or representative of the Department of Law Enforcement; or other person legally authorized to execute process in the execution of legal process or in the lawful execution of any legal duty, by offering or doing violence to the person of such officer or legally authorized person, is guilty of a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

History.–s. 1, ch. 3276, 1881; RS 2580; GS 3500; RGS 5385; CGL 7524; s. 1, ch. 28118, 1953; s. 1, ch. 61-66; s. 1, ch. 63-234; s. 1, ch. 63-433; ss. 1, chs. 65-198, 65-226; s. 3, ch. 67-2207; ss. 20, 25, 33, 35, ch. 69-106; s. 1034, ch. 71-136; s. 32, ch. 73-334; s. 1, ch. 77-174; s. 1, ch. 78-116; s. 20, ch. 79-3; s. 26, ch. 79-8; s. 1, ch. 79-149; s. 5, ch. 85-87; s. 40, ch. 88-122; s. 1, ch. 88-373; s. 50, ch. 88-381; s. 43, ch. 89-526.

Rico

OFFENSES CONCERNING RACKETEERING AND ILLEGAL DEBTS

895.01 Short title.

895.02 Definitions.

895.03 Prohibited activities and defense.

895.04 Criminal penalties and alternative fine.

895.05 Civil remedies.

895.06 Civil investigative subpoenas.

895.07 RICO lien notice.

895.08 Term of RICO lien notice.

895.09 Disposition of funds obtained through forfeiture proceedings.

895.01 Short title.–Sections 895.01-895.06 shall be known as the “Florida RICO (Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organization) Act.”

History.–s. 1, ch. 77-334; s. 2, ch. 79-218.

Note.–Former s. 943.46.

895.02 Definitions.–As used in ss. 895.01-895.08, the term:

(1) “Racketeering activity” means to commit, to attempt to commit, to conspire to commit, or to solicit, coerce, or intimidate another person to commit:

(a) Any crime which is chargeable by indictment or information under the following provisions of the Florida Statutes:

1. Section 210.18, relating to evasion of payment of cigarette taxes.

2. Section 403.727(3)(b), relating to environmental control.

3. Section 409.920 or s. 409.9201, relating to Medicaid fraud.

4. Section 414.39, relating to public assistance fraud.

5. Section 440.105 or s. 440.106, relating to workers’ compensation.

6. Section 465.0161, relating to distribution of medicinal drugs without a permit as an Internet pharmacy.

7. Sections 499.0051, 499.0052, 1499.00535, 499.00545, and 499.0691, relating to crimes involving contraband and adulterated drugs.

8. Part IV of chapter 501, relating to telemarketing.

9. Chapter 517, relating to sale of securities and investor protection.

10. Section 550.235, s. 550.3551, or s. 550.3605, relating to dogracing and horseracing.

11. Chapter 550, relating to jai alai frontons.

12. Chapter 552, relating to the manufacture, distribution, and use of explosives.

13. Chapter 560, relating to money transmitters, if the violation is punishable as a felony.

14. Chapter 562, relating to beverage law enforcement.

15. Section 624.401, relating to transacting insurance without a certificate of authority, s. 624.437(4)(c)1., relating to operating an unauthorized multiple-employer welfare arrangement, or s. 626.902(1)(b), relating to representing or aiding an unauthorized insurer.

16. Section 655.50, relating to reports of currency transactions, when such violation is punishable as a felony.

17. Chapter 687, relating to interest and usurious practices.

18. Section 721.08, s. 721.09, or s. 721.13, relating to real estate timeshare plans.

19. Chapter 782, relating to homicide.

20. Chapter 784, relating to assault and battery.

21. Chapter 787, relating to kidnapping.

22. Chapter 790, relating to weapons and firearms.

23. Section 796.03, s. 796.035, s. 796.04, s. 796.045, s. 796.05, or s. 796.07, relating to prostitution and sex trafficking.

24. Chapter 806, relating to arson.

25. Section 810.02(2)(c), relating to specified burglary of a dwelling or structure.

26. Chapter 812, relating to theft, robbery, and related crimes.

27. Chapter 815, relating to computer-related crimes.

28. Chapter 817, relating to fraudulent practices, false pretenses, fraud generally, and credit card crimes.

29. Chapter 825, relating to abuse, neglect, or exploitation of an elderly person or disabled adult.

30. Section 827.071, relating to commercial sexual exploitation of children.

31. Chapter 831, relating to forgery and counterfeiting.

32. Chapter 832, relating to issuance of worthless checks and drafts.

33. Section 836.05, relating to extortion.

34. Chapter 837, relating to perjury.

35. Chapter 838, relating to bribery and misuse of public office.

36. Chapter 843, relating to obstruction of justice.

37. Section 847.011, s. 847.012, s. 847.013, s. 847.06, or s. 847.07, relating to obscene literature and profanity.

38. Section 849.09, s. 849.14, s. 849.15, s. 849.23, or s. 849.25, relating to gambling.

39. Chapter 874, relating to criminal street gangs.

40. Chapter 893, relating to drug abuse prevention and control.

41. Chapter 896, relating to offenses related to financial transactions.

42. Sections 914.22 and 914.23, relating to tampering with a witness, victim, or informant, and retaliation against a witness, victim, or informant.

43. Sections 918.12 and 918.13, relating to tampering with jurors and evidence.

(b) Any conduct defined as “racketeering activity” under 18 U.S.C. s. 1961(1).

(2) “Unlawful debt” means any money or other thing of value constituting principal or interest of a debt that is legally unenforceable in this state in whole or in part because the debt was incurred or contracted:

(a) In violation of any one of the following provisions of law:

1. Section 550.235, s. 550.3551, or s. 550.3605, relating to dogracing and horseracing.

2. Chapter 550, relating to jai alai frontons.

3. Chapter 687, relating to interest and usury.

4. Section 849.09, s. 849.14, s. 849.15, s. 849.23, or s. 849.25, relating to gambling.

(b) In gambling activity in violation of federal law or in the business of lending money at a rate usurious under state or federal law.

(3) “Enterprise” means any individual, sole proprietorship, partnership, corporation, business trust, union chartered under the laws of this state, or other legal entity, or any unchartered union, association, or group of individuals associated in fact although not a legal entity; and it includes illicit as well as licit enterprises and governmental, as well as other, entities. A criminal street gang, as defined in s. 874.03, constitutes an enterprise.

(4) “Pattern of racketeering activity” means engaging in at least two incidents of racketeering conduct that have the same or similar intents, results, accomplices, victims, or methods of commission or that otherwise are interrelated by distinguishing characteristics and are not isolated incidents, provided at least one of such incidents occurred after the effective date of this act and that the last of such incidents occurred within 5 years after a prior incident of racketeering conduct.

(5) “Documentary material” means any book, paper, document, writing, drawing, graph, chart, photograph, phonorecord, magnetic tape, computer printout, other data compilation from which information can be obtained or from which information can be translated into usable form, or other tangible item.

(6) “RICO lien notice” means the notice described in s. 895.05(12) or in s. 895.07.

(7) “Investigative agency” means the Department of Legal Affairs, the Office of Statewide Prosecution, or the office of a state attorney.

(8) “Beneficial interest” means any of the following:

(a) The interest of a person as a beneficiary under a trust established pursuant to s. 689.07 or s. 689.071 in which the trustee for the trust holds legal or record title to real property;

(b) The interest of a person as a beneficiary under any other trust arrangement pursuant to which a trustee holds legal or record title to real property for the benefit of such person; or

(c) The interest of a person under any other form of express fiduciary arrangement pursuant to which any other person holds legal or record title to real property for the benefit of such person.

The term “beneficial interest” does not include the interest of a stockholder in a corporation or the interest of a partner in either a general partnership or a limited partnership. A beneficial interest shall be deemed to be located where the real property owned by the trustee is located.

(9) “Real property” means any real property or any interest in such real property, including, but not limited to, any lease of or mortgage upon such real property.

(10) “Trustee” means any of the following:

(a) Any person acting as trustee pursuant to a trust established under s. 689.07 or s. 689.071 in which the trustee holds legal or record title to real property.

(b) Any person who holds legal or record title to real property in which any other person has a beneficial interest.

(c) Any successor trustee or trustees to any or all of the foregoing persons.

However, the term “trustee” does not include any person appointed or acting as a personal representative as defined in s. 731.201(25) or appointed or acting as a trustee of any testamentary trust or as a trustee of any indenture of trust under which any bonds have been or are to be issued.

(11) “Criminal proceeding” means any criminal proceeding commenced by an investigative agency under s. 895.03 or any other provision of the Florida RICO Act.

(12) “Civil proceeding” means any civil proceeding commenced by an investigative agency under s. 895.05 or any other provision of the Florida RICO Act.

History.–s. 2, ch. 77-334; s. 3, ch. 79-218; s. 300, ch. 79-400; s. 1, ch. 81-141; s. 1, ch. 83-65; s. 25, ch. 83-264; s. 2, ch. 84-9; s. 5, ch. 86-277; s. 1, ch. 87-139; s. 5, ch. 89-143; s. 2, ch. 90-246; s. 3, ch. 90-301; s. 13, ch. 91-33; s. 72, ch. 91-282; s. 4, ch. 92-125; s. 4, ch. 92-281; s. 65, ch. 92-348; s. 2, ch. 93-227; s. 106, ch. 93-415; s. 78, ch. 94-209; s. 91, ch. 95-211; s. 9, ch. 95-340; s. 107, ch. 96-175; s. 7, ch. 96-252; s. 5, ch. 96-260; s. 4, ch. 96-280; s. 7, ch. 96-387; s. 43, ch. 96-388; s. 2, ch. 97-78; s. 2, ch. 99-335; s. 17, ch. 2000-360; s. 31, ch. 2003-155; s. 161, ch. 2004-5; s. 13, ch. 2004-344; s. 11, ch. 2004-387; s. 5, ch. 2004-391.

1Note.–Substituted by the editors for a reference to s. 499.0053. Section 499.00535 references the sale or purchase of contraband legend drugs.

Note.–Former s. 943.461.

895.03 Prohibited activities and defense.–

(1) It is unlawful for any person who has with criminal intent received any proceeds derived, directly or indirectly, from a pattern of racketeering activity or through the collection of an unlawful debt to use or invest, whether directly or indirectly, any part of such proceeds, or the proceeds derived from the investment or use thereof, in the acquisition of any title to, or any right, interest, or equity in, real property or in the establishment or operation of any enterprise.

(2) It is unlawful for any person, through a pattern of racketeering activity or through the collection of an unlawful debt, to acquire or maintain, directly or indirectly, any interest in or control of any enterprise or real property.

(3) It is unlawful for any person employed by, or associated with, any enterprise to conduct or participate, directly or indirectly, in such enterprise through a pattern of racketeering activity or the collection of an unlawful debt.

(4) It is unlawful for any person to conspire or endeavor to violate any of the provisions of subsection (1), subsection (2), or subsection (3).

History.–s. 3, ch. 77-334.

Note.–Former s. 943.462.

895.04 Criminal penalties and alternative fine.–

(1) Any person convicted of engaging in activity in violation of the provisions of s. 895.03 is guilty of a felony of the first degree and shall be punished as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(2) In lieu of a fine otherwise authorized by law, any person convicted of engaging in conduct in violation of the provisions of s. 895.03, through which the person derived pecuniary value, or by which he or she caused personal injury or property damage or other loss, may be sentenced to pay a fine that does not exceed 3 times the gross value gained or 3 times the gross loss caused, whichever is the greater, plus court costs and the costs of investigation and prosecution, reasonably incurred.

(3) The court shall hold a hearing to determine the amount of the fine authorized by subsection (2).

(4) For the purposes of subsection (2), “pecuniary value” means:

(a) Anything of value in the form of money, a negotiable instrument, or a commercial interest or anything else the primary significance of which is economic advantage; or

(b) Any other property or service that has a value in excess of $100.

History.–s. 4, ch. 77-334; s. 1446, ch. 97-102.

Note.–Former s. 943.463.

895.05 Civil remedies.–

(1) Any circuit court may, after making due provision for the rights of innocent persons, enjoin violations of the provisions of s. 895.03 by issuing appropriate orders and judgments, including, but not limited to:

(a) Ordering any defendant to divest himself or herself of any interest in any enterprise, including real property.

(b) Imposing reasonable restrictions upon the future activities or investments of any defendant, including, but not limited to, prohibiting any defendant from engaging in the same type of endeavor as the enterprise in which the defendant was engaged in violation of the provisions of s. 895.03.

(c) Ordering the dissolution or reorganization of any enterprise.

(d) Ordering the suspension or revocation of a license, permit, or prior approval granted to any enterprise by any agency of the state.

(e) Ordering the forfeiture of the charter of a corporation organized under the laws of the state, or the revocation of a certificate authorizing a foreign corporation to conduct business within the state, upon finding that the board of directors or a managerial agent acting on behalf of the corporation, in conducting the affairs of the corporation, has authorized or engaged in conduct in violation of s. 895.03 and that, for the prevention of future criminal activity, the public interest requires the charter of the corporation forfeited and the corporation dissolved or the certificate revoked.

(2)(a) All property, real or personal, including money, used in the course of, intended for use in the course of, derived from, or realized through conduct in violation of a provision of ss. 895.01-895.05 is subject to civil forfeiture to the state.

(b) Upon the entry of a final judgment of forfeiture in favor of the state, the title of the state to the forfeited property shall relate back:

1. In the case of real property or a beneficial interest, to the date of filing of the RICO lien notice in the official records of the county where the real property or beneficial trust is located; if no RICO lien notice is filed, then to the date of the filing of any notice of lis pendens under s. 895.07(5)(a) in the official records of the county where the real property or beneficial interest is located; and if no RICO lien notice or notice of lis pendens is filed, then to the date of recording of the final judgment of forfeiture in the official records of the county where the real property or beneficial interest is located.

2. In the case of personal property, to the date the personal property was seized by the investigating agency.

If property subject to forfeiture is conveyed, alienated, disposed of, or otherwise rendered unavailable for forfeiture after the filing of a RICO lien notice or after the filing of a civil proceeding or criminal proceeding, whichever is earlier, the investigative agency may, on behalf of the state, institute an action in any circuit court against the person named in the RICO lien notice or the defendant in the civil proceeding or criminal proceeding, and the court shall enter final judgment against the person named in the RICO lien notice or the defendant in the civil proceeding or criminal proceeding in an amount equal to the fair market value of the property, together with investigative costs and attorney’s fees incurred by the investigative agency in the action. If a civil proceeding is pending, such action shall be filed only in the court where the civil proceeding is pending.

(c) The state shall dispose of all forfeited property as soon as commercially feasible. If property is not exercisable or transferable for value by the state, it shall expire. All forfeitures or dispositions under this section shall be made with due provision for the rights of innocent persons. The proceeds realized from such forfeiture and disposition shall be promptly distributed in accordance with the provisions of s. 895.09.

(3) Property subject to forfeiture under this section may be seized by a law enforcement officer upon court process. Seizure without process may be made if:

(a) The seizure is incident to a lawful arrest or search or an inspection under an administrative inspection warrant.

(b) The property subject to seizure has been the subject of a prior judgment in favor of the state in a forfeiture proceeding based upon this section.

(4) In the event of a seizure under subsection (3), a forfeiture proceeding shall be instituted promptly. Property taken or detained under this section shall not be subject to replevin, but is deemed to be in the custody of the law enforcement officer making the seizure, subject only to the order of the court. When property is seized under this section, pending forfeiture and final disposition, the law enforcement officer may:

(a) Place the property under seal.

(b) Remove the property to a place designated by court.

(c) Require another agency authorized by law to take custody of the property and remove it to an appropriate location.

(5) The Department of Legal Affairs, any state attorney, or any state agency having jurisdiction over conduct in violation of a provision of this act may institute civil proceedings under this section. In any action brought under this section, the circuit court shall proceed as soon as practicable to the hearing and determination. Pending final determination, the circuit court may at any time enter such injunctions, prohibitions, or restraining orders, or take such actions, including the acceptance of satisfactory performance bonds, as the court may deem proper.

(6) Any aggrieved person may institute a proceeding under subsection (1). In such proceeding, relief shall be granted in conformity with the principles that govern the granting of injunctive relief from threatened loss or damage in other civil cases, except that no showing of special or irreparable damage to the person shall have to be made. Upon the execution of proper bond against damages for an injunction improvidently granted and a showing of immediate danger of significant loss or damage, a temporary restraining order and a preliminary injunction may be issued in any such action before a final determination on the merits.

(7) The state, including any of its agencies, instrumentalities, subdivisions, or municipalities, if it proves by clear and convincing evidence that it has been injured by reason of any violation of the provisions of s. 895.03, shall have a cause of action for threefold the actual damages sustained and shall also recover attorneys’ fees in the trial and appellate courts and costs of investigation and litigation, reasonably incurred. In no event shall punitive damages be awarded. The defendant shall be entitled to recover reasonable attorneys’ fees and court costs upon a finding that the claimant raised a claim which was without substantial factual or legal support.

(a) Either party may demand a trial by jury in any civil action brought pursuant to this subsection.

(b) Any prevailing plaintiff under this subsection or s. 772.104 shall have a right or claim to forfeited property or to the proceeds derived therefrom superior to any right or claim the state has in the same property or proceeds.

(8) A final judgment or decree rendered in favor of the state in any criminal proceeding under this act or any other criminal proceeding under state law shall estop the defendant in any subsequent civil action or proceeding under this act or under s. 772.104 as to all matters as to which such judgment or decree would be an estoppel as between the parties.

(9) The Department of Legal Affairs may, upon timely application, intervene in any civil action or proceeding brought under subsection (6) or subsection (7) if it certifies that, in its opinion, the action or proceeding is of general public importance. In such action or proceeding, the state shall be entitled to the same relief as if the Department of Legal Affairs had instituted the action or proceeding.

(10) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a criminal or civil action or proceeding under this act may be commenced at any time within 5 years after the conduct in violation of a provision of this act terminates or the cause of action accrues. If a criminal prosecution or civil action or other proceeding is brought, or intervened in, to punish, prevent, or restrain any violation of the provisions of this act, the running of the period of limitations prescribed by this section with respect to any cause of action arising under subsection (6) or subsection (7) which is based in whole or in part upon any matter complained of in any such prosecution, action, or proceeding shall be suspended during the pendency of such prosecution, action, or proceeding and for 2 years following its termination.

(11) The application of one civil remedy under any provision of this act does not preclude the application of any other remedy, civil or criminal, under this act or any other provision of law. Civil remedies under this act are supplemental, and not mutually exclusive.

(12)(a) In addition to the authority to file a RICO lien notice set forth in s. 895.07(1), the Department of Legal Affairs, the Office of Statewide Prosecution, or the office of a state attorney may apply ex parte to a criminal division of a circuit court and, upon petition supported by sworn affidavit, obtain an order authorizing the filing of a RICO lien notice against real property upon a showing of probable cause to believe that the property was used in the course of, intended for use in the course of, derived from, or realized through conduct in violation of a provision of ss. 895.01-895.05. If the lien notice authorization is granted, the department shall, after filing the lien notice, forthwith provide notice to the owner of the property by one of the following methods:

1. By serving the notice in the manner provided by law for the service of process.

2. By mailing the notice, postage prepaid, by registered or certified mail to the person to be served at his or her last known address and evidence of the delivery.

3. If neither of the foregoing can be accomplished, by posting the notice on the premises.

(b) The owner of the property may move the court to discharge the lien, and such motion shall be set for hearing at the earliest possible time.

(c) The court shall discharge the lien if it finds that there is no probable cause to believe that the property was used in the course of, intended for use in the course of, derived from, or realized through conduct in violation of a provision of ss. 895.01-895.05 or if it finds that the owner of the property neither knew nor reasonably should have known that the property was used in the course of, intended for use in the course of, derived from, or realized through conduct in violation of a provision of ss. 895.01-895.05.

(d) No testimony presented by the owner of the property at the hearing is admissible against him or her in any criminal proceeding except in a criminal prosecution for perjury or false statement, nor shall such testimony constitute a waiver of the owner’s constitutional right against self-incrimination.

(e) A lien notice secured under the provisions of this subsection is valid for a period of 90 days from the date the court granted authorization, which period may be extended for an additional 90 days by the court for good cause shown, unless a civil proceeding is instituted under this section and a lien notice is filed under s. 895.07, in which event the term of the lien notice is governed by s. 895.08.

(f) The filing of a lien notice, whether or not subsequently discharged or otherwise lifted, shall constitute notice to the owner and knowledge by the owner that the property was used in the course of, intended for use in the course of, derived from, or realized through conduct in violation of a provision of ss. 895.01-895.05, such that lack of such notice and knowledge shall not be a defense in any subsequent civil or criminal proceeding under this chapter.

History.–s. 5, ch. 77-334; s. 301, ch. 79-400; s. 2, ch. 81-141; s. 1, ch. 84-38; s. 5, ch. 84-249; s. 6, ch. 86-277; s. 3, ch. 87-139; s. 5, ch. 90-269; s. 76, ch. 95-211; s. 1447, ch. 97-102.

Note.–Former s. 943.464.

895.06 Civil investigative subpoenas.–

(1) As used in this section, the term “investigative agency” means the Department of Legal Affairs, the Office of Statewide Prosecution, or the office of a state attorney.

(2) If, pursuant to the civil enforcement provisions of s. 895.05, an investigative agency has reason to believe that a person or other enterprise has engaged in, or is engaging in, activity in violation of this act, the investigative agency may administer oaths or affirmations, subpoena witnesses or material, and collect evidence.

(3) The investigative agency may apply ex parte to the circuit court for the circuit in which a subpoenaed person or entity resides, is found, or transacts business for an order directing that the subpoenaed person or entity not disclose the existence of the subpoena to any other person or entity except the subpoenaed person’s attorney for a period of 90 days, which time may be extended by the court for good cause shown by the investigative agency. The order shall be served with the subpoena, and the subpoena shall include a reference to the order and a notice to the recipient of the subpoena that disclosure of the existence of the subpoena to any other person or entity in violation of the order may subject the subpoenaed person or entity to punishment for contempt of court. Such an order may be granted by the court only upon a showing:

(a) Of sufficient factual grounds to reasonably indicate a violation of ss. 895.01-895.06;

(b) That the documents or testimony sought appear reasonably calculated to lead to the discovery of admissible evidence; and

(c) Of facts which reasonably indicate that disclosure of the subpoena would hamper or impede the investigation or would result in a flight from prosecution.

(4) If matter that the investigative agency seeks to obtain by the subpoena is located outside the state, the person or enterprise subpoenaed may make such matter available to the investigative agency or its representative for examination at the place where such matter is located. The investigative agency may designate representatives, including officials of the jurisdiction in which the matter is located, to inspect the matter on its behalf and may respond to similar requests from officials of other jurisdictions.

(5) Upon failure of a person or enterprise, without lawful excuse, to obey a subpoena issued under this section or a subpoena issued in the course of a civil proceeding instituted pursuant to s. 895.05, and after reasonable notice to such person or enterprise, the investigative agency may apply to the circuit court in which such civil proceeding is pending or, if no civil proceeding is pending, to the circuit court for the judicial circuit in which such person or enterprise resides, is found, or transacts business for an order compelling compliance. Except in a prosecution for perjury, an individual who complies with a court order to provide testimony or material after asserting a privilege against self-incrimination to which the individual is entitled by law shall not have the testimony or material so provided, or evidence derived therefrom, received against him or her in any criminal investigation or proceeding.

(6) A person who fails to obey a court order entered pursuant to this section may be punished for contempt of court.

History.–s. 1, ch. 79-218; s. 2, ch. 84-38; s. 4, ch. 87-139; s. 20, ch. 88-381; s. 1448, ch. 97-102.

Note.–Former s. 943.465.

895.07 RICO lien notice.–

(1) Upon the institution of any civil proceeding, the investigative agency, then or at any time during the pendency of the proceeding, may file a RICO lien notice in the official records of any one or more counties. No filing fee or other charge shall be required as a condition for filing the RICO lien notice, and the clerk of the circuit court shall, upon the presentation of a RICO lien notice, immediately record it in the official records.

(2) The RICO lien notice shall be signed by the head of the Department of Legal Affairs or her or his designee or by a state attorney or her or his designee. The notice shall be in such form as the Attorney General prescribes and shall set forth the following information:

(a) The name of the person against whom the civil proceeding has been brought. In its discretion, the investigative agency may also name in the RICO lien notice any other aliases, names, or fictitious names under which the person may be known and any corporation, partnership, or other entity that is either controlled or entirely owned by the person.

(b) If known to the investigative agency, the present residence and business addresses of the person named in the RICO lien notice and of the other names set forth in the RICO lien notice.

(c) A reference to the civil proceeding, stating: that a proceeding under the Florida RICO Act has been brought against the person named in the RICO lien notice; the name of the county or counties in which the proceeding has been brought; and, if known to the investigative agency at the time of filing the RICO lien notice, the case number of the proceeding.

(d) A statement that the notice is being filed pursuant to the Florida RICO Act.

(e) The name and address of the investigative agency filing the RICO lien notice and the name of the individual signing the RICO notice.

A RICO lien notice shall apply only to one person and, to the extent applicable, any other aliases, names, or fictitious names, including names of corporations, partnerships, or other entities, to the extent permitted in paragraph (a). A separate RICO lien notice shall be filed for each person against whom the investigative agency desires to file a RICO lien notice under this section.

(3) The investigative agency shall, as soon as practicable after the filing of each RICO lien notice, furnish to the person named in the notice either a copy of the recorded notice or a copy of the notice with a notation thereon of the county or counties in which the notice has been recorded. The failure of the investigative agency to furnish a copy of the notice under this subsection shall not invalidate or otherwise affect the notice.

(4) The filing of a RICO lien notice creates, from the time of its filing, a lien in favor of the state on the following property of the person named in the notice and against any other names set forth in the notice:

(a) Any real property situated in the county where the notice is filed then or thereafter owned by the person or under any of the names; and

(b) Any beneficial interest situated in the county where the notice is filed then or thereafter owned by the person or under any of the names.

The lien shall commence and attach as of the time of filing of the RICO lien notice and shall continue thereafter until expiration, termination, or release of the notice pursuant to s. 895.08. The lien created in favor of the state shall be superior and prior to the interest of any other person in the real property or beneficial interest if the interest is acquired subsequent to the filing of the notice.

(5) In conjunction with any civil proceeding:

(a) The investigative agency may file without prior court order in any county a lis pendens under the provisions of s. 48.23; in such case, any person acquiring an interest in the subject real property or beneficial interest, if the real property or beneficial interest is acquired subsequent to the filing of lis pendens, shall take the interest subject to the civil proceeding and any subsequent judgment of forfeiture.

(b) If a RICO lien notice has been filed, the investigative agency may name as a defendant, in addition to the person named in the notice, any person acquiring an interest in the real property or beneficial interest subsequent to the filing of the notice. If a judgment of forfeiture is entered in the proceeding in favor of the state, the interest of any person in the property that was acquired subsequent to the filing of the notice shall be subject to the notice and judgment of forfeiture.

(6) A trustee who acquires actual knowledge that a RICO lien notice or a civil proceeding or criminal proceeding has been filed against any person for whom the trustee holds legal or record title to real property shall immediately furnish to the investigative agency the following:

(a) The name and address of the person, as known to the trustee.

(b) The name and address, as known to the trustee, of each other person for whose benefit the trustee holds title to the real property.

(c) If requested by the investigative agency, a copy of the trust agreement or other instrument pursuant to which the trustee holds legal or record title to the real property.

Any trustee who fails to comply with the provisions of this subsection is guilty of a misdemeanor of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(7) Any trustee who conveys title to real property for which, at the time of the conveyance, a RICO lien notice naming a person who, to the actual knowledge of the trustee, holds a beneficial interest in the trust has been filed in the county where the real property is situated is liable to the state for the greatest of:

(a) The amount of proceeds received directly by the person named in the RICO lien notice as a result of the conveyance;

(b) The amount of proceeds received by the trustee as a result of the conveyance and distributed to the person named in the RICO lien notice; or

(c) The fair market value of the interest of the person named in the RICO lien notice in the real property so conveyed; however, if the trustee conveys the real property and holds the proceeds that would otherwise be paid or distributed to the beneficiary or at the direction of the beneficiary or her or his designee, the trustee’s liability shall not exceed the amount of the proceeds so held for so long as the proceeds are held by the trustee.

(8) The filing of a RICO lien notice shall not constitute a lien on the record title to real property as owned by the trustee except to the extent that the trustee is named in the RICO lien notice. The investigative agency may bring a civil proceeding in any circuit court against the trustee to recover from the trustee the amount set forth in subsection (7), and the state shall also be entitled to recover investigative costs and attorney’s fees incurred by the investigative agency.

(9) The filing of a RICO lien notice shall not affect the use to which real property or a beneficial interest owned by the person named in the RICO lien notice may be put or the right of the person to receive any avails, rents, or other proceeds resulting from the use and ownership, but not the sale, of the property until a judgment of forfeiture is entered.

(10)(a) The provisions of this section shall not apply to any conveyance by a trustee pursuant to a court order, unless such court order is entered in an action between the trustee and the beneficiary.

(b) Unless the trustee has actual knowledge that a person owning a beneficial interest in the trust is named in a RICO lien notice or is otherwise a defendant in a civil proceeding, the provisions of this section shall not apply to:

1. Any conveyance by the trustee required under the terms of the trust agreement, which trust agreement is a matter of public record prior to the filing of the RICO lien notice; or

2. Any conveyance by the trustee to all of the persons who own beneficial interests in the trust.

(11) All forfeitures or dispositions under this section shall be made with due provision for the rights of innocent persons.

History.–s. 3, ch. 81-141; s. 170, ch. 83-216; s. 224, ch. 91-224; s. 1449, ch. 97-102.

895.08 Term of RICO lien notice.–

(1) The term of a RICO lien notice shall be for a period of 6 years from the date of filing, unless a renewal RICO lien notice has been filed by the investigative agency; in such case, the term of the renewal RICO lien notice shall be for a period of 6 years from the date of its filing. The investigative agency shall be entitled to only one renewal of the RICO lien notice.

(2) The investigative agency filing a RICO lien notice may release in whole or in part the RICO lien notice or may release any specific real property or beneficial interest from the RICO lien notice upon such terms and conditions as it may determine. A release of a RICO lien notice executed by the investigative agency may be filed in the official records of any county. No charge or fee shall be imposed for the filing of a release of a RICO lien notice.

(3) If no civil proceeding has been instituted by the investigative agency seeking a forfeiture of any property owned by the person named in the RICO lien notice, the acquittal in the criminal proceeding of the person named in the RICO lien notice or the dismissal of the criminal proceeding shall terminate the RICO lien notice and, in such case, the filing of the RICO lien notice shall have no effect. In the event the criminal proceeding has been dismissed or the person named in the RICO lien notice has been acquitted in the criminal proceeding, the RICO lien notice shall continue for the duration of the civil proceeding.

(4) If no civil proceeding is then pending against the person named in a RICO lien notice, the person named in the RICO lien notice may institute an action in the county where the notice has been filed against the investigative agency that filed the notice seeking a release or extinguishment of the notice. In such case:

(a) The court shall, upon the motion of such person, immediately enter an order setting a date for hearing, which date shall be not less than 5 or more than 10 days after the suit has been filed, and the order along with a copy of the complaint shall be served on the investigative agency within 3 days after the institution of the suit. At the hearing, the court shall take evidence on the issue of whether any real property or beneficial interest owned by such person is covered by the RICO lien notice or is otherwise subject to forfeiture under the Florida RICO Act; if such person shows by a preponderance of the evidence that the RICO lien notice is not applicable to him or her or that any real property or beneficial interest owned by the person is not subject to forfeiture under the Florida RICO Act, the court shall enter a judgment extinguishing the RICO lien notice or releasing the real property or beneficial interest from the RICO lien notice.

(b) The court shall immediately enter its order releasing from the RICO lien notice any specific real property or beneficial interest if a sale of such real property or beneficial interest is pending and the filing of the notice prevents the sale of the property or interest; however, the proceeds resulting from the sale of such real property or beneficial interest shall be deposited into the registry of the court, subject to the further order of the court.

(c) At the hearing set forth in paragraph (a), the court may release any real property or beneficial interest from the RICO lien notice, upon the posting by such person of such security as is equal to the value of the real property or beneficial interest owned by such person.

(5) In the event a civil proceeding is pending against a person named in a RICO lien notice, the court upon motion by such person may grant the relief set forth herein.

History.–s. 4, ch. 81-141; s. 1450, ch. 97-102.

895.09 Disposition of funds obtained through forfeiture proceedings.–

(1) A court entering a judgment of forfeiture in a proceeding brought pursuant to s. 895.05 shall retain jurisdiction to direct the distribution of any cash or of any cash proceeds realized from the forfeiture and disposition of the property. The court shall direct the distribution of the funds in the following order of priority:

(a) Any statutory fees to which the clerk of the court may be entitled.

(b) Any claims against the property by persons who have previously been judicially determined to be innocent persons, pursuant to the provisions of s. 895.05(2)(c), and whose interests are preserved from forfeiture by the court and not otherwise satisfied. Such claims may include any claim by a person appointed by the court as receiver pending litigation.

(c) Any claim by the Board of Trustees of the Internal Improvement Trust Fund on behalf of the Internal Improvement Trust Fund or the Land Acquisition Trust Fund pursuant to s. 253.03(13), not including administrative costs of the Department of Environmental Protection previously paid directly from the Internal Improvement Trust Fund in accordance with legislative appropriation.

(2)(a) Following satisfaction of all valid claims under subsection (1), 25 percent of the remainder of the funds obtained in the forfeiture proceedings pursuant to s. 895.05 shall be deposited as provided in paragraph (b) into the appropriate trust fund of the Department of Legal Affairs or state attorney’s office which filed the civil forfeiture action; 25 percent shall be deposited as provided in paragraph (c) into the applicable law enforcement trust fund of the investigating law enforcement agency conducting the investigation which resulted in or significantly contributed to the forfeiture of the property; 25 percent shall be deposited as provided in paragraph (d) in the Substance Abuse Trust Fund of the Department of Children and Family Services; and the remaining 25 percent shall be deposited in the Internal Improvement Trust Fund of the Department of Environmental Protection. When a forfeiture action is filed by the Department of Legal Affairs or a state attorney, the court entering the judgment of forfeiture shall, taking into account the overall effort and contribution to the investigation and forfeiture action by the agencies that filed the action, make a pro rata apportionment among such agencies of the funds available for distribution to the agencies filing the action as provided in this section. If multiple investigating law enforcement agencies have contributed to the forfeiture of the property, the court which entered the judgment of forfeiture shall, taking into account the overall effort and contribution of the agencies to the investigation and forfeiture action, make a pro rata apportionment among such investigating law enforcement agencies of the funds available for distribution to the investigating agencies as provided in this section.

(b) If a forfeiture action is filed by the Attorney General, any funds obtained by the Department of Legal Affairs by reason of paragraph (a) shall be deposited in the Legal Affairs Revolving Trust Fund as established by s. 16.53 and may be expended for the purposes and in the manner authorized in that section. If a forfeiture action is filed by a state attorney, any funds obtained by the state attorney’s office by reason of paragraph (a) shall be deposited in the State Attorney RICO Trust Fund as established by s. 27.345 and may be expended for the purposes and in the manner authorized in that section. In addition, any funds that are distributed pursuant to this section to an agency filing a forfeiture action may be used to pay the costs of investigations of violations of this chapter and the criminal prosecutions and civil actions related thereto. Such costs may include all taxable costs; costs of protecting, maintaining, and forfeiting the property; employees’ base salaries and compensation for overtime; and such other costs as are directly attributable to the investigation, prosecution, or civil action.

(c) Any funds distributed to an investigating law enforcement agency under paragraph (a) shall be deposited in the applicable law enforcement trust fund established for that agency pursuant to s. 932.7055 and expended for the purposes and in the manner authorized in that section. In addition, any funds distributed to an investigating law enforcement agency pursuant to this section may be used to pay the costs of investigations of violations of this chapter and the criminal prosecutions and civil actions related thereto, pursuant to s. 932.7055. Such costs may include all taxable costs; costs of protecting, maintaining, and forfeiting the property; employees’ base salaries and compensation for overtime; and such other costs directly attributable to the investigation, prosecution, or civil action.

(d) The Department of Children and Family Services shall, in accordance with chapter 397, distribute funds obtained by it pursuant to paragraph (a) to public and private nonprofit organizations licensed by the department to provide substance abuse treatment and rehabilitation centers or substance abuse prevention and youth orientation programs in the service district in which the final order of forfeiture is entered by the court.

(e) On a quarterly basis, any excess funds from forfeited property receipts, including interest, over $1 million deposited in the Internal Improvement Trust Fund of the Department of Environmental Protection in accordance with paragraph (a) shall be deposited in the Substance Abuse Trust Fund of the Department of Children and Family Services.

(3) Nothing in this section shall be construed to limit the authority of an entity that files a forfeiture action to compromise a claim for forfeiture; however, any proceeds arising from a compromise or from the sale of property obtained in a compromise shall be distributed in the manner provided in subsections (1) and (2).

(4) Pending the final distribution of the cash or cash proceeds pursuant to this section, the court may authorize the cash or cash proceeds to be deposited in the court registry or in a qualified public depository.

(5) For purposes of this section, the term “cash or cash proceeds” includes, but is not limited to, damages or penalties or any other monetary payment, the monetary proceeds from property forfeited to the state pursuant to s. 895.05, or any payment made by any defendant by reason of any decree or settlement in any action filed pursuant to s. 895.05.

History.–s. 1, ch. 84-249; s. 2, ch. 85-306; s. 7, ch. 86-277; s. 21, ch. 88-381; ss. 1, 6, ch. 89-102; ss. 8, 9, ch. 92-54; s. 41, ch. 93-39; s. 16, ch. 94-316; s. 478, ch. 94-356; s. 2, ch. 98-389; s. 306, ch. 99-8; s. 37, ch. 2004-234

Sale of Drugs

893.13 Prohibited acts; penalties.–

(1)(a) Except as authorized by this chapter and chapter 499, it is unlawful for any person to sell, manufacture, or deliver, or possess with intent to sell, manufacture, or deliver, a controlled substance. Any person who violates this provision with respect to:

1. A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(a), (1)(b), (1)(d), (2)(a), (2)(b), or (2)(c)4., commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

2. A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(c), (2)(c)1., (2)(c)2., (2)(c)3., (2)(c)5., (2)(c)6., (2)(c)7., (2)(c)8., (2)(c)9., (3), or (4) commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

3. A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(5) commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(b) Except as provided in this chapter, it is unlawful to sell or deliver in excess of 10 grams of any substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(a) or (1)(b), or any combination thereof, or any mixture containing any such substance. Any person who violates this paragraph commits a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(c) Except as authorized by this chapter, it is unlawful for any person to sell, manufacture, or deliver, or possess with intent to sell, manufacture, or deliver, a controlled substance in, on, or within 1,000 feet of the real property comprising a child care facility as defined in s. 402.302 or a public or private elementary, middle, or secondary school between the hours of 6 a.m. and 12 midnight, or at any time in, on, or within 1,000 feet of real property comprising a state, county, or municipal park, a community center, or a publicly owned recreational facility. For the purposes of this paragraph, the term “community center” means a facility operated by a nonprofit community-based organization for the provision of recreational, social, or educational services to the public. Any person who violates this paragraph with respect to:

1. A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(a), (1)(b), (1)(d), (2)(a), (2)(b), or (2)(c)4., commits a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. The defendant must be sentenced to a minimum term of imprisonment of 3 calendar years unless the offense was committed within 1,000 feet of the real property comprising a child care facility as defined in s. 402.302.

2. A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(c), (2)(c)1., (2)(c)2., (2)(c)3., (2)(c)5., (2)(c)6., (2)(c)7., (2)(c)8., (2)(c)9., (3), or (4) commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

3. Any other controlled substance, except as lawfully sold, manufactured, or delivered, must be sentenced to pay a $500 fine and to serve 100 hours of public service in addition to any other penalty prescribed by law.

This paragraph does not apply to a child care facility unless the owner or operator of the facility posts a sign that is not less than 2 square feet in size with a word legend identifying the facility as a licensed child care facility and that is posted on the property of the child care facility in a conspicuous place where the sign is reasonably visible to the public.

(d) Except as authorized by this chapter, it is unlawful for any person to sell, manufacture, or deliver, or possess with intent to sell, manufacture, or deliver, a controlled substance in, on, or within 1,000 feet of the real property comprising a public or private college, university, or other postsecondary educational institution. Any person who violates this paragraph with respect to:

1. A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(a), (1)(b), (1)(d), (2)(a), (2)(b), or (2)(c)4., commits a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

2. A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(c), (2)(c)1., (2)(c)2., (2)(c)3., (2)(c)5., (2)(c)6., (2)(c)7., (2)(c)8., (2)(c)9., (3), or (4) commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

3. Any other controlled substance, except as lawfully sold, manufactured, or delivered, must be sentenced to pay a $500 fine and to serve 100 hours of public service in addition to any other penalty prescribed by law.

(e) Except as authorized by this chapter, it is unlawful for any person to sell, manufacture, or deliver, or possess with intent to sell, manufacture, or deliver, a controlled substance not authorized by law in, on, or within 1,000 feet of a physical place for worship at which a church or religious organization regularly conducts religious services or within 1,000 feet of a convenience business as defined in s. 812.171. Any person who violates this paragraph with respect to:

1. A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(a), (1)(b), (1)(d), (2)(a), (2)(b), or (2)(c)4., commits a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

2. A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(c), (2)(c)1., (2)(c)2., (2)(c)3., (2)(c)5., (2)(c)6., (2)(c)7., (2)(c)8., (2)(c)9., (3), or (4) commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

3. Any other controlled substance, except as lawfully sold, manufactured, or delivered, must be sentenced to pay a $500 fine and to serve 100 hours of public service in addition to any other penalty prescribed by law.

(f) Except as authorized by this chapter, it is unlawful for any person to sell, manufacture, or deliver, or possess with intent to sell, manufacture, or deliver, a controlled substance in, on, or within 1,000 feet of the real property comprising a public housing facility at any time. For purposes of this section, the term “real property comprising a public housing facility” means real property, as defined in s. 421.03(12), of a public corporation created as a housing authority pursuant to part I of chapter 421. Any person who violates this paragraph with respect to:

1. A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(a), (1)(b), (1)(d), (2)(a), (2)(b), or (2)(c)4., commits a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

2. A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(c), (2)(c)1., (2)(c)2., (2)(c)3., (2)(c)5., (2)(c)6., (2)(c)7., (2)(c)8., (2)(c)9., (3), or (4) commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

3. Any other controlled substance, except as lawfully sold, manufactured, or delivered, must be sentenced to pay a $500 fine and to serve 100 hours of public service in addition to any other penalty prescribed by law.

(2)(a) Except as authorized by this chapter and chapter 499, it is unlawful for any person to purchase, or possess with intent to purchase, a controlled substance. Any person who violates this provision with respect to:

1. A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(a), (1)(b), (1)(d), (2)(a), (2)(b), or (2)(c)4., commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

2. A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(c), (2)(c)1., (2)(c)2., (2)(c)3., (2)(c)5., (2)(c)6., (2)(c)7., (2)(c)8., (2)(c)9., (3), or (4) commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

3. A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(5) commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(b) Except as provided in this chapter, it is unlawful to purchase in excess of 10 grams of any substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(a) or (1)(b), or any combination thereof, or any mixture containing any such substance. Any person who violates this paragraph commits a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(3) Any person who delivers, without consideration, not more than 20 grams of cannabis, as defined in this chapter, commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083. For the purposes of this paragraph, “cannabis” does not include the resin extracted from the plants of the genus Cannabis or any compound manufacture, salt, derivative, mixture, or preparation of such resin.

(4) Except as authorized by this chapter, it is unlawful for any person 18 years of age or older to deliver any controlled substance to a person under the age of 18 years, or to use or hire a person under the age of 18 years as an agent or employee in the sale or delivery of such a substance, or to use such person to assist in avoiding detection or apprehension for a violation of this chapter. Any person who violates this provision with respect to:

(a) A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(a), (1)(b), (1)(d), (2)(a), (2)(b), or (2)(c)4., commits a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(b) A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(c), (2)(c)1., (2)(c)2., (2)(c)3., (2)(c)5., (2)(c)6., (2)(c)7., (2)(c)8., (2)(c)9., (3), or (4) commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

Imposition of sentence may not be suspended or deferred, nor shall the person so convicted be placed on probation.

(5) It is unlawful for any person to bring into this state any controlled substance unless the possession of such controlled substance is authorized by this chapter or unless such person is licensed to do so by the appropriate federal agency. Any person who violates this provision with respect to:

(a) A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(a), (1)(b), (1)(d), (2)(a), (2)(b), or (2)(c)4., commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(b) A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(c), (2)(c)1., (2)(c)2., (2)(c)3., (2)(c)5., (2)(c)6., (2)(c)7., (2)(c)8., (2)(c)9., (3), or (4) commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(c) A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(5) commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(6)(a) It is unlawful for any person to be in actual or constructive possession of a controlled substance unless such controlled substance was lawfully obtained from a practitioner or pursuant to a valid prescription or order of a practitioner while acting in the course of his or her professional practice or to be in actual or constructive possession of a controlled substance except as otherwise authorized by this chapter. Any person who violates this provision commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(b) If the offense is the possession of not more than 20 grams of cannabis, as defined in this chapter, the person commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083. For the purposes of this subsection, “cannabis” does not include the resin extracted from the plants of the genus Cannabis, or any compound manufacture, salt, derivative, mixture, or preparation of such resin.

(c) Except as provided in this chapter, it is unlawful to possess in excess of 10 grams of any substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(a) or (1)(b), or any combination thereof, or any mixture containing any such substance. Any person who violates this paragraph commits a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(d) Notwithstanding any provision to the contrary of the laws of this state relating to arrest, a law enforcement officer may arrest without warrant any person who the officer has probable cause to believe is violating the provisions of this chapter relating to possession of cannabis.

(7)(a) It is unlawful for any person:

1. To distribute or dispense a controlled substance in violation of this chapter.

2. To refuse or fail to make, keep, or furnish any record, notification, order form, statement, invoice, or information required under this chapter.

3. To refuse an entry into any premises for any inspection or to refuse to allow any inspection authorized by this chapter.

4. To distribute a controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1) or (2) except pursuant to an order form as required by s. 893.06.

5. To keep or maintain any store, shop, warehouse, dwelling, building, vehicle, boat, aircraft, or other structure or place which is resorted to by persons using controlled substances in violation of this chapter for the purpose of using these substances, or which is used for keeping or selling them in violation of this chapter.

6. To use to his or her own personal advantage, or to reveal, any information obtained in enforcement of this chapter except in a prosecution or administrative hearing for a violation of this chapter.

7. To possess a prescription form which has not been completed and signed by the practitioner whose name appears printed thereon, unless the person is that practitioner, is an agent or employee of that practitioner, is a pharmacist, or is a supplier of prescription forms who is authorized by that practitioner to possess those forms.

8. To withhold information from a practitioner from whom the person seeks to obtain a controlled substance or a prescription for a controlled substance that the person making the request has received a controlled substance or a prescription for a controlled substance of like therapeutic use from another practitioner within the previous 30 days.

9. To acquire or obtain, or attempt to acquire or obtain, possession of a controlled substance by misrepresentation, fraud, forgery, deception, or subterfuge.

10. To affix any false or forged label to a package or receptacle containing a controlled substance.

11. To furnish false or fraudulent material information in, or omit any material information from, any report or other document required to be kept or filed under this chapter or any record required to be kept by this chapter.

(b) Any person who violates the provisions of subparagraphs (a)1.-7. commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083; except that, upon a second or subsequent violation, the person commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(c) Any person who violates the provisions of subparagraphs (a)8.-11. commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(8)(a) Notwithstanding subsection (9), a prescribing practitioner may not:

1. Knowingly assist a patient, other person, or the owner of an animal in obtaining a controlled substance through deceptive, untrue, or fraudulent representations in or related to the practice of the prescribing practitioner’s professional practice;

2. Employ a trick or scheme in the practice of the prescribing practitioner’s professional practice to assist a patient, other person, or the owner of an animal in obtaining a controlled substance;

3. Knowingly write a prescription for a controlled substance for a fictitious person; or

4. Write a prescription for a controlled substance for a patient, other person, or an animal if the sole purpose of writing such prescription is to provide a monetary benefit to, or obtain a monetary benefit for, the prescribing practitioner.

(b) If the prescribing practitioner wrote a prescription or multiple prescriptions for a controlled substance for the patient, other person, or animal for which there was no medical necessity, or which was in excess of what was medically necessary to treat the patient, other person, or animal, that fact does not give rise to any presumption that the prescribing practitioner violated subparagraph (a)1., but may be considered with other competent evidence in determining whether the prescribing practitioner knowingly assisted a patient, other person, or the owner of an animal to obtain a controlled substance in violation of subparagraph (a)1.

(c) A person who violates paragraph (a) commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(d) Notwithstanding paragraph (c), if a prescribing practitioner has violated paragraph (a) and received $1,000 or more in payment for writing one or more prescriptions or, in the case of a prescription written for a controlled substance described in s. 893.135, has written one or more prescriptions for a quantity of a controlled substance which, individually or in the aggregate, meets the threshold for the offense of trafficking in a controlled substance under s. 893.15, the violation is reclassified as a felony of the second degree and ranked in level 4 of the Criminal Punishment Code.

(9) The provisions of subsections (1)-(8) are not applicable to the delivery to, or actual or constructive possession for medical or scientific use or purpose only of controlled substances by, persons included in any of the following classes, or the agents or employees of such persons, for use in the usual course of their business or profession or in the performance of their official duties:

(a) Pharmacists.

(b) Practitioners.

(c) Persons who procure controlled substances in good faith and in the course of professional practice only, by or under the supervision of pharmacists or practitioners employed by them, or for the purpose of lawful research, teaching, or testing, and not for resale.

(d) Hospitals that procure controlled substances for lawful administration by practitioners, but only for use by or in the particular hospital.

(e) Officers or employees of state, federal, or local governments acting in their official capacity only, or informers acting under their jurisdiction.

(f) Common carriers.

(g) Manufacturers, wholesalers, and distributors.

(h) Law enforcement officers for bona fide law enforcement purposes in the course of an active criminal investigation.

(10) Notwithstanding any provision of the sentencing guidelines or the Criminal Punishment Code to the contrary, on or after October 1, 1993, any defendant who:

(a) Violates subparagraph (1)(a)1., subparagraph (1)(c)2., subparagraph (1)(d)2., subparagraph (2)(a)1., or paragraph (5)(a); and

(b) Has not previously been convicted, regardless of whether adjudication was withheld, of any felony, other than a violation of subparagraph (1)(a)1., subparagraph (1)(c)2., subparagraph (1)(d)2., subparagraph (2)(a)1., or paragraph (5)(a),

may be required by the court to successfully complete a term of probation pursuant to the terms and conditions set forth in s. 948.034(1), in lieu of serving a term of imprisonment.

(11) Notwithstanding any provision of the sentencing guidelines or the Criminal Punishment Code to the contrary, on or after January 1, 1994, any defendant who:

(a) Violates subparagraph (1)(a)2., subparagraph (2)(a)2., paragraph (5)(b), or paragraph (6)(a); and

(b) Has not previously been convicted, regardless of whether adjudication was withheld, of any felony, other than a violation of subparagraph (1)(a)2., subparagraph (2)(a)2., paragraph (5)(b), or paragraph (6)(a),

may be required by the court to successfully complete a term of probation pursuant to the terms and conditions set forth in s. 948.034(2), in lieu of serving a term of imprisonment.

History.–s. 13, ch. 73-331; s. 1, ch. 76-200; s. 1, ch. 77-174; s. 2, ch. 79-1; s. 3, ch. 79-325; s. 5, ch. 80-30; s. 2, ch. 80-70; s. 490, ch. 81-259; s. 2, ch. 82-16; s. 52, ch. 83-215; s. 1, ch. 84-77; s. 5, ch. 85-242; s. 4, ch. 87-243; s. 2, ch. 88-381; s. 4, ch. 89-281; s. 1, ch. 89-524; ss. 1, 6, ch. 90-111; s. 1, ch. 93-59; s. 2, ch. 93-92; s. 1, ch. 93-194; ss. 22, 23, ch. 93-406; s. 2, ch. 96-360; s. 2, ch. 97-1; s. 1, ch. 97-43; s. 1827, ch. 97-102; s. 22, ch. 97-194; s. 106, ch. 97-264; s. 1, ch. 97-269; s. 47, ch. 97-271; s. 1, ch. 98-22; s. 1, ch. 99-154; s. 14, ch. 99-186; s. 3, ch. 2000-320; s. 11, ch. 2002-78; s. 2, ch. 2002-81; s. 3, ch. 2003-10; s. 1, ch. 2003-95.

Shoplifting

812.014 Theft.–

(1) A person commits theft if he or she knowingly obtains or uses, or endeavors to obtain or to use, the property of another with intent to, either temporarily or permanently:

(a) Deprive the other person of a right to the property or a benefit from the property.

(b) Appropriate the property to his or her own use or to the use of any person not entitled to the use of the property.

(2)(a)1. If the property stolen is valued at $100,000 or more; or

2. If the property stolen is cargo valued at $50,000 or more that has entered the stream of interstate or intrastate commerce from the shipper’s loading platform to the consignee’s receiving dock; or

3. If the offender commits any grand theft and:

a. In the course of committing the offense the offender uses a motor vehicle as an instrumentality, other than merely as a getaway vehicle, to assist in committing the offense and thereby damages the real property of another; or

b. In the course of committing the offense the offender causes damage to the real or personal property of another in excess of $1,000,

the offender commits grand theft in the first degree, punishable as a felony of the first degree, as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(b)1. If the property stolen is valued at $20,000 or more, but less than $100,000;

2. The property stolen is cargo valued at less than $50,000 that has entered the stream of interstate or intrastate commerce from the shipper’s loading platform to the consignee’s receiving dock; or

3. The property stolen is emergency medical equipment, valued at $300 or more, that is taken from a facility licensed under chapter 395 or from an aircraft or vehicle permitted under chapter 401,

the offender commits grand theft in the second degree, punishable as a felony of the second degree, as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. Emergency medical equipment means mechanical or electronic apparatus used to provide emergency services and care as defined in s. 395.002(10) or to treat medical emergencies.

(c) It is grand theft of the third degree and a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084, if the property stolen is:

1. Valued at $300 or more, but less than $5,000.

2. Valued at $5,000 or more, but less than $10,000.

3. Valued at $10,000 or more, but less than $20,000.

4. A will, codicil, or other testamentary instrument.

5. A firearm.

6. A motor vehicle, except as provided in paragraph (2)(a).

7. Any commercially farmed animal, including any animal of the equine, bovine, or swine class, or other grazing animal, and including aquaculture species raised at a certified aquaculture facility. If the property stolen is aquaculture species raised at a certified aquaculture facility, then a $10,000 fine shall be imposed.

8. Any fire extinguisher.

9. Any amount of citrus fruit consisting of 2,000 or more individual pieces of fruit.

10. Taken from a designated construction site identified by the posting of a sign as provided for in s. 810.09(2)(d).

11. Any stop sign.

12. Anhydrous ammonia.

(d) It is grand theft of the third degree and a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084, if the property stolen is valued at $100 or more, but less than $300, and is taken from a dwelling as defined in s. 810.011(2) or from the unenclosed curtilage of a dwelling pursuant to s. 810.09(1).

(e) Except as provided in paragraph (d), if the property stolen is valued at $100 or more, but less than $300, the offender commits petit theft of the first degree, punishable as a misdemeanor of the first degree, as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(3)(a) Theft of any property not specified in subsection (2) is petit theft of the second degree and a misdemeanor of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083, and as provided in subsection (5), as applicable.

(b) A person who commits petit theft and who has previously been convicted of any theft commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(c) A person who commits petit theft and who has previously been convicted two or more times of any theft commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(d)1. Every judgment of guilty or not guilty of a petit theft shall be in writing, signed by the judge, and recorded by the clerk of the circuit court. The judge shall cause to be affixed to every such written judgment of guilty of petit theft, in open court and in the presence of such judge, the fingerprints of the defendant against whom such judgment is rendered. Such fingerprints shall be affixed beneath the judge’s signature to such judgment. Beneath such fingerprints shall be appended a certificate to the following effect:

“I hereby certify that the above and foregoing fingerprints on this judgment are the fingerprints of the defendant, _____, and that they were placed thereon by said defendant in my presence, in open court, this the _____ day of _____, (year) .”

Such certificate shall be signed by the judge, whose signature thereto shall be followed by the word “Judge.”

2. Any such written judgment of guilty of a petit theft, or a certified copy thereof, is admissible in evidence in the courts of this state as prima facie evidence that the fingerprints appearing thereon and certified by the judge are the fingerprints of the defendant against whom such judgment of guilty of a petit theft was rendered.

(4) Failure to comply with the terms of a lease when the lease is for a term of 1 year or longer shall not constitute a violation of this section unless demand for the return of the property leased has been made in writing and the lessee has failed to return the property within 7 days of his or her receipt of the demand for return of the property. A demand mailed by certified or registered mail, evidenced by return receipt, to the last known address of the lessee shall be deemed sufficient and equivalent to the demand having been received by the lessee, whether such demand shall be returned undelivered or not.

(5)(a) No person shall drive a motor vehicle so as to cause it to leave the premises of an establishment at which gasoline offered for retail sale was dispensed into the fuel tank of such motor vehicle unless the payment of authorized charge for the gasoline dispensed has been made.

(b) In addition to the penalties prescribed in paragraph (3)(a), every judgment of guilty of a petit theft for property described in this subsection shall provide for the suspension of the convicted person’s driver’s license. The court shall forward the driver’s license to the Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles in accordance with s. 322.25.

1. The first suspension of a driver’s license under this subsection shall be for a period of up to 6 months.

2. The second or subsequent suspension of a driver’s license under this subsection shall be for a period of 1 year.

History.–s. 4, ch. 77-342; s. 1, ch. 78-348; s. 1, ch. 79-124; s. 1, ch. 80-389; s. 1, ch. 82-164; s. 1, ch. 86-161; s. 1, ch. 87-376; s. 1, ch. 88-312; s. 8, ch. 90-92; s. 1, ch. 92-79; s. 9, ch. 95-184; s. 30, ch. 96-247; s. 3, ch. 96-260; s. 49, ch. 96-388; s. 1819, ch. 97-102; s. 102, ch. 99-3; s. 36, ch. 99-6; ss. 67, 79, ch. 99-248; s. 2, ch. 2001-115; s. 1, ch. 2003-15; s. 2, ch. 2004-341.

812.035 Civil remedies; limitation on civil and criminal actions.–

(1) Any circuit court may, after making due provisions for the rights of innocent persons, enjoin violations of the provisions of ss. 812.012-812.037 or s. 812.081 by issuing appropriate orders and judgments, including, but not limited to:

(a) Ordering any defendant to divest himself or herself of any interest in any enterprise, including real estate.

(b) Imposing reasonable restrictions upon the future activities or investments of any defendant, including, but not limited to, prohibiting any defendant from engaging in the same type of endeavor as the enterprise in which he or she was engaged in violation of the provisions of ss. 812.012-812.037 or s. 812.081.

(c) Ordering the dissolution or reorganization of any enterprise.

(d) Ordering the suspension or revocation of any license, permit, or prior approval granted to any enterprise by any department or agency of the state.

(e) Ordering the forfeiture of the charter of a corporation organized under the laws of the state or the revocation of a certificate authorizing a foreign corporation to conduct business within the state, upon finding that the board of directors or a managerial agent acting on behalf of the corporation, in conducting the affairs of the corporation, has authorized or engaged in conduct in violation of ss. 812.012-812.037 or s. 812.081 and that, for the prevention of future criminal activity, the public interest requires the charter of the corporation forfeited and the corporation dissolved or the certificate revoked.

(2) All property, real or personal, including money, used in the course of, intended for use in the course of, derived from, or realized through conduct in violation of a provision of ss. 812.012-812.037 or s. 812.081 is subject to civil forfeiture to the state. The state shall dispose of all forfeited property as soon as commercially feasible. If property is not exercisable or transferable for value by the state, it shall expire. All forfeitures or dispositions under this section shall be made with due provision for the rights of innocent persons.

(3) Property subject to forfeiture under this section may be seized by a law enforcement officer upon court process. Seizure without process may be made if:

(a) The seizure is incident to a lawful arrest or search or an inspection under an administrative inspection warrant.

(b) The property subject to seizure has been the subject of a prior judgment in favor of the state in a forfeiture proceeding based upon this section.

(c) The law enforcement officer has probable cause to believe that the property is directly or indirectly dangerous to the public health or safety.

(d) The law enforcement officer has probable cause to believe that the property is otherwise subject to forfeiture under this section.

(4) In the event of a seizure under subsection (3), a forfeiture proceeding shall be instituted promptly. When property is seized under this section, pending forfeiture and final disposition, the law enforcement officer may:

(a) Place the property under seal.

(b) Remove the property to a place designated by the court.

(c) Require another agency authorized by law to take custody of the property and remove it to an appropriate location.

(5) The Department of Legal Affairs, any state attorney, or any state agency having jurisdiction over conduct in violation of a provision of ss. 812.012-812.037 or s. 812.081 may institute civil proceedings under this section. In any action brought under this section, the circuit court shall proceed as soon as practicable to the hearing and determination. Pending final determination, the circuit court may at any time enter such injunctions, prohibitions, or restraining orders, or take such actions, including the acceptance of satisfactory performance bonds, as the court may deem proper.

(6) Any aggrieved person may institute a proceeding under subsection (1). In such proceeding, relief shall be granted in conformity with the principles that govern the granting of injunctive relief from threatened loss or damage in other civil cases, except that no showing of special or irreparable damage to the person shall have to be made. Upon the execution of proper bond against damages for an injunction improvidently granted and a showing of immediate danger of significant loss or damage, a temporary restraining order and a preliminary injunction may be issued in any such action before a final determination on the merits.

(7) The state, including any of its agencies, instrumentalities, subdivisions, or municipalities, if it proves by clear and convincing evidence that it has been injured in any fashion by reason of any violation of the provisions of ss. 812.012-812.037 or s. 812.081, has a cause of action for threefold the actual damages sustained and, in any such action, is entitled to minimum damages in the amount of $200 and shall also recover court costs and reasonable attorney’s fees in the trial and appellate courts. In no event shall punitive damages be awarded under this section. The defendant shall be entitled to recover reasonable attorney’s fees and court costs in the trial and appellate courts upon a finding that the claimant raised a claim which was without substantial fact or legal support.

(8) A final judgment or decree rendered in favor of the state in any criminal proceeding under ss. 812.012-812.037 or s. 812.081 shall estop the defendant in any subsequent civil action or proceeding as to all matters as to which such judgment or decree would be an estoppel as between the parties.

(9) The Department of Legal Affairs may, upon timely application, intervene in any civil action or proceeding brought under subsection (6) or subsection (7) if he or she certifies that, in his or her opinion, the action or proceeding is of general public importance. In such action or proceeding, the state shall be entitled to the same relief as if the Department of Legal Affairs had instituted this action or proceeding.

(10) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a criminal or civil action or proceeding under ss. 812.012-812.037 or s. 812.081 may be commenced at any time within 5 years after the cause of action accrues; however, in a criminal proceeding under ss. 812.012-812.037 or s. 812.081, the period of limitation does not run during any time when the defendant is continuously absent from the state or is without a reasonably ascertainable place of abode or work within the state, but in no case shall this extend the period of limitation otherwise applicable by more than 1 year. If a criminal prosecution or civil action or other proceeding is brought, or intervened in, to punish, prevent, or restrain any violation of the provisions of ss. 812.012-812.037 or s. 812.081, the running of the period of limitations prescribed by this section with respect to any cause of action arising under subsection (6) or subsection (7) which is based in whole or in part upon any matter complained of in any such prosecution, action, or proceeding shall be suspended during the pendency of such prosecution, action, or proceeding and for 2 years following its termination.

(11) The application of one civil remedy under any provision of ss. 812.012-812.037 or s. 812.081 shall not preclude the application of any other remedy, civil or criminal, under ss. 812.012-812.037 or s. 812.081 or any other section of the Florida Statutes.

History.–s. 12, ch. 77-342; s. 293, ch. 79-400; s. 1, ch. 84-304; s. 2, ch. 85-34; s. 4, ch. 86-277; s. 5, ch. 92-79; s. 1238, ch. 97-102

Tampering / Witness / Evidence

914.22 Tampering with a witness, victim, or informant.–

(1) A person who knowingly uses intimidation or physical force, or threatens another person, or attempts to do so, or engages in misleading conduct toward another person, or offers pecuniary benefit or gain to another person, with intent to cause or induce any person to:

(a) Withhold testimony, or withhold a record, document, or other object, from an official investigation or official proceeding;

(b) Alter, destroy, mutilate, or conceal an object with intent to impair the integrity or availability of the object for use in an official investigation or official proceeding;

(c) Evade legal process summoning that person to appear as a witness, or to produce a record, document, or other object, in an official investigation or an official proceeding;

(d) Be absent from an official proceeding to which such person has been summoned by legal process;

(e) Hinder, delay, or prevent the communication to a law enforcement officer or judge of information relating to the commission or possible commission of an offense or a violation of a condition of probation, parole, or release pending a judicial proceeding; or

(f) Testify untruthfully in an official investigation or an official proceeding,

commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(2) Whoever intentionally harasses another person and thereby hinders, delays, prevents, or dissuades any person from:

(a) Attending or testifying in an official proceeding or cooperating in an official investigation;

(b) Reporting to a law enforcement officer or judge the commission or possible commission of an offense or a violation of a condition of probation, parole, or release pending a judicial proceeding;

(c) Arresting or seeking the arrest of another person in connection with an offense; or

(d) Causing a criminal prosecution, or a parole or probation revocation proceeding, to be sought or instituted, or from assisting in such prosecution or proceeding;

or attempts to do so, is guilty of a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(3) For the purposes of this section:

(a) An official proceeding need not be pending or about to be instituted at the time of the offense; and

(b) The testimony or the record, document, or other object need not be admissible in evidence or free of a claim of privilege.

(4) In a prosecution for an offense under this section, no state of mind need be proved with respect to the circumstance:

(a) That the official proceeding before a judge, court, grand jury, or government agency is before a judge or court of the state, a state or local grand jury, or a state agency; or

(b) That the judge is a judge of the state or that the law enforcement officer is an officer or employee of the state or a person authorized to act for or on behalf of the state or serving the state as an adviser or consultant.

History.–s. 3, ch. 72-315; s. 44, ch. 75-298; s. 14, ch. 84-363; s. 4, ch. 88-96; s. 12, ch. 91-223; s. 225, ch. 91-224; s. 1, ch. 92-281; s. 33, ch. 2004-11.

Note.–Former s. 918.14.

914.23 Retaliating against a witness, victim, or informant.–A person who knowingly engages in any conduct that causes bodily injury to another person or damages the tangible property of another person, or threatens to do so, with intent to retaliate against any person for:

(1) The attendance of a witness or party at an official proceeding, or for any testimony given or any record, document, or other object produced by a witness in an official proceeding; or

(2) Any information relating to the commission or possible commission of an offense or a violation of a condition of probation, parole, or release pending a judicial proceeding given by a person to a law enforcement officer;

or attempts to do so, is guilty of a criminal offense. If the conduct results in bodily injury, such person is guilty of a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. Otherwise, such person is guilty of a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

History.–s. 15, ch. 84-363; s. 45, ch. 87-243.

918.13 Tampering with or fabricating physical evidence.–

(1) No person, knowing that a criminal trial or proceeding or an investigation by a duly constituted prosecuting authority, law enforcement agency, grand jury or legislative committee of this state is pending or is about to be instituted, shall:

(a) Alter, destroy, conceal, or remove any record, document, or thing with the purpose to impair its verity or availability in such proceeding or investigation; or

(b) Make, present, or use any record, document, or thing, knowing it to be false.

(2) Any person who violates any provision of this section shall be guilty of a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

History.–s. 2, ch. 72-315. he third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

History.–s. 15, ch. 84-363; s. 45, ch. 87-243.

Trespass

Florida Trespass Laws

810.08 Trespass in structure or conveyance.–

(1) Whoever, without being authorized, licensed, or invited, willfully enters or remains in any structure or conveyance, or, having been authorized, licensed, or invited, is warned by the owner or lessee of the premises, or by a person authorized by the owner or lessee, to depart and refuses to do so, commits the offense of trespass in a structure or conveyance.

(2)(a) Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, trespass in a structure or conveyance is a misdemeanor of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(b) If there is a human being in the structure or conveyance at the time the offender trespassed, attempted to trespass, or was in the structure or conveyance, the trespass in a structure or conveyance is a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(c) If the offender is armed with a firearm or other dangerous weapon, or arms himself or herself with such while in the structure or conveyance, the trespass in a structure or conveyance is a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. Any owner or person authorized by the owner may, for prosecution purposes, take into custody and detain, in a reasonable manner, for a reasonable length of time, any person when he or she reasonably believes that a violation of this paragraph has been or is being committed, and he or she reasonably believes that the person to be taken into custody and detained has committed or is committing such violation. In the event a person is taken into custody, a law enforcement officer shall be called as soon as is practicable after the person has been taken into custody. The taking into custody and detention by such person, if done in compliance with the requirements of this paragraph, shall not render such person criminally or civilly liable for false arrest, false imprisonment, or unlawful detention.

(3) As used in this section, the term “person authorized” means any owner or lessee, or his or her agent, or any law enforcement officer whose department has received written authorization from the owner or lessee, or his or her agent, to communicate an order to depart the property in the case of a threat to public safety or welfare.

History.–s. 34, ch. 74-383; s. 22, ch. 75-298; s. 2, ch. 76-46; s. 1, ch. 77-132; s. 33, ch. 88-381; s. 185, ch. 91-224; s. 1233, ch. 97-102; s. 4, ch. 2000-369.

810.09 Trespass on property other than structure or conveyance.–

(1)(a) A person who, without being authorized, licensed, or invited, willfully enters upon or remains in any property other than a structure or conveyance:

1. As to which notice against entering or remaining is given, either by actual communication to the offender or by posting, fencing, or cultivation as described in s. 810.011; or

2. If the property is the unenclosed curtilage of a dwelling and the offender enters or remains with the intent to commit an offense thereon, other than the offense of trespass,

commits the offense of trespass on property other than a structure or conveyance.

(b) As used in this section, the term “unenclosed curtilage” means the unenclosed land or grounds, and any outbuildings, that are directly and intimately adjacent to and connected with the dwelling and necessary, convenient, and habitually used in connection with that dwelling.

(2)(a) Except as provided in this subsection, trespass on property other than a structure or conveyance is a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(b) If the offender defies an order to leave, personally communicated to the offender by the owner of the premises or by an authorized person, or if the offender willfully opens any door, fence, or gate or does any act that exposes animals, crops, or other property to waste, destruction, or freedom; unlawfully dumps litter on property; or trespasses on property other than a structure or conveyance, the offender commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(c) If the offender is armed with a firearm or other dangerous weapon during the commission of the offense of trespass on property other than a structure or conveyance, he or she is guilty of a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. Any owner or person authorized by the owner may, for prosecution purposes, take into custody and detain, in a reasonable manner, for a reasonable length of time, any person when he or she reasonably believes that a violation of this paragraph has been or is being committed, and that the person to be taken into custody and detained has committed or is committing such violation. In the event a person is taken into custody, a law enforcement officer shall be called as soon as is practicable after the person has been taken into custody. The taking into custody and detention in compliance with the requirements of this paragraph does not result in criminal or civil liability for false arrest, false imprisonment, or unlawful detention.

(d) The offender commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084, if the property trespassed is a construction site that is legally posted and identified in substantially the following manner: “THIS AREA IS A DESIGNATED CONSTRUCTION SITE, AND ANYONE WHO TRESPASSES ON THIS PROPERTY COMMITS A FELONY.”

(e) The offender commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084, if the property trespassed upon is commercial horticulture property and the property is legally posted and identified in substantially the following manner: “THIS AREA IS DESIGNATED COMMERCIAL PROPERTY FOR HORTICULTURE PRODUCTS, AND ANYONE WHO TRESPASSES ON THIS PROPERTY COMMITS A FELONY.”

(f) The offender commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084, if the property trespassed upon is an agricultural site for testing or research purposes that is legally posted and identified in substantially the following manner: “THIS AREA IS A DESIGNATED AGRICULTURAL SITE FOR TESTING OR RESEARCH PURPOSES, AND ANYONE WHO TRESPASSES ON THIS PROPERTY COMMITS A FELONY.”

(g) Any person who in taking or attempting to take any animal described in s. 372.001(10) or (11), or in killing, attempting to kill, or endangering any animal described in s. 585.01(13) knowingly propels or causes to be propelled any potentially lethal projectile over or across private land without authorization commits trespass, a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. For purposes of this paragraph, the term “potentially lethal projectile” includes any projectile launched from any firearm, bow, crossbow, or similar tensile device. This section shall not apply to any governmental agent or employee acting within the scope of his or her official duties.

(3) As used in this section, the term “authorized person” or “person authorized” means any owner, or his or her agent, or any law enforcement officer whose department has received written authorization from the owner, or his or her agent, to communicate an order to leave the property in the case of a threat to public safety or welfare.

History.–s. 35, ch. 74-383; s. 22, ch. 75-298; s. 3, ch. 76-46; s. 2, ch. 80-389; s. 34, ch. 88-381; s. 186, ch. 91-224; s. 2, ch. 94-263; s. 2, ch. 94-307; s. 48, ch. 96-388; s. 1818, ch. 97-102; s. 3, ch. 97-201; s. 5, ch. 2000-369; s. 2, ch. 2001-182; s. 47, ch. 2001-279; s. 36, ch. 2002-46.

810.095 Trespass on school property with firearm or other weapon prohibited.–

(1) It is a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084, for a person who is trespassing upon school property to bring onto, or to possess on, such school property, any weapon or firearm.

(2) As used in this section, “school property” means the grounds or facility of any kindergarten, elementary school, middle school, junior high school, secondary school, career center, or postsecondary school, whether public or nonpublic.

History.–s. 1, ch. 92-130; s. 62, ch. 2004-357.

810.097 Trespass upon grounds or facilities of a school; penalties; arrest.–

(1) Any person who:

(a) Does not have legitimate business on the campus or any other authorization, license, or invitation to enter or remain upon school property; or

(b) Is a student currently under suspension or expulsion;

and who enters or remains upon the campus or any other facility owned by any such school commits a trespass upon the grounds of a school facility and is guilty of a misdemeanor of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(2) Any person who enters or remains upon the campus or other facility of a school after the principal of such school, or his or her designee, has directed such person to leave such campus or facility or not to enter upon the campus or facility, commits a trespass upon the grounds of a school facility and is guilty of a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(3) The chief administrative officer of a school, or any employee thereof designated by the chief administrative officer to maintain order on such campus or facility, who has probable cause to believe that a person is trespassing upon school grounds in violation of this section may take such person into custody and detain him or her in a reasonable manner for a reasonable length of time pending arrival of a law enforcement officer. Such taking into custody and detention by an authorized person does not render that person criminally or civilly liable for false arrest, false imprisonment, or unlawful detention. If a trespasser is taken into custody, a law enforcement officer shall be called to the scene immediately after the person is taken into custody.

(4) Any law enforcement officer may arrest either on or off the premises and without warrant any person the officer has probable cause for believing has committed the offense of trespass upon the grounds of a school facility. Such arrest shall not render the law enforcement officer criminally or civilly liable for false arrest, false imprisonment, or unlawful detention.

(5) As used in this section, the term “school” means the grounds or any facility of any kindergarten, elementary school, middle school, junior high school, or secondary school, whether public or nonpublic.

History.–s. 1, ch. 68-3; s. 1, ch. 72-10; s. 1, ch. 72-221; s. 1, ch. 77-425; s. 48, ch. 79-164; s. 1, ch. 82-3; s. 27, ch. 91-224; s. 1207, ch. 95-147; s. 1, ch. 99-147.

Note.–Former s. 228.21; s. 228.091.

810.0975 School safety zones; definition; trespass prohibited; penalty.–

(1) For the purposes of this section, the term “school safety zone” means in, on, or within 500 feet of any real property owned by or leased to any public or private elementary, middle, or high school or school board and used for elementary, middle, or high school education.

(2)(a) Each principal or designee of each public or private school in this state shall notify the appropriate law enforcement agency to prohibit any person from loitering in the school safety zone who does not have legitimate business in the school safety zone or any other authorization, or license to enter or remain in the school safety zone or does not otherwise have invitee status in the designated safety zone.

(b) During the period from 1 hour prior to the start of a school session until 1 hour after the conclusion of a school session, it is unlawful for any person to enter the premises or trespass within a school safety zone or to remain on such premises or within such school safety zone when that person does not have legitimate business in the school safety zone or any other authorization, license, or invitation to enter or remain in the school safety zone. Any person who violates this subsection commits a misdemeanor of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(c) Any person who does not have legitimate business in the school safety zone or any other authorization, license, or invitation to enter or remain in the school safety zone who shall willfully fail to remove himself or herself from the school safety zone after the principal or designee, having a reasonable belief that he or she will commit a crime or is engaged in harassment or intimidation of students entering or leaving school property, requests him or her to leave the school safety zone commits a misdemeanor of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083. Nothing in this section shall be construed to abridge or infringe upon the right of any person to peaceably assemble and protest.

(3) This section does not apply to residents or persons engaged in the operation of a licensed commercial business within the school safety zone.

History.–s. 1, ch. 2002-192.

Insurance Fraud

817.22 Making false invoice to defraud insurer.–If the owner of a ship or vessel or of property laden or pretended to be laden on board the same, or if any other person concerned in the lading or fitting out of a ship or vessel, makes out or exhibits, or causes to be made out or exhibited, a false or fraudulent invoice, bill of lading, bill or parcels or other false estimates of any goods or property laden or pretended to be laden, on board such ship or vessel, with intent to injure and defraud an insurer of such ship, vessel or property, or of any part thereof, he or she shall be guilty of a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

History.–s. 72, ch. 1637, 1868; RS 2471; GS 3332; RGS 5172; CGL 7275; s. 7, ch. 22858, 1945; s. 855, ch. 71-136; s. 1250, ch. 97-102.

817.23 Making false affidavit to defraud insurer.–If a master, other officer, or mariner of a ship or vessel, makes or causes to be made, or swears to any false affidavit or protest, or if an owner or other person concerned in such ship or vessel or in the goods and property laden on board the same, procures any such false affidavits or protest to be made, or exhibits the same, with intent to injure, deceive or defraud an insurer of such ship or vessel, or of any goods or property laden on board the same, he or she shall be guilty of a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

History.–s. 73, ch. 1637, 1868; RS 2472; GS 3333; RGS 5173; CGL 7276; s. 856, ch. 71-136; s. 1251, ch. 97-102.

817.233 Burning to defraud the insurer.–Any person who willfully and with intent to injure or defraud the insurer sets fire to or burns or attempts so to do or who causes to be burned or who aids, counsels or procures the burning of any building, structure or personal property, of whatsoever class or character, whether the property of himself or herself or of another, which shall at the time be insured by any person against loss or damage by fire, shall be guilty of a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

History.–s. 1, ch. 15602, 1931; CGL 1936 Supp. 7208(12); s. 791, ch. 71-136; s. 65, ch. 74-383; s. 1252, ch. 97-102.

Note.–Former s. 806.06.

817.234 False and fraudulent insurance claims.–

(1)(a) A person commits insurance fraud punishable as provided in subsection (11) if that person, with the intent to injure, defraud, or deceive any insurer:

1. Presents or causes to be presented any written or oral statement as part of, or in support of, a claim for payment or other benefit pursuant to an insurance policy or a health maintenance organization subscriber or provider contract, knowing that such statement contains any false, incomplete, or misleading information concerning any fact or thing material to such claim;

2. Prepares or makes any written or oral statement that is intended to be presented to any insurer in connection with, or in support of, any claim for payment or other benefit pursuant to an insurance policy or a health maintenance organization subscriber or provider contract, knowing that such statement contains any false, incomplete, or misleading information concerning any fact or thing material to such claim; or

3.a. Knowingly presents, causes to be presented, or prepares or makes with knowledge or belief that it will be presented to any insurer, purported insurer, servicing corporation, insurance broker, or insurance agent, or any employee or agent thereof, any false, incomplete, or misleading information or written or oral statement as part of, or in support of, an application for the issuance of, or the rating of, any insurance policy, or a health maintenance organization subscriber or provider contract; or

b. Who knowingly conceals information concerning any fact material to such application.

(b) All claims and application forms shall contain a statement that is approved by the Office of Insurance Regulation of the Financial Services Commission which clearly states in substance the following: “Any person who knowingly and with intent to injure, defraud, or deceive any insurer files a statement of claim or an application containing any false, incomplete, or misleading information is guilty of a felony of the third degree.” This paragraph shall not apply to reinsurance contracts, reinsurance agreements, or reinsurance claims transactions.

(2)(a) Any physician licensed under chapter 458, osteopathic physician licensed under chapter 459, chiropractic physician licensed under chapter 460, or other practitioner licensed under the laws of this state who knowingly and willfully assists, conspires with, or urges any insured party to fraudulently violate any of the provisions of this section or part XI of chapter 627, or any person who, due to such assistance, conspiracy, or urging by said physician, osteopathic physician, chiropractic physician, or practitioner, knowingly and willfully benefits from the proceeds derived from the use of such fraud, commits insurance fraud, punishable as provided in subsection (11). In the event that a physician, osteopathic physician, chiropractic physician, or practitioner is adjudicated guilty of a violation of this section, the Board of Medicine as set forth in chapter 458, the Board of Osteopathic Medicine as set forth in chapter 459, the Board of Chiropractic Medicine as set forth in chapter 460, or other appropriate licensing authority shall hold an administrative hearing to consider the imposition of administrative sanctions as provided by law against said physician, osteopathic physician, chiropractic physician, or practitioner.

(b) In addition to any other provision of law, systematic upcoding by a provider, as defined in s. 641.19(14), with the intent to obtain reimbursement otherwise not due from an insurer is punishable as provided in s. 641.52(5).

(3) Any attorney who knowingly and willfully assists, conspires with, or urges any claimant to fraudulently violate any of the provisions of this section or part XI of chapter 627, or any person who, due to such assistance, conspiracy, or urging on such attorney’s part, knowingly and willfully benefits from the proceeds derived from the use of such fraud, commits insurance fraud, punishable as provided in subsection (11).

(4) Any person or governmental unit licensed under chapter 395 to maintain or operate a hospital, and any administrator or employee of any such hospital, who knowingly and willfully allows the use of the facilities of said hospital by an insured party in a scheme or conspiracy to fraudulently violate any of the provisions of this section or part XI of chapter 627 commits insurance fraud, punishable as provided in subsection (11). Any adjudication of guilt for a violation of this subsection, or the use of business practices demonstrating a pattern indicating that the spirit of the law set forth in this section or part XI of chapter 627 is not being followed, shall be grounds for suspension or revocation of the license to operate the hospital or the imposition of an administrative penalty of up to $5,000 by the licensing agency, as set forth in chapter 395.

(5) Any insurer damaged as a result of a violation of any provision of this section when there has been a criminal adjudication of guilt shall have a cause of action to recover compensatory damages, plus all reasonable investigation and litigation expenses, including attorneys’ fees, at the trial and appellate courts.

(6) For the purposes of this section, “statement” includes, but is not limited to, any notice, statement, proof of loss, bill of lading, invoice, account, estimate of property damages, bill for services, diagnosis, prescription, hospital or doctor records, X ray, test result, or other evidence of loss, injury, or expense.

(7)(a) It shall constitute a material omission and insurance fraud for any physician or other provider, other than a hospital, to engage in a general business practice of billing amounts as its usual and customary charge, if such provider has agreed with the patient or intends to waive deductibles or copayments, or does not for any other reason intend to collect the total amount of such charge. With respect to a determination as to whether a physician or other provider has engaged in such general business practice, consideration shall be given to evidence of whether the physician or other provider made a good faith attempt to collect such deductible or copayment. This paragraph does not apply to physicians or other providers who waive deductibles or copayments or reduce their bills as part of a bodily injury settlement or verdict.

(b) The provisions of this section shall also apply as to any insurer or adjusting firm or its agents or representatives who, with intent, injure, defraud, or deceive any claimant with regard to any claim. The claimant shall have the right to recover the damages provided in this section.

(c) An insurer, or any person acting at the direction of or on behalf of an insurer, may not change an opinion in a mental or physical report prepared under s. 627.736(7) or direct the physician preparing the report to change such opinion; however, this provision does not preclude the insurer from calling to the attention of the physician errors of fact in the report based upon information in the claim file. Any person who violates this paragraph commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(8)(a) It is unlawful for any person intending to defraud any other person to solicit or cause to be solicited any business from a person involved in a motor vehicle accident for the purpose of making, adjusting, or settling motor vehicle tort claims or claims for personal injury protection benefits required by s. 627.736. Any person who violates the provisions of this paragraph commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. A person who is convicted of a violation of this subsection shall be sentenced to a minimum term of imprisonment of 2 years.

(b) A person may not solicit or cause to be solicited any business from a person involved in a motor vehicle accident by any means of communication other than advertising directed to the public for the purpose of making motor vehicle tort claims or claims for personal injury protection benefits required by s. 627.736, within 60 days after the occurrence of the motor vehicle accident. Any person who violates this paragraph commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(c) A lawyer, health care practitioner as defined in s. 456.001, or owner or medical director of a clinic required to be licensed pursuant to s. 400.9905 may not, at any time after 60 days have elapsed from the occurrence of a motor vehicle accident, solicit or cause to be solicited any business from a person involved in a motor vehicle accident by means of in person or telephone contact at the person’s residence, for the purpose of making motor vehicle tort claims or claims for personal injury protection benefits required by s. 627.736. Any person who violates this paragraph commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(d) Charges for any services rendered by any person who violates this subsection in regard to the person for whom such services were rendered are noncompensable and unenforceable as a matter of law.

(9) A person may not organize, plan, or knowingly participate in an intentional motor vehicle crash for the purpose of making motor vehicle tort claims or claims for personal injury protection benefits as required by s. 627.736. Any person who violates this subsection commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. A person who is convicted of a violation of this subsection shall be sentenced to a minimum term of imprisonment of 2 years.

(10) As used in this section, the term “insurer” means any insurer, health maintenance organization, self-insurer, self-insurance fund, or other similar entity or person regulated under chapter 440 or chapter 641 or by the Office of Insurance Regulation under the Florida Insurance Code.

(11) If the value of any property involved in a violation of this section:

(a) Is less than $20,000, the offender commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(b) Is $20,000 or more, but less than $100,000, the offender commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(c) Is $100,000 or more, the offender commits a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(12) As used in this section:

(a) “Property” means property as defined in s. 812.012.

(b) “Value” means value as defined in s. 812.012.

History.–s. 7, ch. 76-266; s. 36, ch. 77-468; s. 3, ch. 78-258; s. 1, ch. 79-81; s. 487, ch. 81-259; s. 9, ch. 83-28; s. 24, ch. 88-370; s. 41, ch. 91-110; s. 123, ch. 92-149; s. 8, ch. 95-340; s. 1253, ch. 97-102; s. 65, ch. 97-264; s. 298, ch. 98-166; s. 6, ch. 99-204; s. 11, ch. 2000-252; s. 7, ch. 2001-271; s. 1909, ch. 2003-261; s. 10, ch. 2003-411.

Note.–Former s. 627.7375.

817.2341 False or misleading statements or supporting documents; penalty.–

(1) Any person who willfully files with the department or office, or who willfully signs for filing with the department or office, a materially false or materially misleading financial statement or document in support of such statement required by law or rule, with intent to deceive and with knowledge that the statement or document is materially false or materially misleading, commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(2)(a) Any person who makes a false entry of a material fact in any book, report, or statement relating to a transaction of an insurer or entity organized pursuant to chapter 624 or chapter 641, intending to deceive any person about the financial condition or solvency of the insurer or entity, commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(b) If the false entry of a material fact is made with the intent to deceive any person as to the impairment of capital, as defined in s. 631.011(12), of the insurer or entity or is the significant cause of the insurer or entity being placed in conservation, rehabilitation, or liquidation by a court, the person commits a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(3)(a) Any person who knowingly makes a material false statement or report to the department or office or any agent of the department or office, or knowingly and materially overvalues any property in any document or report prepared to be presented to the department or office or any agent of the department or office, commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(b) If the material false statement or report or the material overvaluation is made with the intent to deceive any person as to the impairment of capital, as defined in s. 631.011(12), of an insurer or entity organized pursuant to chapter 624 or chapter 641, or is the significant cause of the insurer or entity being placed in receivership by a court, the person commits a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(4) As used in this section, the term:

(a) “Department” means the Department of Financial Services.

(b) “Office” means the Office of Insurance Regulation of the Financial Services Commission.

History.–s. 18, ch. 2002-25; s. 1910, ch. 2003-261.

817.235 Personal property; removing or altering identification marks.–

(1) Except as otherwise provided by law, any person who, with intent to prevent identification by the true owner, removes, erases, defaces, or otherwise alters any serial number or other mark of identification placed on any item of personal property by the manufacturer or owner thereof is guilty of a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(2) Any person who possesses any item of personal property with the knowledge that the serial number or other mark of identification placed thereon by the manufacturer or owner thereof has been removed, erased, defaced, or otherwise altered with intent to prevent identification by the true owner is guilty of a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

History.–s. 1, ch. 74-6.

817.236 False and fraudulent motor vehicle insurance application.–Any person who, with intent to injure, defraud, or deceive any motor vehicle insurer, including any statutorily created underwriting association or pool of motor vehicle insurers, presents or causes to be presented any written application, or written statement in support thereof, for motor vehicle insurance knowing that the application or statement contains any false, incomplete, or misleading information concerning any fact or matter material to the application commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

History.–s. 49, ch. 90-119; s. 11, ch. 2003-411.

817.2361 False or fraudulent motor vehicle insurance card.–Any person who, with intent to deceive any other person, creates, markets, or presents a false or fraudulent motor vehicle insurance card commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

History.–s. 12, ch. 2003-411

Boating Under the Influence

327.35 Boating under the influence; penalties; “designated drivers”.–

(1) A person is guilty of the offense of boating under the influence and is subject to punishment as provided in subsection (2) if the person is operating a vessel within this state and:

(a) The person is under the influence of alcoholic beverages, any chemical substance set forth in s. 877.111, or any substance controlled under chapter 893, when affected to the extent that the person’s normal faculties are impaired;

(b) The person has a blood-alcohol level of 0.08 or more grams of alcohol per 100 milliliters of blood; or

(c) The person has a breath-alcohol level of 0.08 or more grams of alcohol per 210 liters of breath.

(2)(a) Except as provided in paragraph (b), subsection (3), or subsection (4), any person who is convicted of a violation of subsection (1) shall be punished:

1. By a fine of:

a. Not less than $250 or more than $500 for a first conviction.

b. Not less than $500 or more than $1,000 for a second conviction; and

2. By imprisonment for:

a. Not more than 6 months for a first conviction.

b. Not more than 9 months for a second conviction.

(b)1. Any person who is convicted of a third violation of this section for an offense that occurs within 10 years after a prior conviction for a violation of this section commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

2. Any person who is convicted of a third violation of this section for an offense that occurs more than 10 years after the date of a prior conviction for a violation of this section shall be punished by a fine of not less than $1,000 or more than $2,500 and by imprisonment for not more than 12 months.

3. Any person who is convicted of a fourth or subsequent violation of this section, regardless of when any prior conviction for a violation of this section occurred, commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

However, the fine imposed for such fourth or subsequent violation may not be less than $1,000.

(3) Any person:

(a) Who is in violation of subsection (1);

(b) Who operates a vessel; and

(c) Who, by reason of such operation, causes or contributes to causing:

1. Damage to the property or person of another commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

2. Serious bodily injury to another, as defined in s. 327.353, commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

3. The death of any human being commits BUI manslaughter, and commits:

a. A felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

b. A felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084, if:

(I) At the time of the accident, the person knew, or should have known, that the accident occurred; and

(II) The person failed to give information and render aid as required by s. 327.30.

This sub-subparagraph does not require that the person knew that the accident resulted in injury or death.

(4) Any person who is convicted of a violation of subsection (1) and who has a blood-alcohol level or breath-alcohol level of 0.20 or higher, or any person who is convicted of a violation of subsection (1) and who at the time of the offense was accompanied in the vessel by a person under the age of 18 years, shall be punished:

(a) By a fine of:

1. Not less than $500 or more than $1,000 for a first conviction.

2. Not less than $1,000 or more than $2,000 for a second conviction.

3. Not less than $2,000 for a third or subsequent conviction.

(b) By imprisonment for:

1. Not more than 9 months for a first conviction.

2. Not more than 12 months for a second conviction.

For the purposes of this subsection, only the instant offense is required to be a violation of subsection (1) by a person who has a blood-alcohol level or breath-alcohol level of 0.20 or higher.

(5) In addition to any sentence or fine, the court shall place any offender convicted of violating this section on monthly reporting probation and shall require attendance at a substance abuse course specified by the court; and the agency conducting the course may refer the offender to an authorized service provider for substance abuse evaluation and treatment, in addition to any sentence or fine imposed under this section. The offender shall assume reasonable costs for such education, evaluation, and treatment, with completion of all such education, evaluation, and treatment being a condition of reporting probation. Treatment resulting from a psychosocial evaluation may not be waived without a supporting psychosocial evaluation conducted by an agency appointed by the court and with access to the original evaluation. The offender shall bear the cost of this procedure. The term “substance abuse” means the abuse of alcohol or any substance named or described in Schedules I-V of s. 893.03.

(6) With respect to any person convicted of a violation of subsection (1), regardless of any other penalty imposed:

(a) For the first conviction, the court shall place the defendant on probation for a period not to exceed 1 year and, as a condition of such probation, shall order the defendant to participate in public service or a community work project for a minimum of 50 hours. The court must also, as a condition of probation, order the impoundment or immobilization of the vessel that was operated by or in the actual control of the defendant or any one vehicle registered in the defendant’s name at the time of impoundment or immobilization, for a period of 10 days or for the unexpired term of any lease or rental agreement that expires within 10 days. The impoundment or immobilization must not occur concurrently with the incarceration of the defendant. The impoundment or immobilization order may be dismissed in accordance with paragraph (e) or paragraph (f). The total period of probation and incarceration may not exceed 1 year.

(b) For the second conviction for an offense that occurs within a period of 5 years after the date of a prior conviction for violation of this section, the court shall order imprisonment for not less than 10 days. The court must also, as a condition of probation, order the impoundment or immobilization of the vessel that was operated by or in the actual control of the defendant or any one vehicle registered in the defendant’s name at the time of impoundment or immobilization, for a period of 30 days or for the unexpired term of any lease or rental agreement that expires within 30 days. The impoundment or immobilization must not occur concurrently with the incarceration of the defendant. The impoundment or immobilization order may be dismissed in accordance with paragraph (e) or paragraph (f). At least 48 hours of confinement must be consecutive.

(c) For the third or subsequent conviction for an offense that occurs within a period of 10 years after the date of a prior conviction for violation of this section, the court shall order imprisonment for not less than 30 days. The court must also, as a condition of probation, order the impoundment or immobilization of the vessel that was operated by or in the actual control of the defendant or any one vehicle registered in the defendant’s name at the time of impoundment or immobilization, for a period of 90 days or for the unexpired term of any lease or rental agreement that expires within 90 days. The impoundment or immobilization must not occur concurrently with the incarceration of the defendant. The impoundment or immobilization order may be dismissed in accordance with paragraph (e) or paragraph (f). At least 48 hours of confinement must be consecutive.

(d) The court must at the time of sentencing the defendant issue an order for the impoundment or immobilization of a vessel. Within 7 business days after the date that the court issues the order of impoundment, and once again 30 business days before the actual impoundment or immobilization of the vessel, the clerk of the court must send notice by certified mail, return receipt requested, to the registered owner of each vessel, if the registered owner is a person other than the defendant, and to each person of record claiming a lien against the vessel.

(e) A person who owns but was not operating the vessel when the offense occurred may submit to the court a police report indicating that the vessel was stolen at the time of the offense or documentation of having purchased the vessel after the offense was committed from an entity other than the defendant or the defendant’s agent. If the court finds that the vessel was stolen or that the sale was not made to circumvent the order and allow the defendant continued access to the vessel, the order must be dismissed and the owner of the vessel will incur no costs. If the court denies the request to dismiss the order of impoundment or immobilization, the petitioner may request an evidentiary hearing.

(f) A person who owns but was not operating the vessel when the offense occurred, and whose vessel was stolen or who purchased the vessel after the offense was committed directly from the defendant or the defendant’s agent, may request an evidentiary hearing to determine whether the impoundment or immobilization should occur. If the court finds that either the vessel was stolen or the purchase was made without knowledge of the offense, that the purchaser had no relationship to the defendant other than through the transaction, and that such purchase would not circumvent the order and allow the defendant continued access to the vessel, the order must be dismissed and the owner of the vessel will incur no costs.

(g) All costs and fees for the impoundment or immobilization, including the cost of notification, must be paid by the owner of the vessel or, if the vessel is leased or rented, by the person leasing or renting the vessel, unless the impoundment or immobilization order is dismissed.

(h) The person who owns a vessel that is impounded or immobilized under this paragraph, or a person who has a lien of record against such a vessel and who has not requested a review of the impoundment pursuant to paragraph (e) or paragraph (f), may, within 10 days after the date that person has knowledge of the location of the vessel, file a complaint in the county in which the owner resides to determine whether the vessel was wrongfully taken or withheld from the owner or lienholder. Upon the filing of a complaint, the owner or lienholder may have the vessel released by posting with the court a bond or other adequate security equal to the amount of the costs and fees for impoundment or immobilization, including towing or storage, to ensure the payment of the costs and fees if the owner or lienholder does not prevail. When the bond is posted and the fee is paid as set forth in s. 28.24, the clerk of the court shall issue a certificate releasing the vessel. At the time of release, after reasonable inspection, the owner or lienholder must give a receipt to the towing or storage company indicating any loss or damage to the vessel or to the contents of the vessel.

(i) A defendant, in the court’s discretion, may be required to serve all or any portion of a term of imprisonment to which the defendant has been sentenced pursuant to this section in a residential alcoholism treatment program or a residential drug abuse treatment program. Any time spent in such a program must be credited by the court toward the term of imprisonment.

For the purposes of this section, any conviction for a violation of s. 316.193, a previous conviction for the violation of former s. 316.1931, former s. 860.01, or former s. 316.028, or a previous conviction outside this state for driving under the influence, driving while intoxicated, driving with an unlawful blood-alcohol level, driving with an unlawful breath-alcohol level, or any other similar alcohol-related or drug-related traffic offense, is also considered a previous conviction for violation of this section.

(7) A conviction under this section does not bar any civil suit for damages against the person so convicted.

(8) A person who is arrested for a violation of this section may not be released from custody:

(a) Until the person is no longer under the influence of alcoholic beverages, any chemical substance set forth in s. 877.111, or any substance controlled under chapter 893 and affected to the extent that his or her normal faculties are impaired;

(b) Until the person’s blood-alcohol level or breath-alcohol level is less than 0.05; or

(c) Until 8 hours have elapsed from the time the person was arrested.

(9) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, for any person convicted of a violation of subsection (1), in addition to the fines set forth in subsections (2) and (4), an additional fine of $60 shall be assessed and collected in the same manner as the fines set forth in subsections (2) and (4). All fines collected under this subsection shall be remitted by the clerk of the court to the Department of Revenue for deposit into the Brain and Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Trust Fund and used for the purposes set forth in s. 381.79, after 5 percent is deducted therefrom by the clerk of the court for administrative costs.

(10) It is the intent of the Legislature to encourage boaters to have a “designated driver” who does not consume alcoholic beverages.

History.–s. 2, ch. 59-400; s. 5, ch. 63-105; s. 1, ch. 65-361; s. 1, ch. 71-81; s. 22, ch. 73-331; s. 5, ch. 83-187; s. 7, ch. 84-188; s. 7, ch. 91-255; s. 8, ch. 93-124; s. 456, ch. 95-148; s. 19, ch. 96-330; s. 98, ch. 97-264; s. 49, ch. 97-271; s. 10, ch. 98-308; s. 14, ch. 98-324; s. 47, ch. 2000-152; s. 11, ch. 2000-320; s. 28, ch. 2001-122; s. 4, ch. 2002-78; s. 6, ch. 2002-263.

Note.–Former s. 371.51.

327.352 Tests for alcohol, chemical substances, or controlled substances; implied consent; refusal.–

(1)(a)1. The Legislature declares that the operation of a vessel is a privilege that must be exercised in a reasonable manner. In order to protect the public health and safety, it is essential that a lawful and effective means of reducing the incidence of boating while impaired or intoxicated be established. Therefore, any person who accepts the privilege extended by the laws of this state of operating a vessel within this state is, by so operating such vessel, deemed to have given his or her consent to submit to an approved chemical test or physical test including, but not limited to, an infrared light test of his or her breath for the purpose of determining the alcoholic content of his or her blood or breath if the person is lawfully arrested for any offense allegedly committed while the person was operating a vessel while under the influence of alcoholic beverages. The chemical or physical breath test must be incidental to a lawful arrest and administered at the request of a law enforcement officer who has reasonable cause to believe such person was operating the vessel within this state while under the influence of alcoholic beverages. The administration of a breath test does not preclude the administration of another type of test. The person shall be told that his or her failure to submit to any lawful test of his or her breath will result in a civil penalty of $500, and shall also be told that if he or she refuses to submit to a lawful test of his or her breath and he or she has been previously fined for refusal to submit to any lawful test of his or her breath, urine, or blood, he or she commits a misdemeanor in addition to any other penalties. The refusal to submit to a chemical or physical breath test upon the request of a law enforcement officer as provided in this section is admissible into evidence in any criminal proceeding.

2. Any person who accepts the privilege extended by the laws of this state of operating a vessel within this state is, by so operating such vessel, deemed to have given his or her consent to submit to a urine test for the purpose of detecting the presence of chemical substances as set forth in s. 877.111 or controlled substances if the person is lawfully arrested for any offense allegedly committed while the person was operating a vessel while under the influence of chemical substances or controlled substances. The urine test must be incidental to a lawful arrest and administered at a detention facility or any other facility, mobile or otherwise, which is equipped to administer such tests at the request of a law enforcement officer who has reasonable cause to believe such person was operating a vessel within this state while under the influence of chemical substances or controlled substances. The urine test shall be administered at a detention facility or any other facility, mobile or otherwise, which is equipped to administer such test in a reasonable manner that will ensure the accuracy of the specimen and maintain the privacy of the individual involved. The administration of a urine test does not preclude the administration of another type of test. The person shall be told that his or her failure to submit to any lawful test of his or her urine will result in a civil penalty of $500, and shall also be told that if he or she refuses to submit to a lawful test of his or her urine and he or she has been previously fined for refusal to submit to any lawful test of his or her breath, urine, or blood, he or she commits a misdemeanor in addition to any other penalties. The refusal to submit to a urine test upon the request of a law enforcement officer as provided in this section is admissible into evidence in any criminal proceeding.

(b)1. The blood-alcohol level must be based upon grams of alcohol per 100 milliliters of blood. The breath-alcohol level must be based upon grams of alcohol per 210 liters of breath.

2. An analysis of a person’s breath, in order to be considered valid under this section, must have been performed substantially according to methods approved by the Department of Law Enforcement. Any insubstantial differences between approved techniques and actual testing procedures in any individual case do not render the test or test results invalid.

3. The Alcohol Testing Program within the Department of Law Enforcement is responsible for the regulation of the operation, inspection, and registration of breath test instruments utilized under the driving and boating under the influence provisions and related provisions located in this chapter and chapters 316 and 322. The program is responsible for the regulation of the individuals who operate, inspect, and instruct on the breath test instruments utilized in the driving and boating under the influence provisions and related provisions located in this chapter and chapters 316 and 322. The program is further responsible for the regulation of blood analysts who conduct blood testing to be utilized under the driving and boating under the influence provisions and related provisions located in this chapter and chapters 316 and 322. The program shall:

a. Establish uniform criteria for the issuance of permits to breath test operators, agency inspectors, instructors, blood analysts, and instruments.

b. Have the authority to permit breath test operators, agency inspectors, instructors, blood analysts, and instruments.

c. Have the authority to discipline and suspend, revoke, or renew the permits of breath test operators, agency inspectors, instructors, blood analysts, and instruments.

d. Establish uniform requirements for instruction and curricula for the operation and inspection of approved instruments.

e. Have the authority to specify one approved curriculum for the operation and inspection of approved instruments.

f. Establish a procedure for the approval of breath test operator and agency inspector classes.

g. Have the authority to approve or disapprove breath test instruments and accompanying paraphernalia for use pursuant to the driving and boating under the influence provisions and related provisions located in this chapter and chapters 316 and 322.

h. With the approval of the executive director of the Department of Law Enforcement, make and enter into contracts and agreements with other agencies, organizations, associations, corporations, individuals, or federal agencies as are necessary, expedient, or incidental to the performance of duties.

i. Issue final orders which include findings of fact and conclusions of law and which constitute final agency action for the purpose of chapter 120.

j. Enforce compliance with the provisions of this section through civil or administrative proceedings.

k. Make recommendations concerning any matter within the purview of this section, this chapter, chapter 316, or chapter 322.

l. Promulgate rules for the administration and implementation of this section, including definitions of terms.

m. Consult and cooperate with other entities for the purpose of implementing the mandates of this section.

n. Have the authority to approve the type of blood test utilized under the driving and boating under the influence provisions and related provisions located in this chapter and chapters 316 and 322.

o. Have the authority to specify techniques and methods for breath alcohol testing and blood testing utilized under the driving and boating under the influence provisions and related provisions located in this chapter and chapters 316 and 322.

p. Have the authority to approve repair facilities for the approved breath test instruments, including the authority to set criteria for approval.

Nothing in this section shall be construed to supersede provisions in this chapter and chapters 316 and 322. The specifications in this section are derived from the power and authority previously and currently possessed by the Department of Law Enforcement and are enumerated to conform with the mandates of chapter 99-379, Laws of Florida.

(c) Any person who accepts the privilege extended by the laws of this state of operating a vessel within this state is, by operating such vessel, deemed to have given his or her consent to submit to an approved blood test for the purpose of determining the alcoholic content of the blood or a blood test for the purpose of determining the presence of chemical substances or controlled substances as provided in this section if there is reasonable cause to believe the person was operating a vessel while under the influence of alcoholic beverages or chemical or controlled substances and the person appears for treatment at a hospital, clinic, or other medical facility and the administration of a breath or urine test is impractical or impossible. As used in this paragraph, the term “other medical facility” includes an ambulance or other medical emergency vehicle. The blood test shall be performed in a reasonable manner. Any person who is incapable of refusal by reason of unconsciousness or other mental or physical condition is deemed not to have withdrawn his or her consent to such test. Any person who is capable of refusal shall be told that his or her failure to submit to such a blood test will result in a civil penalty of $500 and that a refusal to submit to a lawful test of his or her blood, if he or she has previously been fined for refusal to submit to any lawful test of his or her breath, urine, or blood, is a misdemeanor. The refusal to submit to a blood test upon the request of a law enforcement officer shall be admissible in evidence in any criminal proceeding.

(d) If the arresting officer does not request a chemical or physical breath test of the person arrested for any offense allegedly committed while the person was operating a vessel while under the influence of alcoholic beverages or controlled substances, the person may request the arresting officer to have a chemical or physical test made of the arrested person’s breath or a test of the urine or blood for the purpose of determining the alcoholic content of the person’s blood or breath or the presence of chemical substances or controlled substances; and, if so requested, the arresting officer shall have the test performed.

(e)1. The tests determining the weight of alcohol in the defendant’s blood or breath shall be administered at the request of a law enforcement officer substantially in accordance with rules of the Department of Law Enforcement. However, the failure of a law enforcement officer to request the withdrawal of blood does not affect the admissibility of a test of blood withdrawn for medical purposes.

2. Only a physician, certified paramedic, registered nurse, licensed practical nurse, other personnel authorized by a hospital to draw blood, or duly licensed clinical laboratory director, supervisor, technologist, or technician, acting at the request of a law enforcement officer, may withdraw blood for the purpose of determining its alcoholic content or the presence of chemical substances or controlled substances therein. However, the failure of a law enforcement officer to request the withdrawal of blood does not affect the admissibility of a test of blood withdrawn for medical purposes.

3. The person tested may, at his or her own expense, have a physician, registered nurse, other personnel authorized by a hospital to draw blood, or duly licensed clinical laboratory director, supervisor, technologist, or technician, or other person of his or her own choosing administer an independent test in addition to the test administered at the direction of the law enforcement officer for the purpose of determining the amount of alcohol in the person’s blood or breath or the presence of chemical substances or controlled substances at the time alleged, as shown by chemical analysis of his or her blood or urine, or by chemical or physical test of his or her breath. The failure or inability to obtain an independent test by a person does not preclude the admissibility in evidence of the test taken at the direction of the law enforcement officer. The law enforcement officer shall not interfere with the person’s opportunity to obtain the independent test and shall provide the person with timely telephone access to secure the test, but the burden is on the person to arrange and secure the test at the person’s own expense.

4. Upon the request of the person tested, full information concerning the test taken at the direction of the law enforcement officer shall be made available to the person or his or her attorney.

5. A hospital, clinical laboratory, medical clinic, or similar medical institution or physician, certified paramedic, registered nurse, licensed practical nurse, other personnel authorized by a hospital to draw blood, or duly licensed clinical laboratory director, supervisor, technologist, or technician, or other person assisting a law enforcement officer does not incur any civil or criminal liability as a result of the withdrawal or analysis of a blood or urine specimen, or the chemical or physical test of a person’s breath pursuant to accepted medical standards when requested by a law enforcement officer, regardless of whether or not the subject resisted administration of the test.

(2) The results of any test administered pursuant to this section for the purpose of detecting the presence of any controlled substance shall not be admissible as evidence in a criminal prosecution for the possession of a controlled substance.

(3) Notwithstanding any provision of law pertaining to the confidentiality of hospital records or other medical records, information relating to the alcoholic content of the blood or breath or the presence of chemical substances or controlled substances in the blood obtained pursuant to this section shall be released to a court, prosecuting attorney, defense attorney, or law enforcement officer in connection with an alleged violation of s. 327.35 upon request for such information.

History.–s. 2, ch. 84-188; s. 3, ch. 88-82; s. 3, ch. 88-133; s. 8, ch. 91-255; s. 458, ch. 95-148; s. 21, ch. 96-330; s. 5, ch. 98-308; s. 3, ch. 2000-226; s. 7, ch. 2002-263; s. 2, ch. 2003-54.

327.35215 Penalty for failure to submit to test.–

(1) A person who is lawfully arrested for an alleged violation of s. 327.35 and who refuses to submit to a blood test, breath test, or urine test pursuant to s. 327.352 is subject to a civil penalty of $500.

(2) When a person refuses to submit to a blood test, breath test, or urine test pursuant to s. 327.352, a law enforcement officer who is authorized to make arrests for violations of this chapter shall file with the clerk of the court, on a form provided by the department, a certified statement that probable cause existed to arrest the person for a violation of s. 327.35 and that the person refused to submit to a test as required by s. 327.352. Along with the statement, the officer must also submit a sworn statement on a form provided by the department that the person has been advised of both the penalties for failure to submit to the blood, breath, or urine test and the procedure for requesting a hearing.

(3) A person who has been advised of the penalties pursuant to subsection (2) may, within 30 days afterwards, request a hearing before a county court judge. A request for a hearing tolls the period for payment of the civil penalty, and, if assessment of the civil penalty is sustained by the hearing and any subsequent judicial review, the civil penalty must be paid within 30 days after final disposition. The clerk of the court shall notify the department of the final disposition of all actions filed under this section.

(4) It is unlawful for any person who has not paid a civil penalty imposed pursuant to this section, or who has not requested a hearing with respect to the civil penalty, within 30 calendar days after receipt of notice of the civil penalty to operate a vessel upon the waters of this state. Violation of this subsection is a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(5) Moneys collected by the clerk of the court pursuant to this section shall be disposed of in the following manner:

(a) If the arresting officer was employed or appointed by a state law enforcement agency, the moneys shall be deposited into the Marine Resources Conservation Trust Fund and used to directly enhance the ability of law enforcement officers to perform law enforcement functions on state waters.

(b) If the arresting officer was employed or appointed by a county or municipal law enforcement agency, the moneys shall be deposited into the law enforcement trust fund of that agency.

History.–s. 6, ch. 98-308; s. 23, ch. 99-245; s. 3, ch. 2004-74.

327.353 Blood test for impairment or intoxication in cases of death or serious bodily injury; right to use reasonable force.–

(1)(a) If a law enforcement officer has probable cause to believe that a vessel operated by a person under the influence of alcoholic beverages, any chemical substances, or any controlled substances has caused the death or serious bodily injury of a human being, a law enforcement officer shall require the person operating or in actual physical control of the vessel to submit to a test of the person’s blood for the purpose of determining the alcoholic content thereof or the presence of chemical substances as set forth in s. 877.111 or any substance controlled under chapter 893. The law enforcement officer may use reasonable force if necessary to require the person to submit to the administration of the blood test. The blood test shall be performed in a reasonable manner. Notwithstanding s. 327.352, the testing required by this paragraph need not be incidental to a lawful arrest of the person.

(b) The term “serious bodily injury” means an injury to any person, including the operator, which consists of a physical condition that creates a substantial risk of death, serious personal disfigurement, or protracted loss or impairment of the function of any bodily member or organ.

(2)(a) Only a physician, certified paramedic, registered nurse, licensed practical nurse, other personnel authorized by a hospital to draw blood, or duly licensed clinical laboratory director, supervisor, technologist, or technician, acting at the request of a law enforcement officer, may withdraw blood for the purpose of determining the alcoholic content thereof or the presence of chemical substances or controlled substances therein. However, the failure of a law enforcement officer to request the withdrawal of blood shall not affect the admissibility of a test of blood withdrawn for medical purposes.

(b) A chemical analysis of the person’s blood to determine the alcoholic content thereof must have been performed substantially in accordance with methods approved by the Department of Law Enforcement and by an individual possessing a valid permit issued by the department for this purpose. The Department of Law Enforcement may approve satisfactory techniques or methods, ascertain the qualifications and competence of individuals to conduct such analyses, and issue permits that are subject to termination or revocation at the discretion of the department. Insubstantial differences between approved methods or techniques and actual testing procedures, or any insubstantial defects concerning the permit issued by the department, in any individual case, do not render the test or test results invalid.

(c) A hospital, clinical laboratory, medical clinic, or similar medical institution or physician, certified paramedic, registered nurse, licensed practical nurse, other personnel authorized by a hospital to draw blood, or duly licensed clinical laboratory director, supervisor, technologist, or technician, or other person assisting a law enforcement officer shall not incur any civil or criminal liability as a result of the withdrawal or analysis of a blood specimen pursuant to accepted medical standards when requested by a law enforcement officer, regardless of whether or not the subject resisted administration of the test.

(3)(a) Any criminal charge resulting from the incident giving rise to the officer’s demand for testing shall be tried concurrently with a charge of any violation arising out of the same incident, unless, in the discretion of the court, such charges should be tried separately. If the charges are tried separately, the fact that the person refused, resisted, obstructed, or opposed testing is admissible at the trial of the criminal offense which gave rise to the demand for testing.

(b) The results of any test administered pursuant to this section for the purpose of detecting the presence of any controlled substance are not admissible as evidence in a criminal prosecution for the possession of a controlled substance.

(4) Notwithstanding any provision of law pertaining to the confidentiality of hospital records or other medical records, information relating to the alcoholic content of the blood or the presence of chemical substances or controlled substances in the blood obtained pursuant to this section shall be released to a court, prosecuting attorney, defense attorney, or law enforcement officer in connection with an alleged violation of s. 327.35 upon request for such information.

History.–s. 3, ch. 84-188; s. 26, ch. 87-243; s. 4, ch. 87-392; s. 11, ch. 91-255; s. 460, ch. 95-148; s. 22, ch. 96-330; s. 8, ch. 2002-263.

327.354 Presumption of impairment; testing methods.–

(1) It is unlawful and punishable as provided in s. 327.35 for any person who is under the influence of alcoholic beverages or controlled substances, when affected to the extent that the person’s normal faculties are impaired or to the extent that the person is deprived of full possession of normal faculties, to operate any vessel within this state. Such normal faculties include, but are not limited to, the ability to see, hear, walk, talk, judge distances, drive an automobile, make judgments, act in emergencies, and, in general, normally perform the many mental and physical acts of daily life.

(2) At the trial of any civil or criminal action or proceeding arising out of acts alleged to have been committed by any person while operating a vessel while under the influence of alcoholic beverages or controlled substances, when affected to the extent that the person’s normal faculties were impaired or to the extent that he or she was deprived of full possession of his or her normal faculties, the results of any test administered in accordance with s. 327.352 or s. 327.353 and this section are admissible into evidence when otherwise admissible, and the amount of alcohol in the person’s blood or breath at the time alleged, as shown by chemical analysis of the person’s blood, or by chemical or physical test of the person’s breath, gives rise to the following presumptions:

(a) If there was at that time a blood-alcohol level or breath-alcohol level of 0.05 or less, it is presumed that the person was not under the influence of alcoholic beverages to the extent that his or her normal faculties were impaired.

(b) If there was at that time a blood-alcohol level or breath-alcohol level in excess of 0.05 but less than 0.08, that fact does not give rise to any presumption that the person was or was not under the influence of alcoholic beverages to the extent that his or her normal faculties were impaired but may be considered with other competent evidence in determining whether the person was under the influence of alcoholic beverages to the extent that his or her normal faculties were impaired.

(c) If there was at that time a blood-alcohol level or breath-alcohol level of 0.08 or higher, that fact is prima facie evidence that the person was under the influence of alcoholic beverages to the extent that his or her normal faculties were impaired. Any person who operates a vessel and who has a blood-alcohol level or breath-alcohol level of 0.08 or higher is guilty of operating a vessel with an unlawful blood-alcohol level or breath-alcohol level.

The presumptions provided in this subsection do not limit the introduction of any other competent evidence bearing upon the question of whether the person was under the influence of alcoholic beverages to the extent that his or her normal faculties were impaired.

(3) A chemical analysis of a person’s blood to determine alcoholic content or a chemical or physical test of a person’s breath, in order to be considered valid under this section, must have been performed substantially in accordance with methods approved by the Department of Law Enforcement and by an individual possessing a valid permit issued by the department for this purpose. Insubstantial differences between approved techniques and actual testing procedures or insubstantial defects concerning the permit issued by the department, in any individual case, do not render the test or test results invalid. The Department of Law Enforcement may approve satisfactory techniques or methods, ascertain the qualifications and competence of individuals to conduct such analyses, and issue permits subject to termination or revocation in accordance with rules adopted by the department.

(4) Any person charged with a violation of s. 327.35 is entitled to trial by jury according to the Florida Rules of Criminal Procedure.

(5) An affidavit containing the results of any test of a person’s blood or breath to determine its alcohol content, as authorized by s. 327.352 or s. 327.353, is admissible in evidence under the exception to the hearsay rule in s. 90.803(8) for public records and reports. The affidavit is admissible without further authentication and is presumptive proof of the results of an authorized test to determine alcohol content of the blood or breath if the affidavit discloses:

(a) The type of test administered and the procedures followed;

(b) The time of the collection of the blood or breath sample analyzed;

(c) The numerical results of the test indicating the alcohol content of the blood or breath;

(d) The type and status of any permit issued by the Department of Law Enforcement which was held by the person who performed the test; and

(e) If the test was administered by means of a breath testing instrument, the date of performance of the most recent required maintenance on such instrument.

The Department of Law Enforcement shall provide a form for the affidavit. Admissibility of the affidavit does not abrogate the right of the person tested to subpoena the person who administered the test for examination as an adverse witness at a civil or criminal trial or other proceeding.

History.–s. 4, ch. 84-188; s. 4, ch. 88-82; s. 9, ch. 91-255; s. 24, ch. 92-58; s. 10, ch. 93-124; s. 461, ch. 95-148; s. 23, ch. 96-330.

327.355 Operation of vessels by persons under 21 years of age who have consumed alcoholic beverages.–

(1)(a) Notwithstanding s. 327.35, it is unlawful for a person under the age of 21 who has a breath-alcohol level of 0.02 or higher to operate or be in actual physical control of a vessel.

(b) A law enforcement officer who has probable cause to believe that a vessel is being operated by or is in the actual physical control of a person who is under the age of 21 while under the influence of alcoholic beverages or who has any breath-alcohol level may lawfully detain such a person and may request that person to submit to a test to determine his or her breath-alcohol level. If the person under the age of 21 refuses to submit to such testing, the law enforcement officer shall warn the person that failure to submit to the breath test will result in the required performance of 50 hours of public service and that his or her vessel operating privilege will be suspended until the public service is performed. Failure or refusal to submit to a breath test after this warning is a violation of this section.

(2) Any person under the age of 21 who accepts the privilege extended by the laws of this state of operating a vessel upon the waters of this state, by so operating such vessel, is deemed to have expressed his or her consent to the provisions of this section.

(3) A breath test to determine breath-alcohol level pursuant to this section may be conducted as authorized by s. 316.1932 or s. 327.352, or by a preliminary alcohol screening test device listed in the United States Department of Transportation’s conforming-product list of evidential breath-measurement devices. The reading from such a device is admissible in evidence in any trial or hearing.

(4) A violation of this section is a noncriminal infraction, and being detained pursuant to this section does not constitute an arrest. This section does not bar prosecution under s. 327.35, and the penalties provided herein shall be imposed in addition to any other penalty provided for boating under the influence or for refusal to submit to testing.

(5) Any person who is convicted of a violation of subsection (1) shall be punished as follows:

(a) The court shall order the defendant to participate in public service or a community work project for a minimum of 50 hours;

(b) The court shall order the defendant to refrain from operating any vessel until the 50 hours of public service or community work has been performed; and

(c) Enroll in, attend, and successfully complete a boating safety course that meets minimum standards established by the department by rule.

(6) For the purposes of this section, “conviction” means a finding of guilt or the acceptance of a plea of guilty or nolo contendere, regardless of whether or not adjudication was withheld. Notwithstanding the provisions of s. 948.01, no court may suspend, defer, or withhold imposition of sentence for any violation of this section. Any person who operates any vessel on the waters of this state while his or her vessel operating privilege is suspended pursuant to this section commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

History.–s. 8, ch. 98-308; s. 9, ch. 2000-362.

327.359 Refusal to submit to testing; penalties.–Any person who has refused to submit to a chemical or physical test of his or her breath, blood, or urine, as described in s. 327.352, and who has been previously fined for refusal to submit to a lawful test of his or her breath, urine, or blood, and:

(1) Who the arresting law enforcement officer had probable cause to believe was operating or in actual physical control of a vessel in this state while under the influence of alcoholic beverages, chemical substances, or controlled substances;

(2) Who was placed under lawful arrest for a violation of s. 327.35 unless such test was requested pursuant to s. 327.352(1)(c);

(3) Who was informed that if he or she refused to submit to such test he or she is subject to a fine of $500;

(4) Who was informed that a refusal to submit to a lawful test of his or her breath, urine, or blood, if he or she has been previously fined for refusal to submit to a lawful test of his or her breath, urine, or blood, is a misdemeanor; and

(5) Who, after having been so informed, refused to submit to any such test when requested to do so by a law enforcement officer or correctional officer

commits a misdemeanor of the first degree and is subject to punishment as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

History.–s. 9, ch. 2002-263.

327.36 Mandatory adjudication; prohibition against accepting plea to lesser included offense.–

(1) Notwithstanding the provisions of s. 948.01, no court may suspend, defer, or withhold adjudication of guilt or imposition of sentence for any violation of s. 327.35, for manslaughter resulting from the operation of a vessel, or for vessel homicide.

(2)(a) No trial judge may accept a plea of guilty to a lesser offense from a person who is charged with a violation of s. 327.35, manslaughter resulting from the operation of a vessel, or vessel homicide and who has been given a breath or blood test to determine blood or breath alcohol content, the results of which show a blood-alcohol level or breath-alcohol level of 0.16 or more.

(b) A trial judge may not accept a plea of guilty to a lesser offense from a person charged with a felony violation of s. 327.35, manslaughter resulting from the operation of a vessel, or vessel homicide.

History.–s. 27, ch. 87-243; s. 5, ch. 87-392; s. 10, ch. 91-255; s. 24, ch. 96-330; s. 10, ch. 2000-362.

Check Offenses

Florida Bad Check Law – Florida Worthless Check Offenses
832.04 Stopping payment; purchase of farm or grove products.

832.041 Stopping payment with intent to defraud.

832.05 Giving worthless checks, drafts, and debit card orders; penalty; duty of drawee; evidence; costs; complaint form.

832.06 Prosecution for worthless checks given tax collector for licenses or taxes; refunds.

832.062 Prosecution for worthless checks, drafts, debit card orders, or electronic funds transfers made to pay any tax or associated amount administered by the Department of Revenue.

832.07 Prima facie evidence of intent; identity.

832.075 Requiring credit card information for check or draft acceptance prohibited.

832.08 State attorney bad check diversion program; fees for collections.

832.09 Suspension of driver license after warrant or capias is issued in worthless check case.

832.10 Alternative to bad check diversion program; fees for collection.

832.04 Stopping payment; purchase of farm or grove products.–

(1) Whoever, with intent to defraud any producer of farm or grove products or product of such products or product shall, in person or by agent, make, draw, utter, deliver, or give to such producer any check, draft, or written order for the payment of money upon any bank, person, or corporation and secure from such producer such products or product for or on account of such check, draft, or written order, whether such products or product are valued at the amount of such check, draft, or written order or at a greater or lesser value, and who shall, pursuant to and in furtherance of such intent to defraud, stop payment on such check, draft, or written order, shall be deemed to be guilty of a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083, if the value of the products or product secured for or on account of such check, draft, or written order is $150 or more; and if the value of the products or product secured for or on account of such check, draft, or written order is less than $150, he or she shall be guilty of a misdemeanor of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(2) In all prosecutions under this section, the introduction in evidence of any unpaid and dishonored check, draft, or written order for the payment of money upon any bank, person, or corporation, bearing the drawee’s refusal to pay the same because of payment having been stopped, stamped, or written thereon or attached thereto, shall be prima facie evidence of the making or uttering of said check, draft, or written order, and of due presentation to the drawee for payment, and of the dishonor thereof, and that the same was properly dishonored because of payment thereof having been stopped by the maker or drawer. And, as against the maker or drawer thereof, the stopping of payment of any such check, draft, or written order made, drawn, uttered, delivered, or given to a producer of farm or grove products or product in payment for any such products or product, the possession or control of which shall have been transferred upon faith of payment of such check, draft, or written order, whether such products or product be valued at the amount of such check, draft, or written order or at a greater or lesser amount, shall be prima facie evidence that such maker or drawer had the above mentioned intent to defraud such producer, if such maker or drawer, or his or her agent, shall have personally inspected such products or product at or before such transfer of possession or control.

(3) This section shall be taken to be cumulative and shall not be construed to repeal any other statute now in effect.

History.–ss. 1, 2, 4, ch. 26884, 1951; s. 979, ch. 71-136; s. 7, ch. 86-161; s. 1301, ch. 97-102.

832.041 Stopping payment with intent to defraud.–

(1) Whoever, with intent to defraud any person shall, in person or by agent, make, draw, utter, deliver, or give any check, draft, or written order for the payment of money upon any bank, person, or corporation and secure from such person goods or services for or on account of such check, draft, or written order, whether such goods or services are valued at the amount of such check, draft, or written order or at a greater or lesser value, and who shall, pursuant to and in furtherance of such intent to defraud, stop payment on such check, draft, or written order, shall be deemed to be guilty of a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084, if the value of the goods or services secured for or on account of such check, draft, or written order is $150 or more; and if the value of the goods or services secured for or on account of such check, draft, or written order is less than $150, he or she shall be guilty of a misdemeanor of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(2) This section shall be taken to be cumulative and shall not be construed to repeal any other statute now in effect.

History.–ss. 1, 2, ch. 65-413; s. 980, ch. 71-136; s. 8, ch. 86-161; s. 1302, ch. 97-102.

832.05 Giving worthless checks, drafts, and debit card orders; penalty; duty of drawee; evidence; costs; complaint form.–

(1) PURPOSE.–The purpose of this section is to remedy the evil of giving checks, drafts, bills of exchange, debit card orders, and other orders on banks without first providing funds in or credit with the depositories on which the same are made or drawn to pay and satisfy the same, which tends to create the circulation of worthless checks, drafts, bills of exchange, debit card orders, and other orders on banks, bad banking, check kiting, and a mischief to trade and commerce.

(2) WORTHLESS CHECKS, DRAFTS, OR DEBIT CARD ORDERS; PENALTY.–

(a) It is unlawful for any person, firm, or corporation to draw, make, utter, issue, or deliver to another any check, draft, or other written order on any bank or depository, or to use a debit card, for the payment of money or its equivalent, knowing at the time of the drawing, making, uttering, issuing, or delivering such check or draft, or at the time of using such debit card, that the maker or drawer thereof has not sufficient funds on deposit in or credit with such bank or depository with which to pay the same on presentation; except that this section does not apply to any check when the payee or holder knows or has been expressly notified prior to the drawing or uttering of the check, or has reason to believe, that the drawer did not have on deposit or to the drawer’s credit with the drawee sufficient funds to ensure payment as aforesaid, nor does this section apply to any postdated check.

(b) A violation of the provisions of this subsection constitutes a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083, unless the check, draft, debit card order, or other written order drawn, made, uttered, issued, or delivered is in the amount of $150, or its equivalent, or more and the payee or a subsequent holder thereof receives something of value therefor. In that event, the violation constitutes a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(3) CASHING OR DEPOSITING ITEM WITH INTENT TO DEFRAUD; PENALTY.–

(a) It is unlawful for any person, by act or common scheme, to cash or deposit any item, as defined in s. 674.104(1)(i), in any bank or depository with intent to defraud.

(b) A violation of the provisions of this subsection constitutes a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(4) OBTAINING PROPERTY OR SERVICES IN RETURN FOR WORTHLESS CHECKS, DRAFTS, OR DEBIT CARD ORDERS; PENALTY.–

(a) It is unlawful for any person, firm, or corporation to obtain any services, goods, wares, or other things of value by means of a check, draft, or other written order upon any bank, person, firm, or corporation, knowing at the time of the making, drawing, uttering, issuing, or delivering of such check or draft that the maker thereof has not sufficient funds on deposit in or credit with such bank or depository with which to pay the same upon presentation. However, no crime may be charged in respect to the giving of any such check or draft or other written order when the payee knows, has been expressly notified, or has reason to believe that the drawer did not have on deposit or to the drawer’s credit with the drawee sufficient funds to ensure payment thereof. A payee does not have reason to believe a payor does not have sufficient funds to ensure payment of a check solely because the payor has previously issued a worthless check to him or her.

(b) It is unlawful for any person to use a debit card to obtain money, goods, services, or anything else of value knowing at the time of such use that he or she does not have sufficient funds on deposit with which to pay for the same or that the value thereof exceeds the amount of credit which is available to him or her through an overdraft financing agreement or prearranged line of credit which is accessible by the use of the card.

(c) A violation of the provisions of this subsection, if the check, draft, other written order, or debit card order is for an amount less than $150 or its equivalent, constitutes a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083. A violation of the provisions of this subsection, if the check, draft, other written order, or debit card order is in the amount of $150, or its equivalent, or more, constitutes a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(5) PAYMENT NO DEFENSE.–Payment of a dishonored check, draft, bill of exchange, or other order does not constitute a defense or ground for dismissal of charges brought under this section.

(6) “CREDIT,” “DEBIT CARD” DEFINED.–

(a) The word “credit” as used herein shall be construed to mean an arrangement or understanding with the drawee for the payment of such check, draft, or other written order.

(b) As used in this section, the term “debit card” means a card, code, or other device, other than a check, draft, or similar paper instrument, by the use of which a person may order, instruct, or authorize a financial institution to debit a demand deposit, savings deposit, or other asset account.

(7) REASON FOR DISHONOR, DUTY OF DRAWEE.–It is the duty of the drawee of any check, draft, or other written order, before refusing to pay the same to the holder thereof upon presentation, to cause to be written, printed, or stamped in plain language thereon or attached thereto the reason for the drawee’s dishonor or refusal to pay it. In any prosecution under this section, the introduction in evidence of any unpaid and dishonored check, draft, or other written order having the drawee’s refusal to pay stamped or written thereon or attached thereto, with the reason therefor as aforesaid, is prima facie evidence of the making or uttering of such check, draft, or other written order, of the due presentation to the drawee for payment and the dishonor thereof, and that the same was properly dishonored for the reasons written, stamped, or attached by the drawee on such dishonored check, draft, or other written order. As against the maker or drawer thereof, the withdrawing from deposit with the drawee named in the check, draft, or other written order of the funds on deposit with such drawee necessary to ensure payment of such check, draft, or other written order upon presentation within a reasonable time after negotiation or the drawing, making, uttering, or delivering of a check, draft, or written order, payment of which is refused by the drawee, is prima facie evidence of knowledge of insufficient funds in or credit with such drawee. However, if it is determined at the trial in a prosecution hereunder that the payee of any such check, draft, or written order, at the time of accepting such check, draft, or written order, had knowledge of or reason to believe that the drawer of such check, draft, or other written order did not have sufficient funds on deposit in or credit with such drawee, then the payee instituting such criminal prosecution shall be assessed all costs of court incurred in connection with such prosecution.

(8) COSTS.–When a prosecution is initiated under this section before any committing trial court judge, the party applying for the warrant shall be held liable for costs accruing in the event the case is dismissed for want of prosecution. No costs shall be charged to the county in such dismissed cases.

(9) STATE ATTORNEYS; WORTHLESS CHECKS; FORM OF COMPLAINT.–The state attorneys of Florida shall collectively promulgate a single form to be used in all judicial circuits by persons reporting a violation of this chapter.

(10) CONSTRUCTION; PAYEE OR HOLDER; INSUFFICIENT FUNDS.–For the purposes of construction of this section, a payee or holder does not have knowledge, express notification, or reason to believe that the maker or drawer has insufficient funds to ensure payment of a check, draft, or debit card solely because the maker or drawer has previously drawn or issued a worthless check, draft, or debit card order to the payee or holder.

History.–ss. 1, 2, ch. 28096, 1953; s. 1, ch. 61-284; s. 1, ch. 61-185; s. 981, ch. 71-136; s. 1, ch. 79-98; s. 9, ch. 84-297; s. 9, ch. 86-161; s. 42, ch. 88-381; s. 6, ch. 89-303; s. 5, ch. 91-211; s. 61, ch. 92-82; s. 1303, ch. 97-102; s. 15, ch. 2001-115; s. 15, ch. 2004-11.

832.06 Prosecution for worthless checks given tax collector for licenses or taxes; refunds.–

(1) Whenever any person, firm, or corporation violates the provisions of s. 832.05 by drawing, making, uttering, issuing, or delivering to any county tax collector any check, draft, or other written order on any bank or depository for the payment of money or its equivalent for any tag, title, lien, tax (except ad valorem taxes), penalty, or fee relative to a boat, airplane, motor vehicle, driver license, or identification card; any occupational license, beverage license, or sales or use tax; or any hunting or fishing license, the county tax collector, after the exercise of due diligence to locate the person, firm, or corporation which drew, made, uttered, issued, or delivered the check, draft, or other written order for the payment of money, or to collect the same by the exercise of due diligence and prudence, shall swear out a complaint in the proper court against the person, firm, or corporation for the issuance of the worthless check or draft. If the state attorney cannot sign the information due to lack of proof, as determined by the state attorney in good faith, for a prima facie case in court, he or she shall issue a certificate so stating to the tax collector. If payment of the dishonored check, draft, or other written order, together with court costs expended, is not received in full by the county tax collector within 30 days after service of the warrant, 30 days after conviction, or 60 days after the collector swears out the complaint or receives the certificate of the state attorney, whichever is first, the county tax collector shall make a written report to this effect to the Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles relative to motor vehicles and vessels, to the Department of Revenue relative to occupational licenses and the sales and use tax, to the Division of Alcoholic Beverages and Tobacco of the Department of Business and Professional Regulation relative to beverage licenses, or to the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission relative to hunting and fishing licenses, containing a statement of the amount remaining unpaid on the worthless check or draft. If the information is not signed, the certificate of the state attorney is issued, and the written report of the amount remaining unpaid is made, the county tax collector may request the sum be forthwith refunded by the appropriate governmental entity, agency, or department. If a warrant has been issued and served, he or she shall certify to that effect, together with the court costs and amount remaining unpaid on the check. The county tax collector may request that the sum of money certified by him or her be forthwith refunded by the Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles, the Department of Revenue, the Division of Alcoholic Beverages and Tobacco of the Department of Business and Professional Regulation, or the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission to the county tax collector. Within 30 days after receipt of the request, the Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles, the Department of Revenue, the Division of Alcoholic Beverages and Tobacco of the Department of Business and Professional Regulation, or the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, upon being satisfied as to the correctness of the certificate of the tax collector, or the report, shall refund to the county tax collector the sums of money so certified or reported. If any officer of any court issuing the warrant is unable to serve it within 60 days after the issuance and delivery of it to the officer for service, the officer shall make a written return to the county tax collector to this effect. Thereafter, the county tax collector may certify that the warrant has been issued and that service has not been had upon the defendant and further certify the amount of the worthless check or draft and the amount of court costs expended by the county tax collector, and the county tax collector may file the certificate with the Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles relative to motor vehicles and vessels, with the Department of Revenue relative to occupational licenses and the sales and use tax, with the Division of Alcoholic Beverages and Tobacco of the Department of Business and Professional Regulation relative to beverage licenses, or with the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission relative to hunting and fishing licenses, together with a request that the sums of money so certified be forthwith refunded by the Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles, the Department of Revenue, the Division of Alcoholic Beverages and Tobacco of the Department of Business and Professional Regulation, or the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission to the county tax collector, and within 30 days after receipt of the request, the Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles, the Department of Revenue, the Division of Alcoholic Beverages and Tobacco of the Department of Business and Professional Regulation, or the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, upon being satisfied as to the correctness of the certificate, shall refund the sums of money so certified to the county tax collector.

(2) The provisions of this act shall be liberally construed in order to effectively carry out the purposes of this act in the interest of the public.

History.–ss. 1, 2, ch. 63-343; s. 6, ch. 65-190; s. 1, ch. 69-77; ss. 16, 21, 24, 25, 35, ch. 69-106; s. 1, ch. 74-348; s. 1, ch. 77-174; s. 34, ch. 79-11; s. 250, ch. 94-218; s. 474, ch. 94-356; s. 1304, ch. 97-102; s. 231, ch. 99-245; s. 68, ch. 99-248; s. 30, ch. 2000-197.

832.062 Prosecution for worthless checks, drafts, debit card orders, or electronic funds transfers made to pay any tax or associated amount administered by the Department of Revenue.–

(1) It is unlawful for any person, firm, or corporation to draw, make, utter, issue, or deliver to the Department of Revenue any check, draft, or other written order on any bank or depository, to use a debit card, to make, send, instruct, order, or initiate any electronic funds transfer, or to cause or direct the making, sending, instructing, ordering, or initiating of any electronic funds transfer, for the payment of any taxes, penalties, interest, fees, or associated amounts administered by the Department of Revenue, knowing at the time of the drawing, making, uttering, issuing, or delivering such check, draft, or other written order, at the time of using such debit card, at the time of making, sending, instructing, ordering, or initiating any electronic funds transfer, or at the time of causing or directing the making, sending, instructing, ordering, initiating, or executing of any electronic funds transfer, that the maker, drawer, sender, or receiver thereof has not sufficient funds on deposit in or credit with such bank or depository with which to pay the same on presentation. This section does not apply to any check or electronic funds transfer when the Department of Revenue knows or has been expressly notified prior to the drawing or uttering of the check or the sending or initiating of the electronic funds transfer, or has reason to believe, that the drawer, sender, or receiver did not have on deposit or to the drawer’s, sender’s, or receiver’s credit with the drawee or receiving bank or depository sufficient funds to ensure payment as aforesaid, and this section does not apply to any postdated check.

(2) A violation of this section constitutes a misdemeanor of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083, unless the check, draft, debit card order, or other written order drawn, made, uttered, issued, or delivered, or electronic funds transfer made, sent, instructed, ordered, or initiated, or caused or directed to be made, sent, instructed, ordered, or initiated is in the amount of $150 or more. In that event, the violation constitutes a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(3) For purposes of prosecution, a violation under this section occurs in the county in which the check is issued or the electronic funds transfer is sent and in the county in which it is received. A check will be deemed issued at the residence address of an individual taxpayer and at the business address of a business taxpayer.

History.–s. 11, ch. 87-102; s. 23, ch. 90-203; s. 1305, ch. 97-102; s. 30, ch. 2003-254.

832.07 Prima facie evidence of intent; identity.–

(1) INTENT.–

(a) In any prosecution or action under this chapter, the making, drawing, uttering, or delivery of a check, draft, or order, payment of which is refused by the drawee because of lack of funds or credit, shall be prima facie evidence of intent to defraud or knowledge of insufficient funds in, or credit with, such bank, banking institution, trust company, or other depository, unless such maker or drawer, or someone for him or her, shall have paid the holder thereof the amount due thereon, together with a service charge not to exceed the service fees authorized under s. 832.08(5) or an amount of up to 5 percent of the face amount of the check, whichever is greater, within 15 days after written notice has been sent to the address printed on the check or given at the time of issuance that such check, draft, or order has not been paid to the holder thereof, and bank fees incurred by the holder. In the event of legal action for recovery, the maker or drawer may be additionally liable for court costs and reasonable attorney’s fees. Notice mailed by certified or registered mail, evidenced by return receipt, or by first-class mail, evidenced by an affidavit of service of mail, to the address printed on the check or given at the time of issuance shall be deemed sufficient and equivalent to notice having been received by the maker or drawer, whether such notice shall be returned undelivered or not. The form of such notice shall be substantially as follows:

“You are hereby notified that a check, numbered _____, in the face amount of $_____, issued by you on (date) , drawn upon (name of bank) , and payable to _____, has been dishonored. Pursuant to Florida law, you have 15 days from the date of this notice to tender payment of the full amount of such check plus a service charge of $25, if the face value does not exceed $50, $30, if the face value exceeds $50 but does not exceed $300, $40, if the face value exceeds $300, or an amount of up to 5 percent of the face amount of the check, whichever is greater, the total amount due being $_____ and _____ cents. Unless this amount is paid in full within the time specified above, the holder of such check may turn over the dishonored check and all other available information relating to this incident to the state attorney for criminal prosecution. You may be additionally liable in a civil action for triple the amount of the check, but in no case less than $50, together with the amount of the check, a service charge, court costs, reasonable attorney fees, and incurred bank fees, as provided in s. 68.065.”

Subsequent persons receiving a check, draft, or order from the original payee or a successor endorsee have the same rights that the original payee has against the maker of the instrument, provided such subsequent persons give notice in a substantially similar form to that provided above. Subsequent persons providing such notice shall be immune from civil liability for the giving of such notice and for proceeding under the forms of such notice, so long as the maker of the instrument has the same defenses against these subsequent persons as against the original payee. However, the remedies available under this section may be exercised only by one party in interest.

(b) When a check is drawn on a bank in which the maker or drawer has no account or a closed account, it shall be presumed that such check was issued with intent to defraud, and the notice requirement set forth in this section shall be waived.

(2) IDENTITY.–

(a) In any prosecution or action under the provisions of this chapter, a check, draft, or order for which the information required in paragraph (b), paragraph (d), paragraph (e), or paragraph (f) is available at the time of issuance constitutes prima facie evidence of the identity of the person issuing the check, draft, or order and that such person is authorized to draw upon the named account.

(b) To establish this prima facie evidence:

1. The driver’s license number or state identification number, specifying the state of issuance of the person presenting the check must be written on the check; or

2. The following information regarding the identity of the person presenting the check must be obtained by the person accepting such check: The presenter’s full name, residence address, home phone number, business phone number, place of employment, sex, date of birth, and height.

(c) The information required in subparagraph (b)2. may be provided by either of two methods:

1. The information may be recorded on the check; or

2. The number of a check-cashing identification card issued by the accepter of the check may be recorded on the check. In order to be used to establish identity, such check-cashing identification card may not be issued until the information required in subparagraph (b)2. has been placed on file with the accepter of the check.

(d) If a check is received by a payee through the mail or by delivery to a representative of the payee, the prima facie evidence referred to in paragraph (a) may be established by presenting the original contract, order, or request for services that the check purports to pay for, bearing the signature of the person who signed the check, or by presenting a copy of the information required in subparagraph (b)2. which is on file with the accepter of the check together with the signature of the person presenting the check.

(e) If a check is received by a payee and the drawer or maker has a check-cashing identification card on file with the payee, the prima facie evidence referred to in paragraph (a) may be established by presenting the signature found on the check-cashing identification card bearing the signature of the person who signed the check.

(f) If a check is received by the Department of Revenue through the mail or by delivery to a representative of the Department of Revenue, the prima facie evidence referred to in paragraph (a) may be established by presenting the original tax return, certificate, license, application for certificate or license, or other document relating to amounts owed by that person or taxpayer which the check purports to pay for, bearing the signature of the person who signed the check, or by presenting a copy of the information required in subparagraph (b)2. which is on file with the accepter of the check together with the signature of the person presenting the check. The use of taxpayer information for purposes of establishing the identity of a person pursuant to this paragraph shall be considered a use of such information for official purposes.

History.–s. 1, ch. 75-189; s. 1, ch. 77-174; s. 1, ch. 79-345; s. 1, ch. 80-301; s. 2, ch. 86-89; s. 10, ch. 86-161; s. 1, ch. 86-198; s. 12, ch. 87-102; s. 2, ch. 89-303; s. 2, ch. 91-211; s. 1, ch. 94-207; s. 3, ch. 96-239; s. 1821, ch. 97-102; s. 3, ch. 98-297; s. 7, ch. 2004-273.

832.075 Requiring credit card information for check or draft acceptance prohibited.–

(1) No person shall require, as a condition of acceptance of a check or share draft or as a means of identification, that the person presenting the check or draft provide a credit card number or credit card expiration date.

(2) Recording a credit card number or expiration date in connection with the sale of goods or services in which the purchaser pays by check or share draft, or in connection with the acceptance of a check or share draft, is a noncriminal violation as defined pursuant to s. 775.08 punishable by a fine of $250 for the first violation and $1,000 for the second or subsequent violation in accordance with the provisions of s. 775.083.

(3) This section shall not prohibit a person from requesting a purchaser to display a credit card as indicia of credit worthiness and financial responsibility or as additional identification, but the only information concerning a credit card which may be recorded is the type of credit card so displayed and the issuer of the credit card. This section does not require acceptance of a check or share draft whether or not a credit card is presented.

(4) This section does not prohibit a person from requesting or receiving a credit card number or expiration date and recording the number or date, or both, in lieu of a deposit to secure payment in the event of default, loss, damage, or other occurrence.

(5) This section does not prohibit a credit card issuer or a subsidiary of the issuer of a credit card from requesting or receiving a credit card number or expiration date and recording the number or date, or both, for the purpose of establishing identity pursuant to s. 832.07(2).

(6) This section does not prohibit a person from recording a credit card number or expiration date as a condition for cashing a check where that person has agreed with the card issuer to cash checks as a service to the card issuer’s cardholders and the card issuer has agreed to guarantee cardholder checks cashed by that person.

History.–s. 2, ch. 90-212.

832.08 State attorney bad check diversion program; fees for collections.–

(1) In any judicial circuit where a bad check diversion program is not in existence as of October 1, 1986, the state attorney may establish such a program, either within the state attorney’s office or through an independent contractor, for the purpose of diverting from prosecution certain persons accused of a violation of s. 832.04, s. 832.041, s. 832.05, or s. 832.06. The use of such a diversion program shall not affect the authority of the state attorney to prosecute any person for any such violation.

(2) Upon receipt of a complaint alleging any such violation, the state attorney shall determine if the case is appropriate for referral to the bad check diversion program by considering:

(a) The amount of the bad check.

(b) The prior criminal record of the defendant.

(c) Whether or not there are other bad check complaints currently pending against the defendant.

(d) The strength of the evidence of intent to defraud the victim.

(3) Upon referral of a complaint to the bad check diversion program, the state attorney shall forward a notice of the complaint by mail to the defendant. The notice shall contain all of the following:

(a) The date and amount of the check.

(b) The name of the payee.

(c) The date before which the defendant must contact the bad check office concerning the complaint.

(d) A statement of the penalty for issuance of a bad check.

(4) If the state attorney allows the defendant to enter into a diversion program, the state attorney shall enter into a written agreement with the defendant to divert him or her on bad check charges. The diversion agreement shall include all of the following conditions, which must be accepted by the defendant:

(a) Attendance at a program designed to assist and educate persons who have violated the provisions of this chapter.

(b) Full restitution on the check.

(c) Full payment of fees due under subsection (5).

(d) Any individual who does not fulfill the agreements for diversion could then be prosecuted under the appropriate section.

(e) A knowing and intelligent waiver of the defendant’s right to a speedy trial for the period of his or her diversion.

(5) To fund the diversion program, the state attorney may collect a fee on each check that is collected through the state attorney’s office, whether it is collected through prosecution or through the diversion program. However, the state attorney may not collect such a fee on any check collected through a diversion program which was in existence in another office prior to October 1, 1986. A fee may be collected by an office operating such a preexisting diversion program for the purpose of funding such program. The amount of the fee for each check shall not exceed:

(a) Twenty-five dollars, if the face value does not exceed $50.

(b) Thirty dollars, if the face value is more than $50 but does not exceed $300.

(c) Forty dollars, if the face value is more than $300.

History.–s. 1, ch. 86-232; s. 6, ch. 91-211; s. 4, ch. 96-239; s. 1822, ch. 97-102.

832.09 Suspension of driver license after warrant or capias is issued in worthless check case.–

(1) Any person who is being prosecuted for passing a worthless check in violation of s. 832.05, who fails to appear before the court and against whom a warrant or capias for failure to appear is issued by the court shall have his or her driver’s license suspended or revoked pursuant to s. 322.251.

(2) Within 5 working days after the issuance of a warrant or capias for failure to appear, the clerk of the court in the county where the warrant or capias is issued shall notify the Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles by the most efficient method available of the action of the court.

History.–s. 1, ch. 98-223.

832.10 Alternative to bad check diversion program; fees for collection.–

(1) Prior to presenting a complaint about a dishonored check to a state attorney, a payee on such bad check may place or assign the debt evidenced by the bad check for collection pursuant to this section by a private debt collector registered under part VI of chapter 559.

(2) Upon such placement or assignment, the payee shall be entitled to add a collection fee to offset the cost of collection. This collection fee is in addition to the bad check service charges authorized by law. The collection fee payable to the debt collector shall be a reasonable fee in accord with industry standards, based upon the total amount collected.

(3) Unless extended by the payee, the debt collector shall have 90 days from the date of placement or assignment of the debt for collection within which to collect the amount of the bad check, applicable bad debt charges, and the collector’s collection fee. Upon the expiration of such 90 day period and any extensions thereof, the payee then may present a complaint to the appropriate state attorney. The debt collector may continue to try to collect the debt, provided such collection effort does not impede the prosecution or other disposition of the case by the state attorney.

(4) The debt collector may not compromise the amount to be collected without the express consent of the payee of the check. The debt collector shall remit to the payee the amount collected less the collector’s fee percentage on the total amount collected.

(5) The use of such debt collector shall not affect the authority of the state attorney to prosecute any person for any violation of s. 832.04, s. 832.041, s. 832.05, or s. 832.06. The use of this section by a payee on a bad check shall not affect the rights of the payee, other than as set forth in this section, to present a complaint to the appropriate state attorney.

History.–s. 2, ch. 98-223

Credit Card Fraud

Credit Card Fraud

817.57 Short title.

817.58 Definitions.

817.59 False statement as to financial condition or identity.

817.60 Theft; obtaining credit card through fraudulent means.

817.61 Fraudulent use of credit cards.

817.611 Traffic in counterfeit credit cards.

817.612 Expired or revoked credit cards.

817.62 Fraud by person authorized to provide goods or services.

817.625 Use of scanning device or reencoder to defraud; penalties.

817.631 Possession and transfer of credit-card-making equipment.

817.64 Receipt of money, etc., obtained by fraudulent use of credit cards.

817.645 Alteration of credit card invoice; penalties.

817.646 Credit card lists prohibited; penalty.

817.65 Defenses not available.

817.66 Presumptions.

817.67 Penalties.

817.68 Part II not exclusive.

817.685 Credit card transaction records.

817.57 Short title.–Part II of this chapter shall be known and may be cited as the 1967 “State Credit Card Crime Act.”

History.–s. 13, ch. 67-340.

817.58 Definitions.–As used in ss. 817.57-817.685:

(1) “Acquirer” means a business organization, governmental entity, financial institution, or an agent of a business organization, governmental entity, or financial institution that authorizes a merchant to accept payment by credit card for money, goods, services, or anything else of value.

(2) “Cardholder” means the person or organization named on the face of a credit card to whom or for whose benefit the credit card is issued by an issuer.

(3) “Counterfeit credit card” means any credit card which is fictitious, altered, or forged; any facsimile or false representation, depiction, or component of a credit card; or any credit card which is stolen, obtained as part of a scheme to defraud, or otherwise unlawfully obtained, and which may or may not be embossed with account information or a company logo.

(4) “Credit card” means any instrument or device, whether known as a credit card, credit plate, bank service card, banking card, check guarantee card, electronic benefits transfer (EBT) card, or debit card or by any other name, issued with or without fee by an issuer for the use of the cardholder in obtaining money, goods, services, or anything else of value on credit or for use in an automated banking device to obtain any of the services offered through the device.

(5) “Expired credit card” means a credit card which is no longer valid because the term shown on it has elapsed.

(6) “Issuer” means the business organization, state or federal government, or financial institution, or its duly authorized agent, which issues a credit card.

(7) “Receives” or “receiving” means acquiring possession or control or accepting as security for a loan a credit card.

(8) “Revoked credit card” means a credit card which is no longer valid because permission to use it has been suspended or terminated by the issuer.

(9) “Credit-card-making equipment” means any equipment, machine, plate, mechanism, impression, or any other device designed, used, or capable of being used to produce a credit card, a counterfeit credit card, or any aspect or component of a credit card.

(10) “Traffic” means to sell, transfer, distribute, dispense, or otherwise dispose of a property or to buy, receive, possess, obtain control of, or use property with the intent to sell, transfer, distribute, dispense, or otherwise dispose of such property.

History.–s. 1, ch. 67-340; ss. 2, 10, ch. 84-297; s. 1, ch. 85-43; s. 1, ch. 88-198; s. 5, ch. 95-431.

817.59 False statement as to financial condition or identity.–A person who makes or causes to be made, either directly or indirectly, any false statement as to a material fact in writing, knowing it to be false and with intent that it be relied on respecting his or her identity or that of any other person, firm, or corporation or his or her financial condition or that of any other person, firm, or corporation, for the purpose of procuring the issuance of a credit card, violates this section and is subject to the penalties set forth in s. 817.67(1).

History.–s. 2, ch. 67-340; s. 1268, ch. 97-102.

817.60 Theft; obtaining credit card through fraudulent means.–

(1) THEFT BY TAKING OR RETAINING POSSESSION OF CARD TAKEN.–A person who takes a credit card from the person, possession, custody, or control of another without the cardholder’s consent or who, with knowledge that it has been so taken, receives the credit card with intent to use it, to sell it, or to transfer it to a person other than the issuer or the cardholder is guilty of credit card theft and is subject to the penalties set forth in s. 817.67(1). Taking a credit card without consent includes obtaining it by conduct defined or known as statutory larceny, common-law larceny by trespassory taking, common-law larceny by trick or embezzlement or obtaining property by false pretense, false promise or extortion.

(2) THEFT OF CREDIT CARD LOST, MISLAID, OR DELIVERED BY MISTAKE.–A person who receives a credit card that he or she knows to have been lost, mislaid, or delivered under a mistake as to the identity or address of the cardholder and who retains possession with intent to use it, to sell it, or to transfer it to a person other than the issuer or the cardholder is guilty of credit card theft and is subject to the penalties set forth in s. 817.67(1).

(3) PURCHASE OR SALE OF CREDIT CARD OF ANOTHER.–A person other than the issuer who sells a credit card or a person who buys a credit card from a person other than the issuer violates this subsection and is subject to the penalties set forth in s. 817.67(1).

(4) OBTAINING CONTROL OF CREDIT CARD AS SECURITY FOR DEBT.–A person who, with intent to defraud the issuer, a person or organization providing money, goods, services, or anything else of value, or any other person, obtains control over a credit card as security for a debt violates this subsection and is subject to the penalties set forth in s. 817.67(1).

(5) DEALING IN CREDIT CARDS OF ANOTHER.–A person other than the issuer who, during any 12-month period, receives two or more credit cards issued in the name or names of different cardholders, which cards he or she has reason to know were taken or retained under circumstances which constitute credit card theft or a violation of this part, violates this subsection and is subject to the penalties set forth in s. 817.67(2).

(6) FORGERY OF CREDIT CARD.–

(a) A person who, with intent to defraud a purported issuer or a person or organization providing money, goods, services, or anything else of value or any other person, falsely makes, falsely embosses, or falsely alters in any manner a credit card or utters such a credit card or who, with intent to defraud, has a counterfeit credit card or any invoice, voucher, sales draft, or other representation or manifestation of a counterfeit credit card in his or her possession, custody, or control is guilty of credit card forgery and is subject to the penalties set forth in s. 817.67(2).

(b) A person other than an authorized manufacturer or issuer who possesses two or more counterfeit credit cards is presumed to have violated this subsection.

(c) A person falsely makes a credit card when he or she makes or draws in whole or in part a device or instrument which purports to be the credit card of a named issuer but which is not such a credit card because the issuer did not authorize the making or drawing or when he or she alters a credit card which was validly issued.

(d) A person falsely embosses a credit card when, without the authorization of the named issuer, he or she completes a credit card by adding any of the matter, other than the signature of the cardholder, which an issuer requires to appear on the credit card before it can be used by a cardholder.

(7) SIGNING CREDIT CARD OF ANOTHER.–A person other than the cardholder or a person authorized by him or her who, with intent to defraud the issuer or a person or organization providing money, goods, services, or anything else of value or any other person, signs a credit card violates this subsection and is subject to the penalties set forth in s. 817.67(1).

History.–s. 3, ch. 67-340; s. 3, ch. 84-297; s. 2, ch. 85-43; s. 69, ch. 85-62; s. 1269, ch. 97-102.

817.61 Fraudulent use of credit cards.–A person who, with intent to defraud the issuer or a person or organization providing money, goods, services, or anything else of value or any other person, uses, for the purpose of obtaining money, goods, services, or anything else of value, a credit card obtained or retained in violation of this part or a credit card which he or she knows is forged, or who obtains money, goods, services, or anything else of value by representing, without the consent of the cardholder, that he or she is the holder of a specified card or by representing that he or she is the holder of a card and such card has not in fact been issued violates this section. A person who, in any 6-month period, uses a credit card in violation of this section two or fewer times, or obtains money, goods, services, or anything else in violation of this section the value of which is less than $100, is subject to the penalties set forth in s. 817.67(1). A person who, in any 6-month period, uses a credit card in violation of this section more than two times, or obtains money, goods, services, or anything else in violation of this section the value of which is $100 or more, is subject to the penalties set forth in s. 817.67(2).

History.–s. 4, ch. 67-340; s. 4, ch. 84-297; s. 3, ch. 85-43; s. 75, ch. 95-211; s. 1270, ch. 97-102.

817.611 Traffic in counterfeit credit cards.–Any person who traffics in or attempts to traffic in 10 or more counterfeit credit cards, invoices, vouchers, sales drafts, or other representations or manifestations of counterfeit credit cards, or credit card account numbers of another in any 6-month period is guilty of a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

History.–s. 4, ch. 85-43.

817.612 Expired or revoked credit cards.–A person who, with intent to defraud the issuer or a person or organization providing money, goods, services, or anything else of value, uses, for the purpose of obtaining money, goods, services, or anything else of value, a credit card which he or she knows is expired or revoked violates this section and is subject to the penalties set forth in s. 817.67(1). Knowledge of revocation shall be presumed to have been received by a cardholder 7 days after such notice has been mailed to him or her by first-class mail at the last known address.

History.–s. 5, ch. 85-43; s. 1271, ch. 97-102.

817.62 Fraud by person authorized to provide goods or services.–

(1) ILLEGALLY OBTAINED OR ILLEGALLY POSSESSED CREDIT CARD; FORGED, REVOKED, OR EXPIRED CREDIT CARD.–A person who is authorized by an acquirer to furnish money, goods, services, or anything else of value upon presentation of a credit card by the cardholder, or any agent or employee of such person, who, with intent to defraud the issuer, the acquirer, or the cardholder, furnishes money, goods, services, or anything else of value upon presentation of a credit card obtained or retained in violation of this part or a credit card which he or she knows is forged, expired, or revoked violates this subsection and is subject to the penalties set forth in s. 817.67(1), if the value of all money, goods, services, and other things of value furnished in violation of this subsection does not exceed $300 in any 6-month period. The violator is subject to the penalties set forth in s. 817.67(2) if such value does exceed $300 in any 6-month period.

(2) MISREPRESENTATION TO ISSUER OR ACQUIRER.–A person who is authorized by an acquirer to furnish money, goods, services, or anything else of value upon presentation of a credit card by the cardholder, or any agent or employee of such person, who, with intent to defraud the issuer, the acquirer, or the cardholder, fails to furnish money, goods, services, or anything else of value which he or she represents in writing to the issuer or the acquirer that he or she has furnished violates this subsection and is subject to the penalties set forth in s. 817.67(2).

(3) ILLEGALLY FACTORING CREDIT CARD TRANSACTIONS.–

(a) A person who is authorized by an acquirer to furnish money, goods, services, or anything else of value upon presentation of a credit card or a credit card account number by a cardholder, or any agent or employee of such person, who, with intent to defraud the issuer, the acquirer, or the cardholder, presents to the issuer or acquirer, for payment, a credit card transaction record of a sale, which sale was not made by such person or his or her agent or employee, violates this paragraph and is subject to the penalties set forth in s. 817.67(2).

(b) A person who, without the acquirer’s authorization, employs, solicits, or otherwise causes a person who is authorized by an acquirer to furnish money, goods, services, or anything else of value upon presentation of a credit card or a credit card account number by a cardholder, or employs, solicits, or otherwise causes an agent or employee of such authorized person, to remit to the acquirer a credit card transaction record of a sale that was not made by such authorized person or his or her agent or employee violates this paragraph and is subject to the penalties set forth in s. 817.67(2).

(c) Any violation of this subsection constitutes an unfair or deceptive act or practice within the meaning of s. 501.204 and thus the basis for a civil or administrative action by an enforcing authority pursuant to part II of chapter 501.

History.–s. 5, ch. 67-340; s. 5, ch. 84-297; s. 6, ch. 86-161; s. 2, ch. 88-198; s. 1, ch. 89-27; s. 1272, ch. 97-102.

817.625 Use of scanning device or reencoder to defraud; penalties.–

(1) As used in this section, the term:

(a) “Scanning device” means a scanner, reader, or any other electronic device that is used to access, read, scan, obtain, memorize, or store, temporarily or permanently, information encoded on the magnetic strip or stripe of a payment card.

(b) “Reencoder” means an electronic device that places encoded information from the magnetic strip or stripe of a payment card onto the magnetic strip or stripe of a different payment card.

(c) “Payment card” means a credit card, charge card, debit card, or any other card that is issued to an authorized card user and that allows the user to obtain, purchase, or receive goods, services, money, or anything else of value from a merchant.

(d) “Merchant” means a person who receives from an authorized user of a payment card, or someone the person believes to be an authorized user, a payment card or information from a payment card, or what the person believes to be a payment card or information from a payment card, as the instrument for obtaining, purchasing, or receiving goods, services, money, or anything else of value from the person.

(2)(a) It is a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084, for a person to use:

1. A scanning device to access, read, obtain, memorize, or store, temporarily or permanently, information encoded on the magnetic strip or stripe of a payment card without the permission of the authorized user of the payment card and with the intent to defraud the authorized user, the issuer of the authorized user’s payment card, or a merchant.

2. A reencoder to place information encoded on the magnetic strip or stripe of a payment card onto the magnetic strip or stripe of a different card without the permission of the authorized user of the card from which the information is being reencoded and with the intent to defraud the authorized user, the issuer of the authorized user’s payment card, or a merchant.

(b) Any person who violates subparagraph (a)1. or subparagraph (a)2. a second or subsequent time commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(c) Any person who violates subparagraph (a)1. or subparagraph (a)2. shall also be subject to the provisions of ss. 932.701-932.707.

History.–s. 7, ch. 2001-115.

817.631 Possession and transfer of credit-card-making equipment.–A person who receives, possesses, transfers, buys, sells, controls, or has custody of any credit-card-making equipment with intent that such equipment be used in the production of counterfeit credit cards violates this section and is subject to the penalties set forth in s. 817.67(2).

History.–s. 6, ch. 85-43.

817.64 Receipt of money, etc., obtained by fraudulent use of credit cards.–A person who receives money, goods, services, or anything else of value obtained in violation of s. 817.61, knowing or believing that it was so obtained, violates this section and is subject to the penalties set forth in s. 817.67(1). A person who obtains at a discount price a ticket issued by an airline, railroad, steamship, or other transportation company which was acquired in violation of s. 817.61 without reasonable inquiry to ascertain that the person from whom it was obtained had a legal right to possess it shall be presumed to know that such ticket was acquired under circumstances constituting a violation of s. 817.61.

History.–s. 7, ch. 67-340.

817.645 Alteration of credit card invoice; penalties.–Whoever, with intent to defraud any person, falsely alters any invoice for money, goods, services, or anything else of value obtained by use of a credit card after it has been signed by the cardholder or a person authorized by him or her violates this section and is subject to the penalties set forth in s. 817.67(1).

History.–s. 1, ch. 72-127; s. 1273, ch. 97-102.

817.646 Credit card lists prohibited; penalty.–

(1) It is unlawful for any person, business, corporation, partnership, or other agency to make available, lend, donate, or sell any list or portion of a list of any credit card subscribers and their addresses and account numbers to any third party without the express written permission of the issuer and the subscribers; except that a credit card issuer may make a list of its cardholders, including names, addresses, and account numbers, available, without the permission of the subscribers, to a third party pursuant to a contract, if such contract contains language requiring the third party to bind through contract each of its subcontractors by including language prohibiting the divulging of any part of the list for any purpose by the subcontractors except to fulfill and service orders pursuant to the contract between the credit card issuer and the authorized third party. However, notwithstanding any contrary provision of this section, a “consumer reporting agency,” as that term is defined by the Fair Credit Reporting Act, Pub. L. No. 91-508, may provide lists of credit account names, addresses, and account numbers to third parties pursuant to the provisions of that act. Nothing herein shall make unlawful or otherwise prohibit the transmittal of any such information to or from a “consumer reporting agency,” as that term is defined in the Fair Credit Reporting Act, or a “debt collector,” as that term is defined in the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act, Pub. L. No. 95-109. Notwithstanding the provisions of this section:

(a) A corporation may make available, lend, donate, or sell any list or portion of a list of any credit card subscribers and their addresses and account numbers to a subsidiary or the parent corporation of such corporation or to another subsidiary of the common parent corporation; and

(b) Any business entity may lawfully obtain the names, addresses, and account numbers of its own customers. Such information may only be maintained to serve the needs of its customers for its own promotional or marketing purposes.

(2) A violator of this section is subject to the penalties set forth in s. 817.67(1).

History.–s. 6, ch. 84-297; s. 70, ch. 85-62; s. 3, ch. 95-234.

817.65 Defenses not available.–It shall not constitute a defense to a prosecution for any violation of this part that:

(1) A credit card that is not a counterfeit credit card is offered for use or sale as a counterfeit credit card.

(2) A person, other than the defendant, who violated this part has not been convicted, apprehended, or identified.

History.–s. 8, ch. 67-340; s. 7, ch. 85-43.

817.66 Presumptions.–When this part establishes a presumption with respect to any fact which is an element of a crime, it has the following consequences:

(1) When there is sufficient evidence of the facts which give rise to the presumption to go to the jury, the issue of the existence of the presumed fact must be submitted to the jury, unless the court is satisfied that the evidence as a whole clearly negatives the presumed fact; and

(2) When the issue of the existence of the presumed fact is submitted to the jury, the court shall charge that while the presumed fact must, on all the evidence, be proved beyond a reasonable doubt, the law declares that the jury may regard the facts giving rise to the presumption as sufficient evidence of the presumed fact.

History.–s. 9, ch. 67-340.

817.67 Penalties.–

(1) A person who is subject to the penalties of this subsection shall be guilty of a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(2) A person who is subject to the penalties of this subsection is guilty of a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

History.–s. 10, ch. 67-340; s. 883, ch. 71-136; s. 2, ch. 89-27.

817.68 Part II not exclusive.–This part shall not be construed to preclude the applicability of any other provision of the criminal law of this state which presently applies or may in the future apply to any transaction which violates this part, unless such provision is inconsistent with the terms of this part.

History.–s. 11, ch. 67-340.

817.685 Credit card transaction records.–In any action brought under this part, the authentication or identification of the business records of a credit card issuer is evidence sufficient to support a finding that the record in question is what its proponent claims, if the records are supported by the testimony of a designated representative of the credit card issuer. Such designated representative who has received the business records from the custodian of such records shall be considered a qualified witness within the meaning of s. 90.803(6)(a).

History.–s. 8, ch. 85-43.

Delivery of Drugs

893.13 Prohibited acts; penalties.–

(1)(a) Except as authorized by this chapter and chapter 499, it is unlawful for any person to sell, manufacture, or deliver, or possess with intent to sell, manufacture, or deliver, a controlled substance. Any person who violates this provision with respect to:

1. A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(a), (1)(b), (1)(d), (2)(a), (2)(b), or (2)(c)4., commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

2. A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(c), (2)(c)1., (2)(c)2., (2)(c)3., (2)(c)5., (2)(c)6., (2)(c)7., (2)(c)8., (2)(c)9., (3), or (4) commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

3. A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(5) commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(b) Except as provided in this chapter, it is unlawful to sell or deliver in excess of 10 grams of any substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(a) or (1)(b), or any combination thereof, or any mixture containing any such substance. Any person who violates this paragraph commits a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(c) Except as authorized by this chapter, it is unlawful for any person to sell, manufacture, or deliver, or possess with intent to sell, manufacture, or deliver, a controlled substance in, on, or within 1,000 feet of the real property comprising a child care facility as defined in s. 402.302 or a public or private elementary, middle, or secondary school between the hours of 6 a.m. and 12 midnight, or at any time in, on, or within 1,000 feet of real property comprising a state, county, or municipal park, a community center, or a publicly owned recreational facility. For the purposes of this paragraph, the term “community center” means a facility operated by a nonprofit community-based organization for the provision of recreational, social, or educational services to the public. Any person who violates this paragraph with respect to:

1. A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(a), (1)(b), (1)(d), (2)(a), (2)(b), or (2)(c)4., commits a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. The defendant must be sentenced to a minimum term of imprisonment of 3 calendar years unless the offense was committed within 1,000 feet of the real property comprising a child care facility as defined in s. 402.302.

2. A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(c), (2)(c)1., (2)(c)2., (2)(c)3., (2)(c)5., (2)(c)6., (2)(c)7., (2)(c)8., (2)(c)9., (3), or (4) commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

3. Any other controlled substance, except as lawfully sold, manufactured, or delivered, must be sentenced to pay a $500 fine and to serve 100 hours of public service in addition to any other penalty prescribed by law.

This paragraph does not apply to a child care facility unless the owner or operator of the facility posts a sign that is not less than 2 square feet in size with a word legend identifying the facility as a licensed child care facility and that is posted on the property of the child care facility in a conspicuous place where the sign is reasonably visible to the public.

(d) Except as authorized by this chapter, it is unlawful for any person to sell, manufacture, or deliver, or possess with intent to sell, manufacture, or deliver, a controlled substance in, on, or within 1,000 feet of the real property comprising a public or private college, university, or other postsecondary educational institution. Any person who violates this paragraph with respect to:

1. A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(a), (1)(b), (1)(d), (2)(a), (2)(b), or (2)(c)4., commits a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

2. A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(c), (2)(c)1., (2)(c)2., (2)(c)3., (2)(c)5., (2)(c)6., (2)(c)7., (2)(c)8., (2)(c)9., (3), or (4) commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

3. Any other controlled substance, except as lawfully sold, manufactured, or delivered, must be sentenced to pay a $500 fine and to serve 100 hours of public service in addition to any other penalty prescribed by law.

(e) Except as authorized by this chapter, it is unlawful for any person to sell, manufacture, or deliver, or possess with intent to sell, manufacture, or deliver, a controlled substance not authorized by law in, on, or within 1,000 feet of a physical place for worship at which a church or religious organization regularly conducts religious services or within 1,000 feet of a convenience business as defined in s. 812.171. Any person who violates this paragraph with respect to:

1. A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(a), (1)(b), (1)(d), (2)(a), (2)(b), or (2)(c)4., commits a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

2. A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(c), (2)(c)1., (2)(c)2., (2)(c)3., (2)(c)5., (2)(c)6., (2)(c)7., (2)(c)8., (2)(c)9., (3), or (4) commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

3. Any other controlled substance, except as lawfully sold, manufactured, or delivered, must be sentenced to pay a $500 fine and to serve 100 hours of public service in addition to any other penalty prescribed by law.

(f) Except as authorized by this chapter, it is unlawful for any person to sell, manufacture, or deliver, or possess with intent to sell, manufacture, or deliver, a controlled substance in, on, or within 1,000 feet of the real property comprising a public housing facility at any time. For purposes of this section, the term “real property comprising a public housing facility” means real property, as defined in s. 421.03(12), of a public corporation created as a housing authority pursuant to part I of chapter 421. Any person who violates this paragraph with respect to:

1. A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(a), (1)(b), (1)(d), (2)(a), (2)(b), or (2)(c)4., commits a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

2. A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(c), (2)(c)1., (2)(c)2., (2)(c)3., (2)(c)5., (2)(c)6., (2)(c)7., (2)(c)8., (2)(c)9., (3), or (4) commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

3. Any other controlled substance, except as lawfully sold, manufactured, or delivered, must be sentenced to pay a $500 fine and to serve 100 hours of public service in addition to any other penalty prescribed by law.

(2)(a) Except as authorized by this chapter and chapter 499, it is unlawful for any person to purchase, or possess with intent to purchase, a controlled substance. Any person who violates this provision with respect to:

1. A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(a), (1)(b), (1)(d), (2)(a), (2)(b), or (2)(c)4., commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

2. A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(c), (2)(c)1., (2)(c)2., (2)(c)3., (2)(c)5., (2)(c)6., (2)(c)7., (2)(c)8., (2)(c)9., (3), or (4) commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

3. A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(5) commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(b) Except as provided in this chapter, it is unlawful to purchase in excess of 10 grams of any substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(a) or (1)(b), or any combination thereof, or any mixture containing any such substance. Any person who violates this paragraph commits a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(3) Any person who delivers, without consideration, not more than 20 grams of cannabis, as defined in this chapter, commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083. For the purposes of this paragraph, “cannabis” does not include the resin extracted from the plants of the genus Cannabis or any compound manufacture, salt, derivative, mixture, or preparation of such resin.

(4) Except as authorized by this chapter, it is unlawful for any person 18 years of age or older to deliver any controlled substance to a person under the age of 18 years, or to use or hire a person under the age of 18 years as an agent or employee in the sale or delivery of such a substance, or to use such person to assist in avoiding detection or apprehension for a violation of this chapter. Any person who violates this provision with respect to:

(a) A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(a), (1)(b), (1)(d), (2)(a), (2)(b), or (2)(c)4., commits a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(b) A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(c), (2)(c)1., (2)(c)2., (2)(c)3., (2)(c)5., (2)(c)6., (2)(c)7., (2)(c)8., (2)(c)9., (3), or (4) commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

Imposition of sentence may not be suspended or deferred, nor shall the person so convicted be placed on probation.

(5) It is unlawful for any person to bring into this state any controlled substance unless the possession of such controlled substance is authorized by this chapter or unless such person is licensed to do so by the appropriate federal agency. Any person who violates this provision with respect to:

(a) A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(a), (1)(b), (1)(d), (2)(a), (2)(b), or (2)(c)4., commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(b) A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(c), (2)(c)1., (2)(c)2., (2)(c)3., (2)(c)5., (2)(c)6., (2)(c)7., (2)(c)8., (2)(c)9., (3), or (4) commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(c) A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(5) commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(6)(a) It is unlawful for any person to be in actual or constructive possession of a controlled substance unless such controlled substance was lawfully obtained from a practitioner or pursuant to a valid prescription or order of a practitioner while acting in the course of his or her professional practice or to be in actual or constructive possession of a controlled substance except as otherwise authorized by this chapter. Any person who violates this provision commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(b) If the offense is the possession of not more than 20 grams of cannabis, as defined in this chapter, the person commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083. For the purposes of this subsection, “cannabis” does not include the resin extracted from the plants of the genus Cannabis, or any compound manufacture, salt, derivative, mixture, or preparation of such resin.

(c) Except as provided in this chapter, it is unlawful to possess in excess of 10 grams of any substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(a) or (1)(b), or any combination thereof, or any mixture containing any such substance. Any person who violates this paragraph commits a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(d) Notwithstanding any provision to the contrary of the laws of this state relating to arrest, a law enforcement officer may arrest without warrant any person who the officer has probable cause to believe is violating the provisions of this chapter relating to possession of cannabis.

(7)(a) It is unlawful for any person:

1. To distribute or dispense a controlled substance in violation of this chapter.

2. To refuse or fail to make, keep, or furnish any record, notification, order form, statement, invoice, or information required under this chapter.

3. To refuse an entry into any premises for any inspection or to refuse to allow any inspection authorized by this chapter.

4. To distribute a controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1) or (2) except pursuant to an order form as required by s. 893.06.

5. To keep or maintain any store, shop, warehouse, dwelling, building, vehicle, boat, aircraft, or other structure or place which is resorted to by persons using controlled substances in violation of this chapter for the purpose of using these substances, or which is used for keeping or selling them in violation of this chapter.

6. To use to his or her own personal advantage, or to reveal, any information obtained in enforcement of this chapter except in a prosecution or administrative hearing for a violation of this chapter.

7. To possess a prescription form which has not been completed and signed by the practitioner whose name appears printed thereon, unless the person is that practitioner, is an agent or employee of that practitioner, is a pharmacist, or is a supplier of prescription forms who is authorized by that practitioner to possess those forms.

8. To withhold information from a practitioner from whom the person seeks to obtain a controlled substance or a prescription for a controlled substance that the person making the request has received a controlled substance or a prescription for a controlled substance of like therapeutic use from another practitioner within the previous 30 days.

9. To acquire or obtain, or attempt to acquire or obtain, possession of a controlled substance by misrepresentation, fraud, forgery, deception, or subterfuge.

10. To affix any false or forged label to a package or receptacle containing a controlled substance.

11. To furnish false or fraudulent material information in, or omit any material information from, any report or other document required to be kept or filed under this chapter or any record required to be kept by this chapter.

(b) Any person who violates the provisions of subparagraphs (a)1.-7. commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083; except that, upon a second or subsequent violation, the person commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(c) Any person who violates the provisions of subparagraphs (a)8.-11. commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(8)(a) Notwithstanding subsection (9), a prescribing practitioner may not:

1. Knowingly assist a patient, other person, or the owner of an animal in obtaining a controlled substance through deceptive, untrue, or fraudulent representations in or related to the practice of the prescribing practitioner’s professional practice;

2. Employ a trick or scheme in the practice of the prescribing practitioner’s professional practice to assist a patient, other person, or the owner of an animal in obtaining a controlled substance;

3. Knowingly write a prescription for a controlled substance for a fictitious person; or

4. Write a prescription for a controlled substance for a patient, other person, or an animal if the sole purpose of writing such prescription is to provide a monetary benefit to, or obtain a monetary benefit for, the prescribing practitioner.

(b) If the prescribing practitioner wrote a prescription or multiple prescriptions for a controlled substance for the patient, other person, or animal for which there was no medical necessity, or which was in excess of what was medically necessary to treat the patient, other person, or animal, that fact does not give rise to any presumption that the prescribing practitioner violated subparagraph (a)1., but may be considered with other competent evidence in determining whether the prescribing practitioner knowingly assisted a patient, other person, or the owner of an animal to obtain a controlled substance in violation of subparagraph (a)1.

(c) A person who violates paragraph (a) commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(d) Notwithstanding paragraph (c), if a prescribing practitioner has violated paragraph (a) and received $1,000 or more in payment for writing one or more prescriptions or, in the case of a prescription written for a controlled substance described in s. 893.135, has written one or more prescriptions for a quantity of a controlled substance which, individually or in the aggregate, meets the threshold for the offense of trafficking in a controlled substance under s. 893.15, the violation is reclassified as a felony of the second degree and ranked in level 4 of the Criminal Punishment Code.

(9) The provisions of subsections (1)-(8) are not applicable to the delivery to, or actual or constructive possession for medical or scientific use or purpose only of controlled substances by, persons included in any of the following classes, or the agents or employees of such persons, for use in the usual course of their business or profession or in the performance of their official duties:

(a) Pharmacists.

(b) Practitioners.

(c) Persons who procure controlled substances in good faith and in the course of professional practice only, by or under the supervision of pharmacists or practitioners employed by them, or for the purpose of lawful research, teaching, or testing, and not for resale.

(d) Hospitals that procure controlled substances for lawful administration by practitioners, but only for use by or in the particular hospital.

(e) Officers or employees of state, federal, or local governments acting in their official capacity only, or informers acting under their jurisdiction.

(f) Common carriers.

(g) Manufacturers, wholesalers, and distributors.

(h) Law enforcement officers for bona fide law enforcement purposes in the course of an active criminal investigation.

(10) Notwithstanding any provision of the sentencing guidelines or the Criminal Punishment Code to the contrary, on or after October 1, 1993, any defendant who:

(a) Violates subparagraph (1)(a)1., subparagraph (1)(c)2., subparagraph (1)(d)2., subparagraph (2)(a)1., or paragraph (5)(a); and

(b) Has not previously been convicted, regardless of whether adjudication was withheld, of any felony, other than a violation of subparagraph (1)(a)1., subparagraph (1)(c)2., subparagraph (1)(d)2., subparagraph (2)(a)1., or paragraph (5)(a),

may be required by the court to successfully complete a term of probation pursuant to the terms and conditions set forth in s. 948.034(1), in lieu of serving a term of imprisonment.

(11) Notwithstanding any provision of the sentencing guidelines or the Criminal Punishment Code to the contrary, on or after January 1, 1994, any defendant who:

(a) Violates subparagraph (1)(a)2., subparagraph (2)(a)2., paragraph (5)(b), or paragraph (6)(a); and

(b) Has not previously been convicted, regardless of whether adjudication was withheld, of any felony, other than a violation of subparagraph (1)(a)2., subparagraph (2)(a)2., paragraph (5)(b), or paragraph (6)(a),

may be required by the court to successfully complete a term of probation pursuant to the terms and conditions set forth in s. 948.034(2), in lieu of serving a term of imprisonment.

History.–s. 13, ch. 73-331; s. 1, ch. 76-200; s. 1, ch. 77-174; s. 2, ch. 79-1; s. 3, ch. 79-325; s. 5, ch. 80-30; s. 2, ch. 80-70; s. 490, ch. 81-259; s. 2, ch. 82-16; s. 52, ch. 83-215; s. 1, ch. 84-77; s. 5, ch. 85-242; s. 4, ch. 87-243; s. 2, ch. 88-381; s. 4, ch. 89-281; s. 1, ch. 89-524; ss. 1, 6, ch. 90-111; s. 1, ch. 93-59; s. 2, ch. 93-92; s. 1, ch. 93-194; ss. 22, 23, ch. 93-406; s. 2, ch. 96-360; s. 2, ch. 97-1; s. 1, ch. 97-43; s. 1827, ch. 97-102; s. 22, ch. 97-194; s. 106, ch. 97-264; s. 1, ch. 97-269; s. 47, ch. 97-271; s. 1, ch. 98-22; s. 1, ch. 99-154; s. 14, ch. 99-186; s. 3, ch. 2000-320; s. 11, ch. 2002-78; s. 2, ch. 2002-81; s. 3, ch. 2003-10; s. 1, ch. 2003-95.

Disorderly Intoxication

856.011 Disorderly intoxication.–

(1) No person in the state shall be intoxicated and endanger the safety of another person or property, and no person in the state shall be intoxicated or drink any alcoholic beverage in a public place or in or upon any public conveyance and cause a public disturbance.

(2) Any person violating the provisions of this section shall be guilty of a misdemeanor of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(3) Any person who shall have been convicted or have forfeited collateral under the provisions of subsection (1) three times in the preceding 12 months shall be deemed a habitual offender and may be committed by the court to an appropriate treatment resource for a period of not more than 60 days. Any peace officer, in lieu of incarcerating an intoxicated person for violation of subsection (1), may take or send the intoxicated person to her or his home or to a public or private health facility, and the law enforcement officer may take reasonable measures to ascertain the commercial transportation used for such purposes is paid for by such person in advance. Any law enforcement officers so acting shall be considered as carrying out their official duty.

History.–s. 16A, ch. 71-132; s. 1383, ch. 97-102.

Driving Under the Influence (DUI)

Florida DUI Law
316.193 Driving under the influence; penalties.–

(1) A person is guilty of the offense of driving under the influence and is subject to punishment as provided in subsection (2) if the person is driving or in actual physical control of a vehicle within this state and:

(a) The person is under the influence of alcoholic beverages, any chemical substance set forth in s. 877.111, or any substance controlled under chapter 893, when affected to the extent that the person’s normal faculties are impaired;

(b) The person has a blood-alcohol level of 0.08 or more grams of alcohol per 100 milliliters of blood; or

(c) The person has a breath-alcohol level of 0.08 or more grams of alcohol per 210 liters of breath.

(2)(a) Except as provided in paragraph (b), subsection (3), or subsection (4), any person who is convicted of a violation of subsection (1) shall be punished:

1. By a fine of:

a. Not less than $250 or more than $500 for a first conviction.

b. Not less than $500 or more than $1,000 for a second conviction; and

2. By imprisonment for:

a. Not more than 6 months for a first conviction.

b. Not more than 9 months for a second conviction.

3. For a second conviction, by mandatory placement for a period of at least 1 year, at the convicted person’s sole expense, of an ignition interlock device approved by the department in accordance with s. 316.1938 upon all vehicles that are individually or jointly leased or owned and routinely operated by the convicted person, when the convicted person qualifies for a permanent or restricted license. The installation of such device may not occur before July 1, 2003.

(b)1. Any person who is convicted of a third violation of this section for an offense that occurs within 10 years after a prior conviction for a violation of this section commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. In addition, the court shall order the mandatory placement for a period of not less than 2 years, at the convicted person’s sole expense, of an ignition interlock device approved by the department in accordance with s. 316.1938 upon all vehicles that are individually or jointly leased or owned and routinely operated by the convicted person, when the convicted person qualifies for a permanent or restricted license. The installation of such device may not occur before July 1, 2003.

2. Any person who is convicted of a third violation of this section for an offense that occurs more than 10 years after the date of a prior conviction for a violation of this section shall be punished by a fine of not less than $1,000 or more than $2,500 and by imprisonment for not more than 12 months. In addition, the court shall order the mandatory placement for a period of at least 2 years, at the convicted person’s sole expense, of an ignition interlock device approved by the department in accordance with s. 316.1938 upon all vehicles that are individually or jointly leased or owned and routinely operated by the convicted person, when the convicted person qualifies for a permanent or restricted license. The installation of such device may not occur before July 1, 2003.

3. Any person who is convicted of a fourth or subsequent violation of this section, regardless of when any prior conviction for a violation of this section occurred, commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. However, the fine imposed for such fourth or subsequent violation may be not less than $1,000.

(3) Any person:

(a) Who is in violation of subsection (1);

(b) Who operates a vehicle; and

(c) Who, by reason of such operation, causes or contributes to causing:

1. Damage to the property or person of another commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

2. Serious bodily injury to another, as defined in s. 316.1933, commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

3. The death of any human being commits DUI manslaughter, and commits:

a. A felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

b. A felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084, if:

(I) At the time of the crash, the person knew, or should have known, that the crash occurred; and

(II) The person failed to give information and render aid as required by s. 316.062.

(4) Any person who is convicted of a violation of subsection (1) and who has a blood-alcohol level or breath-alcohol level of 0.20 or higher, or any person who is convicted of a violation of subsection (1) and who at the time of the offense was accompanied in the vehicle by a person under the age of 18 years, shall be punished:

(a) By a fine of:

1. Not less than $500 or more than $1,000 for a first conviction.

2. Not less than $1,000 or more than $2,000 for a second conviction.

3. Not less than $2,000 for a third or subsequent conviction.

(b) By imprisonment for:

1. Not more than 9 months for a first conviction.

2. Not more than 12 months for a second conviction.

For the purposes of this subsection, only the instant offense is required to be a violation of subsection (1) by a person who has a blood-alcohol level or breath-alcohol level of 0.20 or higher.

(c) In addition to the penalties in paragraphs (a) and (b), the court shall order the mandatory placement, at the convicted person’s sole expense, of an ignition interlock device approved by the department in accordance with s. 316.1938 upon all vehicles that are individually or jointly leased or owned and routinely operated by the convicted person for up to 6 months for the first offense and for at least 2 years for a second offense, when the convicted person qualifies for a permanent or restricted license. The installation of such device may not occur before July 1, 2003.

(5) The court shall place all offenders convicted of violating this section on monthly reporting probation and shall require completion of a substance abuse course conducted by a DUI program licensed by the department under s. 322.292, which must include a psychosocial evaluation of the offender. If the DUI program refers the offender to an authorized substance abuse treatment provider for substance abuse treatment, in addition to any sentence or fine imposed under this section, completion of all such education, evaluation, and treatment is a condition of reporting probation. The offender shall assume reasonable costs for such education, evaluation, and treatment. The referral to treatment resulting from a psychosocial evaluation shall not be waived without a supporting independent psychosocial evaluation conducted by an authorized substance abuse treatment provider appointed by the court, which shall have access to the DUI program’s psychosocial evaluation before the independent psychosocial evaluation is conducted. The court shall review the results and recommendations of both evaluations before determining the request for waiver. The offender shall bear the full cost of this procedure. The term “substance abuse” means the abuse of alcohol or any substance named or described in Schedules I through V of s. 893.03. If an offender referred to treatment under this subsection fails to report for or complete such treatment or fails to complete the DUI program substance abuse education course and evaluation, the DUI program shall notify the court and the department of the failure. Upon receipt of the notice, the department shall cancel the offender’s driving privilege, notwithstanding the terms of the court order or any suspension or revocation of the driving privilege. The department may temporarily reinstate the driving privilege on a restricted basis upon verification from the DUI program that the offender is currently participating in treatment and the DUI education course and evaluation requirement has been completed. If the DUI program notifies the department of the second failure to complete treatment, the department shall reinstate the driving privilege only after notice of completion of treatment from the DUI program. The organization that conducts the substance abuse education and evaluation may not provide required substance abuse treatment unless a waiver has been granted to that organization by the department. A waiver may be granted only if the department determines, in accordance with its rules, that the service provider that conducts the substance abuse education and evaluation is the most appropriate service provider and is licensed under chapter 397 or is exempt from such licensure. A statistical referral report shall be submitted quarterly to the department by each organization authorized to provide services under this section.

(6) With respect to any person convicted of a violation of subsection (1), regardless of any penalty imposed pursuant to subsection (2), subsection (3), or subsection (4):

(a) For the first conviction, the court shall place the defendant on probation for a period not to exceed 1 year and, as a condition of such probation, shall order the defendant to participate in public service or a community work project for a minimum of 50 hours; or the court may order instead, that any defendant pay an additional fine of $10 for each hour of public service or community work otherwise required, if, after consideration of the residence or location of the defendant at the time public service or community work is required, payment of the fine is in the best interests of the state. However, the total period of probation and incarceration may not exceed 1 year. The court must also, as a condition of probation, order the impoundment or immobilization of the vehicle that was operated by or in the actual control of the defendant or any one vehicle registered in the defendant’s name at the time of impoundment or immobilization, for a period of 10 days or for the unexpired term of any lease or rental agreement that expires within 10 days. The impoundment or immobilization must not occur concurrently with the incarceration of the defendant. The impoundment or immobilization order may be dismissed in accordance with paragraph (e), paragraph (f), paragraph (g), or paragraph (h).

(b) For the second conviction for an offense that occurs within a period of 5 years after the date of a prior conviction for violation of this section, the court shall order imprisonment for not less than 10 days. The court must also, as a condition of probation, order the impoundment or immobilization of all vehicles owned by the defendant at the time of impoundment or immobilization, for a period of 30 days or for the unexpired term of any lease or rental agreement that expires within 30 days. The impoundment or immobilization must not occur concurrently with the incarceration of the defendant and must occur concurrently with the driver’s license revocation imposed under s. 322.28(2)(a)2. The impoundment or immobilization order may be dismissed in accordance with paragraph (e), paragraph (f), paragraph (g), or paragraph (h). At least 48 hours of confinement must be consecutive.

(c) For the third or subsequent conviction for an offense that occurs within a period of 10 years after the date of a prior conviction for violation of this section, the court shall order imprisonment for not less than 30 days. The court must also, as a condition of probation, order the impoundment or immobilization of all vehicles owned by the defendant at the time of impoundment or immobilization, for a period of 90 days or for the unexpired term of any lease or rental agreement that expires within 90 days. The impoundment or immobilization must not occur concurrently with the incarceration of the defendant and must occur concurrently with the driver’s license revocation imposed under s. 322.28(2)(a)3. The impoundment or immobilization order may be dismissed in accordance with paragraph (e), paragraph (f), paragraph (g), or paragraph (h). At least 48 hours of confinement must be consecutive.

(d) The court must at the time of sentencing the defendant issue an order for the impoundment or immobilization of a vehicle. Within 7 business days after the date that the court issues the order of impoundment or immobilization, the clerk of the court must send notice by certified mail, return receipt requested, to the registered owner of each vehicle, if the registered owner is a person other than the defendant, and to each person of record claiming a lien against the vehicle.

(e) A person who owns but was not operating the vehicle when the offense occurred may submit to the court a police report indicating that the vehicle was stolen at the time of the offense or documentation of having purchased the vehicle after the offense was committed from an entity other than the defendant or the defendant’s agent. If the court finds that the vehicle was stolen or that the sale was not made to circumvent the order and allow the defendant continued access to the vehicle, the order must be dismissed and the owner of the vehicle will incur no costs. If the court denies the request to dismiss the order of impoundment or immobilization, the petitioner may request an evidentiary hearing.

(f) A person who owns but was not operating the vehicle when the offense occurred, and whose vehicle was stolen or who purchased the vehicle after the offense was committed directly from the defendant or the defendant’s agent, may request an evidentiary hearing to determine whether the impoundment or immobilization should occur. If the court finds that either the vehicle was stolen or the purchase was made without knowledge of the offense, that the purchaser had no relationship to the defendant other than through the transaction, and that such purchase would not circumvent the order and allow the defendant continued access to the vehicle, the order must be dismissed and the owner of the vehicle will incur no costs.

(g) The court shall also dismiss the order of impoundment or immobilization of the vehicle if the court finds that the family of the owner of the vehicle has no other private or public means of transportation.

(h) The court may also dismiss the order of impoundment or immobilization of any vehicles that are owned by the defendant but that are operated solely by the employees of the defendant or any business owned by the defendant.

(i) All costs and fees for the impoundment or immobilization, including the cost of notification, must be paid by the owner of the vehicle or, if the vehicle is leased or rented, by the person leasing or renting the vehicle, unless the impoundment or immobilization order is dismissed. All provisions of s. 713.78 shall apply.

(j) The person who owns a vehicle that is impounded or immobilized under this paragraph, or a person who has a lien of record against such a vehicle and who has not requested a review of the impoundment pursuant to paragraph (e), paragraph (f), or paragraph (g), may, within 10 days after the date that person has knowledge of the location of the vehicle, file a complaint in the county in which the owner resides to determine whether the vehicle was wrongfully taken or withheld from the owner or lienholder. Upon the filing of a complaint, the owner or lienholder may have the vehicle released by posting with the court a bond or other adequate security equal to the amount of the costs and fees for impoundment or immobilization, including towing or storage, to ensure the payment of such costs and fees if the owner or lienholder does not prevail. When the bond is posted and the fee is paid as set forth in s. 28.24, the clerk of the court shall issue a certificate releasing the vehicle. At the time of release, after reasonable inspection, the owner or lienholder must give a receipt to the towing or storage company indicating any loss or damage to the vehicle or to the contents of the vehicle.

(k) A defendant, in the court’s discretion, may be required to serve all or any portion of a term of imprisonment to which the defendant has been sentenced pursuant to this section in a residential alcoholism treatment program or a residential drug abuse treatment program. Any time spent in such a program must be credited by the court toward the term of imprisonment.

For the purposes of this section, any conviction for a violation of s. 327.35; a previous conviction for the violation of former s. 316.1931, former s. 860.01, or former s. 316.028; or a previous conviction outside this state for driving under the influence, driving while intoxicated, driving with an unlawful blood-alcohol level, driving with an unlawful breath-alcohol level, or any other similar alcohol-related or drug-related traffic offense, is also considered a previous conviction for violation of this section. However, in satisfaction of the fine imposed pursuant to this section, the court may, upon a finding that the defendant is financially unable to pay either all or part of the fine, order that the defendant participate for a specified additional period of time in public service or a community work project in lieu of payment of that portion of the fine which the court determines the defendant is unable to pay. In determining such additional sentence, the court shall consider the amount of the unpaid portion of the fine and the reasonable value of the services to be ordered; however, the court may not compute the reasonable value of services at a rate less than the federal minimum wage at the time of sentencing.

(7) A conviction under this section does not bar any civil suit for damages against the person so convicted.

(8) At the arraignment, or in conjunction with any notice of arraignment provided by the clerk of the court, the clerk shall provide any person charged with a violation of this section with notice that upon conviction the court shall suspend or revoke the offender’s driver’s license and that the offender should make arrangements for transportation at any proceeding in which the court may take such action. Failure to provide such notice does not affect the court’s suspension or revocation of the offender’s driver’s license.

(9) A person who is arrested for a violation of this section may not be released from custody:

(a) Until the person is no longer under the influence of alcoholic beverages, any chemical substance set forth in s. 877.111, or any substance controlled under chapter 893 and affected to the extent that his or her normal faculties are impaired;

(b) Until the person’s blood-alcohol level or breath-alcohol level is less than 0.05; or

(c) Until 8 hours have elapsed from the time the person was arrested.

(10) The rulings of the Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles under s. 322.2615 shall not be considered in any trial for a violation of this section. Testimony or evidence from the administrative proceedings or any written statement submitted by a person in his or her request for administrative review is inadmissible into evidence or for any other purpose in any criminal proceeding, unless timely disclosed in criminal discovery pursuant to Rule 3.220, Florida Rules of Criminal Procedure.

(11) The Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles is directed to adopt rules providing for the implementation of the use of ignition interlock devices.

(12) If the records of the Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles show that the defendant has been previously convicted of the offense of driving under the influence, that evidence is sufficient by itself to establish that prior conviction for driving under the influence. However, such evidence may be contradicted or rebutted by other evidence. This presumption may be considered along with any other evidence presented in deciding whether the defendant has been previously convicted of the offense of driving under the influence.

History.–s. 1, ch. 71-135; s. 19, ch. 73-331; s. 1, ch. 74-384; s. 1, ch. 76-31; s. 1, ch. 79-408; s. 1, ch. 80-343; s. 2, ch. 82-155; s. 1, ch. 82-403; s. 2, ch. 83-187; s. 1, ch. 83-228; s. 1, ch. 84-359; s. 24, ch. 85-167; s. 2, ch. 85-337; s. 1, ch. 86-296; s. 2, ch. 88-5; s. 5, ch. 88-82; s. 8, ch. 88-196; s. 8, ch. 88-324; s. 60, ch. 88-381; s. 7, ch. 89-3; ss. 1, 18, ch. 91-255; s. 32, ch. 92-78; ss. 1, 11, ch. 93-124; s. 3, ch. 93-246; s. 1, ch. 94-324; s. 895, ch. 95-148; s. 1, ch. 95-186; s. 4, ch. 95-333; s. 12, ch. 95-408; s. 3, ch. 96-330; s. 2, ch. 96-413; s. 48, ch. 97-100; s. 97, ch. 97-264; s. 25, ch. 97-271; ss. 6, 13, ch. 98-324; s. 5, ch. 99-234; s. 139, ch. 99-248; s. 4, ch. 2000-313; s. 10, ch. 2000-320; s. 2, ch. 2002-78; s. 1, ch. 2002-263; s. 1, ch. 2004-379.

Note.–Former s. 316.028.

316.1932 Tests for alcohol, chemical substances, or controlled substances; implied consent; refusal.–

(1)(a)1.a. Any person who accepts the privilege extended by the laws of this state of operating a motor vehicle within this state is, by so operating such vehicle, deemed to have given his or her consent to submit to an approved chemical test or physical test including, but not limited to, an infrared light test of his or her breath for the purpose of determining the alcoholic content of his or her blood or breath if the person is lawfully arrested for any offense allegedly committed while the person was driving or was in actual physical control of a motor vehicle while under the influence of alcoholic beverages. The chemical or physical breath test must be incidental to a lawful arrest and administered at the request of a law enforcement officer who has reasonable cause to believe such person was driving or was in actual physical control of the motor vehicle within this state while under the influence of alcoholic beverages. The administration of a breath test does not preclude the administration of another type of test. The person shall be told that his or her failure to submit to any lawful test of his or her breath will result in the suspension of the person’s privilege to operate a motor vehicle for a period of 1 year for a first refusal, or for a period of 18 months if the driving privilege of such person has been previously suspended as a result of a refusal to submit to such a test or tests, and shall also be told that if he or she refuses to submit to a lawful test of his or her breath and his or her driving privilege has been previously suspended for a prior refusal to submit to a lawful test of his or her breath, urine, or blood, he or she commits a misdemeanor in addition to any other penalties. The refusal to submit to a chemical or physical breath test upon the request of a law enforcement officer as provided in this section is admissible into evidence in any criminal proceeding.

b. Any person who accepts the privilege extended by the laws of this state of operating a motor vehicle within this state is, by so operating such vehicle, deemed to have given his or her consent to submit to a urine test for the purpose of detecting the presence of chemical substances as set forth in s. 877.111 or controlled substances if the person is lawfully arrested for any offense allegedly committed while the person was driving or was in actual physical control of a motor vehicle while under the influence of chemical substances or controlled substances. The urine test must be incidental to a lawful arrest and administered at a detention facility or any other facility, mobile or otherwise, which is equipped to administer such tests at the request of a law enforcement officer who has reasonable cause to believe such person was driving or was in actual physical control of a motor vehicle within this state while under the influence of chemical substances or controlled substances. The urine test shall be administered at a detention facility or any other facility, mobile or otherwise, which is equipped to administer such test in a reasonable manner that will ensure the accuracy of the specimen and maintain the privacy of the individual involved. The administration of a urine test does not preclude the administration of another type of test. The person shall be told that his or her failure to submit to any lawful test of his or her urine will result in the suspension of the person’s privilege to operate a motor vehicle for a period of 1 year for the first refusal, or for a period of 18 months if the driving privilege of such person has been previously suspended as a result of a refusal to submit to such a test or tests, and shall also be told that if he or she refuses to submit to a lawful test of his or her urine and his or her driving privilege has been previously suspended for a prior refusal to submit to a lawful test of his or her breath, urine, or blood, he or she commits a misdemeanor in addition to any other penalties. The refusal to submit to a urine test upon the request of a law enforcement officer as provided in this section is admissible into evidence in any criminal proceeding.

2. The Alcohol Testing Program within the Department of Law Enforcement is responsible for the regulation of the operation, inspection, and registration of breath test instruments utilized under the driving and boating under the influence provisions and related provisions located in this chapter and chapters 322 and 327. The program is responsible for the regulation of the individuals who operate, inspect, and instruct on the breath test instruments utilized in the driving and boating under the influence provisions and related provisions located in this chapter and chapters 322 and 327. The program is further responsible for the regulation of blood analysts who conduct blood testing to be utilized under the driving and boating under the influence provisions and related provisions located in this chapter and chapters 322 and 327. The program shall:

a. Establish uniform criteria for the issuance of permits to breath test operators, agency inspectors, instructors, blood analysts, and instruments.

b. Have the authority to permit breath test operators, agency inspectors, instructors, blood analysts, and instruments.

c. Have the authority to discipline and suspend, revoke, or renew the permits of breath test operators, agency inspectors, instructors, blood analysts, and instruments.

d. Establish uniform requirements for instruction and curricula for the operation and inspection of approved instruments.

e. Have the authority to specify one approved curriculum for the operation and inspection of approved instruments.

f. Establish a procedure for the approval of breath test operator and agency inspector classes.

g. Have the authority to approve or disapprove breath test instruments and accompanying paraphernalia for use pursuant to the driving and boating under the influence provisions and related provisions located in this chapter and chapters 322 and 327.

h. With the approval of the executive director of the Department of Law Enforcement, make and enter into contracts and agreements with other agencies, organizations, associations, corporations, individuals, or federal agencies as are necessary, expedient, or incidental to the performance of duties.

i. Issue final orders which include findings of fact and conclusions of law and which constitute final agency action for the purpose of chapter 120.

j. Enforce compliance with the provisions of this section through civil or administrative proceedings.

k. Make recommendations concerning any matter within the purview of this section, this chapter, chapter 322, or chapter 327.

l. Promulgate rules for the administration and implementation of this section, including definitions of terms.

m. Consult and cooperate with other entities for the purpose of implementing the mandates of this section.

n. Have the authority to approve the type of blood test utilized under the driving and boating under the influence provisions and related provisions located in this chapter and chapters 322 and 327.

o. Have the authority to specify techniques and methods for breath alcohol testing and blood testing utilized under the driving and boating under the influence provisions and related provisions located in this chapter and chapters 322 and 327.

p. Have the authority to approve repair facilities for the approved breath test instruments, including the authority to set criteria for approval.

Nothing in this section shall be construed to supersede provisions in this chapter and chapters 322 and 327. The specifications in this section are derived from the power and authority previously and currently possessed by the Department of Law Enforcement and are enumerated to conform with the mandates of chapter 99-379, Laws of Florida.

(b)1. The blood-alcohol level must be based upon grams of alcohol per 100 milliliters of blood. The breath-alcohol level must be based upon grams of alcohol per 210 liters of breath.

2. An analysis of a person’s breath, in order to be considered valid under this section, must have been performed substantially according to methods approved by the Department of Law Enforcement. For this purpose, the department may approve satisfactory techniques or methods. Any insubstantial differences between approved techniques and actual testing procedures in any individual case do not render the test or test results invalid.

(c) Any person who accepts the privilege extended by the laws of this state of operating a motor vehicle within this state is, by operating such vehicle, deemed to have given his or her consent to submit to an approved blood test for the purpose of determining the alcoholic content of the blood or a blood test for the purpose of determining the presence of chemical substances or controlled substances as provided in this section if there is reasonable cause to believe the person was driving or in actual physical control of a motor vehicle while under the influence of alcoholic beverages or chemical or controlled substances and the person appears for treatment at a hospital, clinic, or other medical facility and the administration of a breath or urine test is impractical or impossible. As used in this paragraph, the term “other medical facility” includes an ambulance or other medical emergency vehicle. The blood test shall be performed in a reasonable manner. Any person who is incapable of refusal by reason of unconsciousness or other mental or physical condition is deemed not to have withdrawn his or her consent to such test. A blood test may be administered whether or not the person is told that his or her failure to submit to such a blood test will result in the suspension of the person’s privilege to operate a motor vehicle upon the public highways of this state and that a refusal to submit to a lawful test of his or her blood, if his or her driving privilege has been previously suspended for refusal to submit to a lawful test of his or her breath, urine, or blood, is a misdemeanor. Any person who is capable of refusal shall be told that his or her failure to submit to such a blood test will result in the suspension of the person’s privilege to operate a motor vehicle for a period of 1 year for a first refusal, or for a period of 18 months if the driving privilege of the person has been suspended previously as a result of a refusal to submit to such a test or tests, and that a refusal to submit to a lawful test of his or her blood, if his or her driving privilege has been previously suspended for a prior refusal to submit to a lawful test of his or her breath, urine, or blood, is a misdemeanor. The refusal to submit to a blood test upon the request of a law enforcement officer is admissible in evidence in any criminal proceeding.

(d) If the arresting officer does not request a chemical or physical breath test of the person arrested for any offense allegedly committed while the person was driving or was in actual physical control of a motor vehicle while under the influence of alcoholic beverages or controlled substances, such person may request the arresting officer to have a chemical or physical test made of the arrested person’s breath or a test of the urine or blood for the purpose of determining the alcoholic content of the person’s blood or breath or the presence of chemical substances or controlled substances; and, if so requested, the arresting officer shall have the test performed.

(e)1. By applying for a driver’s license and by accepting and using a driver’s license, the person holding the driver’s license is deemed to have expressed his or her consent to the provisions of this section.

2. A nonresident or any other person driving in a status exempt from the requirements of the driver’s license law, by his or her act of driving in such exempt status, is deemed to have expressed his or her consent to the provisions of this section.

3. A warning of the consent provision of this section shall be printed above the signature line on each new or renewed driver’s license.

(f)1. The tests determining the weight of alcohol in the defendant’s blood or breath shall be administered at the request of a law enforcement officer substantially in accordance with rules of the Department of Law Enforcement. Such rules must specify precisely the test or tests that are approved by the Department of Law Enforcement for reliability of result and ease of administration, and must provide an approved method of administration which must be followed in all such tests given under this section. However, the failure of a law enforcement officer to request the withdrawal of blood does not affect the admissibility of a test of blood withdrawn for medical purposes.

2.a. Only a physician, certified paramedic, registered nurse, licensed practical nurse, other personnel authorized by a hospital to draw blood, or duly licensed clinical laboratory director, supervisor, technologist, or technician, acting at the request of a law enforcement officer, may withdraw blood for the purpose of determining its alcoholic content or the presence of chemical substances or controlled substances therein. However, the failure of a law enforcement officer to request the withdrawal of blood does not affect the admissibility of a test of blood withdrawn for medical purposes.

b. Notwithstanding any provision of law pertaining to the confidentiality of hospital records or other medical records, if a health care provider, who is providing medical care in a health care facility to a person injured in a motor vehicle crash, becomes aware, as a result of any blood test performed in the course of that medical treatment, that the person’s blood-alcohol level meets or exceeds the blood-alcohol level specified in s. 316.193(1)(b), the health care provider may notify any law enforcement officer or law enforcement agency. Any such notice must be given within a reasonable time after the health care provider receives the test result. Any such notice shall be used only for the purpose of providing the law enforcement officer with reasonable cause to request the withdrawal of a blood sample pursuant to this section.

c. The notice shall consist only of the name of the person being treated, the name of the person who drew the blood, the blood-alcohol level indicated by the test, and the date and time of the administration of the test.

d. Nothing contained in s. 395.3025(4), s. 456.057, or any applicable practice act affects the authority to provide notice under this section, and the health care provider is not considered to have breached any duty owed to the person under s. 395.3025(4), s. 456.057, or any applicable practice act by providing notice or failing to provide notice. It shall not be a breach of any ethical, moral, or legal duty for a health care provider to provide notice or fail to provide notice.

e. A civil, criminal, or administrative action may not be brought against any person or health care provider participating in good faith in the provision of notice or failure to provide notice as provided in this section. Any person or health care provider participating in the provision of notice or failure to provide notice as provided in this section shall be immune from any civil or criminal liability and from any professional disciplinary action with respect to the provision of notice or failure to provide notice under this section. Any such participant has the same immunity with respect to participating in any judicial proceedings resulting from the notice or failure to provide notice.

3. The person tested may, at his or her own expense, have a physician, registered nurse, other personnel authorized by a hospital to draw blood, or duly licensed clinical laboratory director, supervisor, technologist, or technician, or other person of his or her own choosing administer an independent test in addition to the test administered at the direction of the law enforcement officer for the purpose of determining the amount of alcohol in the person’s blood or breath or the presence of chemical substances or controlled substances at the time alleged, as shown by chemical analysis of his or her blood or urine, or by chemical or physical test of his or her breath. The failure or inability to obtain an independent test by a person does not preclude the admissibility in evidence of the test taken at the direction of the law enforcement officer. The law enforcement officer shall not interfere with the person’s opportunity to obtain the independent test and shall provide the person with timely telephone access to secure the test, but the burden is on the person to arrange and secure the test at the person’s own expense.

4. Upon the request of the person tested, full information concerning the test taken at the direction of the law enforcement officer shall be made available to the person or his or her attorney.

5. A hospital, clinical laboratory, medical clinic, or similar medical institution or physician, certified paramedic, registered nurse, licensed practical nurse, other personnel authorized by a hospital to draw blood, or duly licensed clinical laboratory director, supervisor, technologist, or technician, or other person assisting a law enforcement officer does not incur any civil or criminal liability as a result of the withdrawal or analysis of a blood or urine specimen, or the chemical or physical test of a person’s breath pursuant to accepted medical standards when requested by a law enforcement officer, regardless of whether or not the subject resisted administration of the test.

(2) The results of any test administered pursuant to this section for the purpose of detecting the presence of any controlled substance shall not be admissible as evidence in a criminal prosecution for the possession of a controlled substance.

(3) Notwithstanding any provision of law pertaining to the confidentiality of hospital records or other medical records, information relating to the alcoholic content of the blood or breath or the presence of chemical substances or controlled substances in the blood obtained pursuant to this section shall be released to a court, prosecuting attorney, defense attorney, or law enforcement officer in connection with an alleged violation of s. 316.193 upon request for such information.

History.–s. 3, ch. 82-155; s. 3, ch. 82-403; s. 1, ch. 83-218; s. 4, ch. 83-228; s. 3, ch. 84-359; s. 2, ch. 86-296; s. 3, ch. 88-5; s. 1, ch. 88-82; s. 2, ch. 91-255; s. 20, ch. 92-58; s. 314, ch. 95-148; s. 4, ch. 96-330; s. 1, ch. 98-27; s. 6, ch. 2000-160; s. 1, ch. 2000-226; s. 2, ch. 2002-263; s. 1, ch. 2003-54.

316.1933 Blood test for impairment or intoxication in cases of death or serious bodily injury; right to use reasonable force.–

(1)(a) If a law enforcement officer has probable cause to believe that a motor vehicle driven by or in the actual physical control of a person under the influence of alcoholic beverages, any chemical substances, or any controlled substances has caused the death or serious bodily injury of a human being, a law enforcement officer shall require the person driving or in actual physical control of the motor vehicle to submit to a test of the person’s blood for the purpose of determining the alcoholic content thereof or the presence of chemical substances as set forth in s. 877.111 or any substance controlled under chapter 893. The law enforcement officer may use reasonable force if necessary to require such person to submit to the administration of the blood test. The blood test shall be performed in a reasonable manner. Notwithstanding s. 316.1932, the testing required by this paragraph need not be incidental to a lawful arrest of the person.

(b) The term “serious bodily injury” means an injury to any person, including the driver, which consists of a physical condition that creates a substantial risk of death, serious personal disfigurement, or protracted loss or impairment of the function of any bodily member or organ.

(2)(a) Only a physician, certified paramedic, registered nurse, licensed practical nurse, other personnel authorized by a hospital to draw blood, or duly licensed clinical laboratory director, supervisor, technologist, or technician, acting at the request of a law enforcement officer, may withdraw blood for the purpose of determining the alcoholic content thereof or the presence of chemical substances or controlled substances therein. However, the failure of a law enforcement officer to request the withdrawal of blood shall not affect the admissibility of a test of blood withdrawn for medical purposes.

1. Notwithstanding any provision of law pertaining to the confidentiality of hospital records or other medical records, if a health care provider, who is providing medical care in a health care facility to a person injured in a motor vehicle crash, becomes aware, as a result of any blood test performed in the course of that medical treatment, that the person’s blood-alcohol level meets or exceeds the blood-alcohol level specified in s. 316.193(1)(b), the health care provider may notify any law enforcement officer or law enforcement agency. Any such notice must be given within a reasonable time after the health care provider receives the test result. Any such notice shall be used only for the purpose of providing the law enforcement officer with reasonable cause to request the withdrawal of a blood sample pursuant to this section.

2. The notice shall consist only of the name of the person being treated, the name of the person who drew the blood, the blood-alcohol level indicated by the test, and the date and time of the administration of the test.

3. Nothing contained in s. 395.3025(4), s. 456.057, or any applicable practice act affects the authority to provide notice under this section, and the health care provider is not considered to have breached any duty owed to the person under s. 395.3025(4), s. 456.057, or any applicable practice act by providing notice or failing to provide notice. It shall not be a breach of any ethical, moral, or legal duty for a health care provider to provide notice or fail to provide notice.

4. A civil, criminal, or administrative action may not be brought against any person or health care provider participating in good faith in the provision of notice or failure to provide notice as provided in this section. Any person or health care provider participating in the provision of notice or failure to provide notice as provided in this section shall be immune from any civil or criminal liability and from any professional disciplinary action with respect to the provision of notice or failure to provide notice under this section. Any such participant has the same immunity with respect to participating in any judicial proceedings resulting from the notice or failure to provide notice.

(b) A chemical analysis of the person’s blood to determine the alcoholic content thereof must have been performed substantially in accordance with methods approved by the Department of Law Enforcement and by an individual possessing a valid permit issued by the department for this purpose. The Department of Law Enforcement may approve satisfactory techniques or methods, ascertain the qualifications and competence of individuals to conduct such analyses, and issue permits that are subject to termination or revocation at the discretion of the department. Any insubstantial differences between approved methods or techniques and actual testing procedures, or any insubstantial defects concerning the permit issued by the department, in any individual case, shall not render the test or test results invalid.

(c) No hospital, clinical laboratory, medical clinic, or similar medical institution or physician, certified paramedic, registered nurse, licensed practical nurse, other personnel authorized by a hospital to draw blood, or duly licensed clinical laboratory director, supervisor, technologist, or technician, or other person assisting a law enforcement officer shall incur any civil or criminal liability as a result of the withdrawal or analysis of a blood specimen pursuant to accepted medical standards when requested by a law enforcement officer, regardless of whether or not the subject resisted administration of the test.

(3)(a) Any criminal charge resulting from the incident giving rise to the officer’s demand for testing shall be tried concurrently with a charge of any violation arising out of the same incident, unless, in the discretion of the court, such charges should be tried separately. If such charges are tried separately, the fact that such person refused, resisted, obstructed, or opposed testing shall be admissible at the trial of the criminal offense which gave rise to the demand for testing.

(b) The results of any test administered pursuant to this section for the purpose of detecting the presence of any controlled substance shall not be admissible as evidence in a criminal prosecution for the possession of a controlled substance.

(4) Notwithstanding any provision of law pertaining to the confidentiality of hospital records or other medical records, information relating to the alcoholic content of the blood or the presence of chemical substances or controlled substances in the blood obtained pursuant to this section shall be released to a court, prosecuting attorney, defense attorney, or law enforcement officer in connection with an alleged violation of s. 316.193 upon request for such information.

History.–s. 4, ch. 82-155; s. 19, ch. 83-215; s. 4, ch. 84-359; s. 16, ch. 86-296; s. 4, ch. 88-5; s. 3, ch. 91-255; s. 21, ch. 92-58; s. 3, ch. 93-124; s. 315, ch. 95-148; s. 2, ch. 98-27; s. 7, ch. 2000-160; s. 3, ch. 2002-263.

316.1934 Presumption of impairment; testing methods.–

(1) It is unlawful and punishable as provided in chapter 322 and in s. 316.193 for any person who is under the influence of alcoholic beverages or controlled substances, when affected to the extent that the person’s normal faculties are impaired or to the extent that the person is deprived of full possession of normal faculties, to drive or be in actual physical control of any motor vehicle within this state. Such normal faculties include, but are not limited to, the ability to see, hear, walk, talk, judge distances, drive an automobile, make judgments, act in emergencies, and, in general, normally perform the many mental and physical acts of daily life.

(2) At the trial of any civil or criminal action or proceeding arising out of acts alleged to have been committed by any person while driving, or in actual physical control of, a vehicle while under the influence of alcoholic beverages or controlled substances, when affected to the extent that the person’s normal faculties were impaired or to the extent that he or she was deprived of full possession of his or her normal faculties, the results of any test administered in accordance with s. 316.1932 or s. 316.1933 and this section are admissible into evidence when otherwise admissible, and the amount of alcohol in the person’s blood or breath at the time alleged, as shown by chemical analysis of the person’s blood, or by chemical or physical test of the person’s breath, gives rise to the following presumptions:

(a) If there was at that time a blood-alcohol level or breath-alcohol level of 0.05 or less, it is presumed that the person was not under the influence of alcoholic beverages to the extent that his or her normal faculties were impaired.

(b) If there was at that time a blood-alcohol level or breath-alcohol level in excess of 0.05 but less than 0.08, that fact does not give rise to any presumption that the person was or was not under the influence of alcoholic beverages to the extent that his or her normal faculties were impaired but may be considered with other competent evidence in determining whether the person was under the influence of alcoholic beverages to the extent that his or her normal faculties were impaired.

(c) If there was at that time a blood-alcohol level or breath-alcohol level of 0.08 or higher, that fact is prima facie evidence that the person was under the influence of alcoholic beverages to the extent that his or her normal faculties were impaired. Moreover, such person who has a blood-alcohol level or breath-alcohol level of 0.08 or higher is guilty of driving, or being in actual physical control of, a motor vehicle, with an unlawful blood-alcohol level or breath-alcohol level.

The presumptions provided in this subsection do not limit the introduction of any other competent evidence bearing upon the question of whether the person was under the influence of alcoholic beverages to the extent that his or her normal faculties were impaired.

(3) A chemical analysis of a person’s blood to determine alcoholic content or a chemical or physical test of a person’s breath, in order to be considered valid under this section, must have been performed substantially in accordance with methods approved by the Department of Law Enforcement and by an individual possessing a valid permit issued by the department for this purpose. Any insubstantial differences between approved techniques and actual testing procedures or any insubstantial defects concerning the permit issued by the department, in any individual case do not render the test or test results invalid. The Department of Law Enforcement may approve satisfactory techniques or methods, ascertain the qualifications and competence of individuals to conduct such analyses, and issue permits that are subject to termination or revocation in accordance with rules adopted by the department.

(4) Any person charged with a violation of s. 316.193, whether in a municipality or not, is entitled to trial by jury according to the Florida Rules of Criminal Procedure.

(5) An affidavit containing the results of any test of a person’s blood or breath to determine its alcohol content, as authorized by s. 316.1932 or s. 316.1933, is admissible in evidence under the exception to the hearsay rule in s. 90.803(8) for public records and reports. Such affidavit is admissible without further authentication and is presumptive proof of the results of an authorized test to determine alcohol content of the blood or breath if the affidavit discloses:

(a) The type of test administered and the procedures followed;

(b) The time of the collection of the blood or breath sample analyzed;

(c) The numerical results of the test indicating the alcohol content of the blood or breath;

(d) The type and status of any permit issued by the Department of Law Enforcement which was held by the person who performed the test; and

(e) If the test was administered by means of a breath testing instrument, the date of performance of the most recent required maintenance on such instrument.

The Department of Law Enforcement shall provide a form for the affidavit. Admissibility of the affidavit does not abrogate the right of the person tested to subpoena the person who administered the test for examination as an adverse witness at a civil or criminal trial or other proceeding.

(6) Nothing in this section prohibits the prosecution of a person under s. 322.62. The provisions of subsection (2) do not apply to such prosecution and the presumptions made pursuant to that subsection may not be introduced into evidence during such prosecution.

History.–ss. 2, 3, ch. 67-308; ss. 19, 35, ch. 69-106; ss. 3, 4, ch. 70-279; s. 1, ch. 70-439; s. 3, ch. 74-384; s. 42, ch. 76-31; s. 1, ch. 76-153; s. 51, ch. 77-147; s. 5, ch. 82-155; s. 2, ch. 83-218; s. 5, ch. 84-359; s. 17, ch. 86-296; s. 5, ch. 88-5; s. 2, ch. 88-82; s. 27, ch. 89-282; s. 4, ch. 91-255; s. 22, ch. 92-58; ss. 2, 4, ch. 93-124; s. 316, ch. 95-148; s. 5, ch. 96-330.
Note.–Former s. 322.262.

Drug Cases

Florida Drug Laws
893.13 Prohibited acts; penalties.–

(1)(a) Except as authorized by this chapter and chapter 499, it is unlawful for any person to sell, manufacture, or deliver, or possess with intent to sell, manufacture, or deliver, a controlled substance. Any person who violates this provision with respect to:

1. A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(a), (1)(b), (1)(d), (2)(a), (2)(b), or (2)(c)4., commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

2. A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(c), (2)(c)1., (2)(c)2., (2)(c)3., (2)(c)5., (2)(c)6., (2)(c)7., (2)(c)8., (2)(c)9., (3), or (4) commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

3. A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(5) commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(b) Except as provided in this chapter, it is unlawful to sell or deliver in excess of 10 grams of any substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(a) or (1)(b), or any combination thereof, or any mixture containing any such substance. Any person who violates this paragraph commits a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(c) Except as authorized by this chapter, it is unlawful for any person to sell, manufacture, or deliver, or possess with intent to sell, manufacture, or deliver, a controlled substance in, on, or within 1,000 feet of the real property comprising a child care facility as defined in s. 402.302 or a public or private elementary, middle, or secondary school between the hours of 6 a.m. and 12 midnight, or at any time in, on, or within 1,000 feet of real property comprising a state, county, or municipal park, a community center, or a publicly owned recreational facility. For the purposes of this paragraph, the term “community center” means a facility operated by a nonprofit community-based organization for the provision of recreational, social, or educational services to the public. Any person who violates this paragraph with respect to:

1. A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(a), (1)(b), (1)(d), (2)(a), (2)(b), or (2)(c)4., commits a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. The defendant must be sentenced to a minimum term of imprisonment of 3 calendar years unless the offense was committed within 1,000 feet of the real property comprising a child care facility as defined in s. 402.302.

2. A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(c), (2)(c)1., (2)(c)2., (2)(c)3., (2)(c)5., (2)(c)6., (2)(c)7., (2)(c)8., (2)(c)9., (3), or (4) commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

3. Any other controlled substance, except as lawfully sold, manufactured, or delivered, must be sentenced to pay a $500 fine and to serve 100 hours of public service in addition to any other penalty prescribed by law.

This paragraph does not apply to a child care facility unless the owner or operator of the facility posts a sign that is not less than 2 square feet in size with a word legend identifying the facility as a licensed child care facility and that is posted on the property of the child care facility in a conspicuous place where the sign is reasonably visible to the public.

(d) Except as authorized by this chapter, it is unlawful for any person to sell, manufacture, or deliver, or possess with intent to sell, manufacture, or deliver, a controlled substance in, on, or within 1,000 feet of the real property comprising a public or private college, university, or other postsecondary educational institution. Any person who violates this paragraph with respect to:

1. A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(a), (1)(b), (1)(d), (2)(a), (2)(b), or (2)(c)4., commits a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

2. A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(c), (2)(c)1., (2)(c)2., (2)(c)3., (2)(c)5., (2)(c)6., (2)(c)7., (2)(c)8., (2)(c)9., (3), or (4) commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

3. Any other controlled substance, except as lawfully sold, manufactured, or delivered, must be sentenced to pay a $500 fine and to serve 100 hours of public service in addition to any other penalty prescribed by law.

(e) Except as authorized by this chapter, it is unlawful for any person to sell, manufacture, or deliver, or possess with intent to sell, manufacture, or deliver, a controlled substance not authorized by law in, on, or within 1,000 feet of a physical place for worship at which a church or religious organization regularly conducts religious services or within 1,000 feet of a convenience business as defined in s. 812.171. Any person who violates this paragraph with respect to:

1. A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(a), (1)(b), (1)(d), (2)(a), (2)(b), or (2)(c)4., commits a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

2. A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(c), (2)(c)1., (2)(c)2., (2)(c)3., (2)(c)5., (2)(c)6., (2)(c)7., (2)(c)8., (2)(c)9., (3), or (4) commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

3. Any other controlled substance, except as lawfully sold, manufactured, or delivered, must be sentenced to pay a $500 fine and to serve 100 hours of public service in addition to any other penalty prescribed by law.

(f) Except as authorized by this chapter, it is unlawful for any person to sell, manufacture, or deliver, or possess with intent to sell, manufacture, or deliver, a controlled substance in, on, or within 1,000 feet of the real property comprising a public housing facility at any time. For purposes of this section, the term “real property comprising a public housing facility” means real property, as defined in s. 421.03(12), of a public corporation created as a housing authority pursuant to part I of chapter 421. Any person who violates this paragraph with respect to:

1. A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(a), (1)(b), (1)(d), (2)(a), (2)(b), or (2)(c)4., commits a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

2. A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(c), (2)(c)1., (2)(c)2., (2)(c)3., (2)(c)5., (2)(c)6., (2)(c)7., (2)(c)8., (2)(c)9., (3), or (4) commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

3. Any other controlled substance, except as lawfully sold, manufactured, or delivered, must be sentenced to pay a $500 fine and to serve 100 hours of public service in addition to any other penalty prescribed by law.

(2)(a) Except as authorized by this chapter and chapter 499, it is unlawful for any person to purchase, or possess with intent to purchase, a controlled substance. Any person who violates this provision with respect to:

1. A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(a), (1)(b), (1)(d), (2)(a), (2)(b), or (2)(c)4., commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

2. A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(c), (2)(c)1., (2)(c)2., (2)(c)3., (2)(c)5., (2)(c)6., (2)(c)7., (2)(c)8., (2)(c)9., (3), or (4) commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

3. A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(5) commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(b) Except as provided in this chapter, it is unlawful to purchase in excess of 10 grams of any substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(a) or (1)(b), or any combination thereof, or any mixture containing any such substance. Any person who violates this paragraph commits a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(3) Any person who delivers, without consideration, not more than 20 grams of cannabis, as defined in this chapter, commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083. For the purposes of this paragraph, “cannabis” does not include the resin extracted from the plants of the genus Cannabis or any compound manufacture, salt, derivative, mixture, or preparation of such resin.

(4) Except as authorized by this chapter, it is unlawful for any person 18 years of age or older to deliver any controlled substance to a person under the age of 18 years, or to use or hire a person under the age of 18 years as an agent or employee in the sale or delivery of such a substance, or to use such person to assist in avoiding detection or apprehension for a violation of this chapter. Any person who violates this provision with respect to:

(a) A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(a), (1)(b), (1)(d), (2)(a), (2)(b), or (2)(c)4., commits a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(b) A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(c), (2)(c)1., (2)(c)2., (2)(c)3., (2)(c)5., (2)(c)6., (2)(c)7., (2)(c)8., (2)(c)9., (3), or (4) commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

Imposition of sentence may not be suspended or deferred, nor shall the person so convicted be placed on probation.

(5) It is unlawful for any person to bring into this state any controlled substance unless the possession of such controlled substance is authorized by this chapter or unless such person is licensed to do so by the appropriate federal agency. Any person who violates this provision with respect to:

(a) A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(a), (1)(b), (1)(d), (2)(a), (2)(b), or (2)(c)4., commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(b) A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(c), (2)(c)1., (2)(c)2., (2)(c)3., (2)(c)5., (2)(c)6., (2)(c)7., (2)(c)8., (2)(c)9., (3), or (4) commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(c) A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(5) commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(6)(a) It is unlawful for any person to be in actual or constructive possession of a controlled substance unless such controlled substance was lawfully obtained from a practitioner or pursuant to a valid prescription or order of a practitioner while acting in the course of his or her professional practice or to be in actual or constructive possession of a controlled substance except as otherwise authorized by this chapter. Any person who violates this provision commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(b) If the offense is the possession of not more than 20 grams of cannabis, as defined in this chapter, the person commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083. For the purposes of this subsection, “cannabis” does not include the resin extracted from the plants of the genus Cannabis, or any compound manufacture, salt, derivative, mixture, or preparation of such resin.

(c) Except as provided in this chapter, it is unlawful to possess in excess of 10 grams of any substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(a) or (1)(b), or any combination thereof, or any mixture containing any such substance. Any person who violates this paragraph commits a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(d) Notwithstanding any provision to the contrary of the laws of this state relating to arrest, a law enforcement officer may arrest without warrant any person who the officer has probable cause to believe is violating the provisions of this chapter relating to possession of cannabis.

(7)(a) It is unlawful for any person:

1. To distribute or dispense a controlled substance in violation of this chapter.

2. To refuse or fail to make, keep, or furnish any record, notification, order form, statement, invoice, or information required under this chapter.

3. To refuse an entry into any premises for any inspection or to refuse to allow any inspection authorized by this chapter.

4. To distribute a controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1) or (2) except pursuant to an order form as required by s. 893.06.

5. To keep or maintain any store, shop, warehouse, dwelling, building, vehicle, boat, aircraft, or other structure or place which is resorted to by persons using controlled substances in violation of this chapter for the purpose of using these substances, or which is used for keeping or selling them in violation of this chapter.

6. To use to his or her own personal advantage, or to reveal, any information obtained in enforcement of this chapter except in a prosecution or administrative hearing for a violation of this chapter.

7. To possess a prescription form which has not been completed and signed by the practitioner whose name appears printed thereon, unless the person is that practitioner, is an agent or employee of that practitioner, is a pharmacist, or is a supplier of prescription forms who is authorized by that practitioner to possess those forms.

8. To withhold information from a practitioner from whom the person seeks to obtain a controlled substance or a prescription for a controlled substance that the person making the request has received a controlled substance or a prescription for a controlled substance of like therapeutic use from another practitioner within the previous 30 days.

9. To acquire or obtain, or attempt to acquire or obtain, possession of a controlled substance by misrepresentation, fraud, forgery, deception, or subterfuge.

10. To affix any false or forged label to a package or receptacle containing a controlled substance.

11. To furnish false or fraudulent material information in, or omit any material information from, any report or other document required to be kept or filed under this chapter or any record required to be kept by this chapter.

(b) Any person who violates the provisions of subparagraphs (a)1.-7. commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083; except that, upon a second or subsequent violation, the person commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(c) Any person who violates the provisions of subparagraphs (a)8.-11. commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(8)(a) Notwithstanding subsection (9), a prescribing practitioner may not:

1. Knowingly assist a patient, other person, or the owner of an animal in obtaining a controlled substance through deceptive, untrue, or fraudulent representations in or related to the practice of the prescribing practitioner’s professional practice;

2. Employ a trick or scheme in the practice of the prescribing practitioner’s professional practice to assist a patient, other person, or the owner of an animal in obtaining a controlled substance;

3. Knowingly write a prescription for a controlled substance for a fictitious person; or

4. Write a prescription for a controlled substance for a patient, other person, or an animal if the sole purpose of writing such prescription is to provide a monetary benefit to, or obtain a monetary benefit for, the prescribing practitioner.

(b) If the prescribing practitioner wrote a prescription or multiple prescriptions for a controlled substance for the patient, other person, or animal for which there was no medical necessity, or which was in excess of what was medically necessary to treat the patient, other person, or animal, that fact does not give rise to any presumption that the prescribing practitioner violated subparagraph (a)1., but may be considered with other competent evidence in determining whether the prescribing practitioner knowingly assisted a patient, other person, or the owner of an animal to obtain a controlled substance in violation of subparagraph (a)1.

(c) A person who violates paragraph (a) commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(d) Notwithstanding paragraph (c), if a prescribing practitioner has violated paragraph (a) and received $1,000 or more in payment for writing one or more prescriptions or, in the case of a prescription written for a controlled substance described in s. 893.135, has written one or more prescriptions for a quantity of a controlled substance which, individually or in the aggregate, meets the threshold for the offense of trafficking in a controlled substance under s. 893.15, the violation is reclassified as a felony of the second degree and ranked in level 4 of the Criminal Punishment Code.

(9) The provisions of subsections (1)-(8) are not applicable to the delivery to, or actual or constructive possession for medical or scientific use or purpose only of controlled substances by, persons included in any of the following classes, or the agents or employees of such persons, for use in the usual course of their business or profession or in the performance of their official duties:

(a) Pharmacists.

(b) Practitioners.

(c) Persons who procure controlled substances in good faith and in the course of professional practice only, by or under the supervision of pharmacists or practitioners employed by them, or for the purpose of lawful research, teaching, or testing, and not for resale.

(d) Hospitals that procure controlled substances for lawful administration by practitioners, but only for use by or in the particular hospital.

(e) Officers or employees of state, federal, or local governments acting in their official capacity only, or informers acting under their jurisdiction.

(f) Common carriers.

(g) Manufacturers, wholesalers, and distributors.

(h) Law enforcement officers for bona fide law enforcement purposes in the course of an active criminal investigation.

(10) Notwithstanding any provision of the sentencing guidelines or the Criminal Punishment Code to the contrary, on or after October 1, 1993, any defendant who:

(a) Violates subparagraph (1)(a)1., subparagraph (1)(c)2., subparagraph (1)(d)2., subparagraph (2)(a)1., or paragraph (5)(a); and

(b) Has not previously been convicted, regardless of whether adjudication was withheld, of any felony, other than a violation of subparagraph (1)(a)1., subparagraph (1)(c)2., subparagraph (1)(d)2., subparagraph (2)(a)1., or paragraph (5)(a),

may be required by the court to successfully complete a term of probation pursuant to the terms and conditions set forth in s. 948.034(1), in lieu of serving a term of imprisonment.

(11) Notwithstanding any provision of the sentencing guidelines or the Criminal Punishment Code to the contrary, on or after January 1, 1994, any defendant who:

(a) Violates subparagraph (1)(a)2., subparagraph (2)(a)2., paragraph (5)(b), or paragraph (6)(a); and

(b) Has not previously been convicted, regardless of whether adjudication was withheld, of any felony, other than a violation of subparagraph (1)(a)2., subparagraph (2)(a)2., paragraph (5)(b), or paragraph (6)(a),

may be required by the court to successfully complete a term of probation pursuant to the terms and conditions set forth in s. 948.034(2), in lieu of serving a term of imprisonment.

Florida Gun Law / Concealed Firearm / Deadly Missile

790.001 Definitions.

790.01 Carrying concealed weapons.

790.015 Nonresidents who are United States citizens and hold a concealed weapons license in another state; reciprocity.

790.02 Officer to arrest without warrant and upon probable cause.

790.051 Exemption from licensing requirements; law enforcement officers.

790.052 Carrying concealed firearms; off-duty law enforcement officers.

790.053 Open carrying of weapons.

790.054 Prohibited use of self-defense weapon or device against law enforcement officer; penalties.

790.06 License to carry concealed weapon or firearm.

790.061 Judges and justices; exceptions from licensure provisions.

790.065 Sale and delivery of firearms.

790.0655 Purchase and delivery of handguns; mandatory waiting period; exceptions; penalties.

790.07 Persons engaged in criminal offense, having weapons.

790.08 Taking possession of weapons and arms; reports; disposition; custody.

790.09 Manufacturing or selling slungshot.

790.10 Improper exhibition of dangerous weapons or firearms.

790.11 Carrying firearms in national forests prohibited.

790.115 Possessing or discharging weapons or firearms at a school-sponsored event or on school property prohibited; penalties; exceptions.

790.12 Permit may be granted by county commissioners.

790.14 Penalty for violation of ss. 790.11 and 790.12.

790.145 Crimes in pharmacies; possession of weapons; penalties.

790.15 Discharging firearm in public.

790.151 Using firearm while under the influence of alcoholic beverages, chemical substances, or controlled substances; penalties.

790.153 Tests for impairment or intoxication; right to refuse.

790.155 Blood test for impairment or intoxication in cases of death or serious bodily injury; right to use reasonable force.

790.157 Presumption of impairment; testing methods.

790.16 Discharging machine guns; penalty.

790.161 Making, possessing, throwing, projecting, placing, or discharging any destructive device or attempt so to do, felony; penalties.

790.1612 Authorization for governmental manufacture, possession, and use of destructive devices.

790.1615 Unlawful throwing, projecting, placing, or discharging of destructive device or bomb that results in injury to another; penalty.

790.162 Threat to throw, project, place, or discharge any destructive device, felony; penalty.

790.163 False report about planting bomb, explosive, or weapon of mass destruction; penalty.

790.164 False reports concerning planting a bomb, explosive, or weapon of mass destruction in, or committing arson against, state-owned property; penalty; reward.

790.165 Planting of “hoax bomb” prohibited; penalties.

790.166 Manufacture, possession, sale, delivery, display, use, or attempted or threatened use of a weapon of mass destruction or hoax weapon of mass destruction prohibited; definitions; penalties.

790.169 Juvenile offenders; release of names and addresses.

790.17 Furnishing weapons to minors under 18 years of age or persons of unsound mind and furnishing firearms to minors under 18 years of age prohibited.

790.173 Legislative findings and intent.

790.174 Safe storage of firearms required.

790.175 Transfer or sale of firearms; required warnings; penalties.

790.18 Sale or transfer of arms to minors by dealers.

790.19 Shooting into or throwing deadly missiles into dwellings, public or private buildings, occupied or not occupied; vessels, aircraft, buses, railroad cars, streetcars, or other vehicles.

790.22 Use of BB guns, air or gas-operated guns, or electric weapons or devices by minor under 16; limitation; possession of firearms by minor under 18 prohibited; penalties.

790.221 Possession of short-barreled rifle, short-barreled shotgun, or machine gun; penalty.

790.225 Ballistic self-propelled knives; unlawful to manufacture, sell, or possess; forfeiture; penalty.

790.23 Felons and delinquents; possession of firearms, ammunition, or electric weapons or devices unlawful.

790.233 Possession of firearm or ammunition prohibited when person is subject to an injunction against committing acts of domestic violence; penalties.

790.235 Possession of firearm or ammunition by violent career criminal unlawful; penalty.

790.24 Report of medical treatment of certain wounds; penalty for failure to report.

790.25 Lawful ownership, possession, and use of firearms and other weapons.

790.256 Public service announcements.

790.27 Alteration or removal of firearm serial number or possession, sale, or delivery of firearm with serial number altered or removed prohibited; penalties.

790.28 Purchase of rifles and shotguns in contiguous states.

790.29 Paramilitary training; teaching or participation prohibited.

790.31 Armor-piercing or exploding ammunition or dragon’s breath shotgun shells, bolo shells, or flechette shells prohibited.

790.33 Field of regulation of firearms and ammunition preempted.

790.331 Prohibition of civil actions against firearms or ammunition manufacturers, firearms trade associations, firearms or ammunition distributors, or firearms or ammunition dealers.

790.333 Sport shooting and training range protection; liability; claims, expenses, and fees; penalties; preemption; construction.

790.335 Prohibition of registration of firearms.

790.336 Lists, records, or registries to be destroyed.

790.001 Definitions.–As used in this chapter, except where the context otherwise requires:

(1) “Antique firearm” means any firearm manufactured in or before 1918 (including any matchlock, flintlock, percussion cap, or similar early type of ignition system) or replica thereof, whether actually manufactured before or after the year 1918, and also any firearm using fixed ammunition manufactured in or before 1918, for which ammunition is no longer manufactured in the United States and is not readily available in the ordinary channels of commercial trade.

(2) “Concealed firearm” means any firearm, as defined in subsection (6), which is carried on or about a person in such a manner as to conceal the firearm from the ordinary sight of another person.

(3)(a) “Concealed weapon” means any dirk, metallic knuckles, slungshot, billie, tear gas gun, chemical weapon or device, or other deadly weapon carried on or about a person in such a manner as to conceal the weapon from the ordinary sight of another person.

(b) “Tear gas gun” or “chemical weapon or device” means any weapon of such nature, except a device known as a “self-defense chemical spray.” “Self-defense chemical spray” means a device carried solely for purposes of lawful self-defense that is compact in size, designed to be carried on or about the person, and contains not more than two ounces of chemical.

(4) “Destructive device” means any bomb, grenade, mine, rocket, missile, pipebomb, or similar device containing an explosive, incendiary, or poison gas and includes any frangible container filled with an explosive, incendiary, explosive gas, or expanding gas, which is designed or so constructed as to explode by such filler and is capable of causing bodily harm or property damage; any combination of parts either designed or intended for use in converting any device into a destructive device and from which a destructive device may be readily assembled; any device declared a destructive device by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms; any type of weapon which will, is designed to, or may readily be converted to expel a projectile by the action of any explosive and which has a barrel with a bore of one-half inch or more in diameter; and ammunition for such destructive devices, but not including shotgun shells or any other ammunition designed for use in a firearm other than a destructive device. “Destructive device” does not include:

(a) A device which is not designed, redesigned, used, or intended for use as a weapon;

(b) Any device, although originally designed as a weapon, which is redesigned so that it may be used solely as a signaling, line-throwing, safety, or similar device;

(c) Any shotgun other than a short-barreled shotgun; or

(d) Any nonautomatic rifle (other than a short-barreled rifle) generally recognized or particularly suitable for use for the hunting of big game.

(5) “Explosive” means any chemical compound or mixture that has the property of yielding readily to combustion or oxidation upon application of heat, flame, or shock, including but not limited to dynamite, nitroglycerin, trinitrotoluene, or ammonium nitrate when combined with other ingredients to form an explosive mixture, blasting caps, and detonators; but not including:

(a) Shotgun shells, cartridges, or ammunition for firearms;

(b) Fireworks as defined in s. 791.01;

(c) Smokeless propellant powder or small arms ammunition primers, if possessed, purchased, sold, transported, or used in compliance with s. 552.241;

(d) Black powder in quantities not to exceed that authorized by chapter 552, or by any rules adopted thereunder by the Department of Financial Services, when used for, or intended to be used for, the manufacture of target and sporting ammunition or for use in muzzle-loading flint or percussion weapons.

The exclusions contained in paragraphs (a)-(d) do not apply to the term “explosive” as used in the definition of “firearm” in subsection (6).

(6) “Firearm” means any weapon (including a starter gun) which will, is designed to, or may readily be converted to expel a projectile by the action of an explosive; the frame or receiver of any such weapon; any firearm muffler or firearm silencer; any destructive device; or any machine gun. The term “firearm” does not include an antique firearm unless the antique firearm is used in the commission of a crime.

(7) “Indictment” means an indictment or an information in any court under which a crime punishable by imprisonment for a term exceeding 1 year may be prosecuted.

(8) “Law enforcement officer” means:

(a) All officers or employees of the United States or the State of Florida, or any agency, commission, department, board, division, municipality, or subdivision thereof, who have authority to make arrests;

(b) Officers or employees of the United States or the State of Florida, or any agency, commission, department, board, division, municipality, or subdivision thereof, duly authorized to carry a concealed weapon;

(c) Members of the Armed Forces of the United States, the organized reserves, state militia, or Florida National Guard, when on duty, when preparing themselves for, or going to or from, military duty, or under orders;

(d) An employee of the state prisons or correctional systems who has been so designated by the Department of Corrections or by a warden of an institution;

(e) All peace officers;

(f) All state attorneys and United States attorneys and their respective assistants and investigators.

(9) “Machine gun” means any firearm, as defined herein, which shoots, or is designed to shoot, automatically more than one shot, without manually reloading, by a single function of the trigger.

(10) “Short-barreled shotgun” means a shotgun having one or more barrels less than 18 inches in length and any weapon made from a shotgun (whether by alteration, modification, or otherwise) if such weapon as modified has an overall length of less than 26 inches.

(11) “Short-barreled rifle” means a rifle having one or more barrels less than 16 inches in length and any weapon made from a rifle (whether by alteration, modification, or otherwise) if such weapon as modified has an overall length of less than 26 inches.

(12) “Slungshot” means a small mass of metal, stone, sand, or similar material fixed on a flexible handle, strap, or the like, used as a weapon.

(13) “Weapon” means any dirk, metallic knuckles, slungshot, billie, tear gas gun, chemical weapon or device, or other deadly weapon except a firearm or a common pocketknife.

(14) “Electric weapon or device” means any device which, through the application or use of electrical current, is designed, redesigned, used, or intended to be used for offensive or defensive purposes, the destruction of life, or the infliction of injury.

(15) “Remote stun gun” means any nonlethal device with a tethered range not to exceed 16 feet and which shall utilize an identification and tracking system which, upon use, disperses coded material traceable to the purchaser through records kept by the manufacturer on all remote stun guns and all individual cartridges sold which information shall be made available to any law enforcement agency upon request.

(16) “Readily accessible for immediate use” means that a firearm or other weapon is carried on the person or within such close proximity and in such a manner that it can be retrieved and used as easily and quickly as if carried on the person.

(17) “Securely encased” means in a glove compartment, whether or not locked; snapped in a holster; in a gun case, whether or not locked; in a zippered gun case; or in a closed box or container which requires a lid or cover to be opened for access.

(18) “Sterile area” means the area of an airport to which access is controlled by the inspection of persons and property in accordance with federally approved airport security programs.

(19) “Ammunition” means an object consisting of all of the following:

(a) A fixed metallic or nonmetallic hull or casing containing a primer.

(b) One or more projectiles, one or more bullets, or shot.

(c) Gunpowder.

All of the specified components must be present for an object to be ammunition.

History.–s. 1, ch. 69-306; ss. 13, 19, 35, ch. 69-106; ss. 1, 2, ch. 70-441; s. 32, ch. 73-334; s. 1, ch. 76-165; s. 12, ch. 77-120; s. 1, ch. 78-200; s. 19, ch. 79-3; s. 1, ch. 79-58; s. 1, ch. 80-112; s. 1, ch. 82-131; s. 162, ch. 83-216; s. 2, ch. 88-183; s. 43, ch. 88-381; s. 1, ch. 90-124; s. 1, ch. 90-176; s. 1, ch. 93-17; s. 1, ch. 97-72; s. 1202, ch. 97-102; s. 5, ch. 2000-161; s. 1904, ch. 2003-261; s. 1, ch. 2004-286.

790.01 Carrying concealed weapons.–

(1) Except as provided in subsection (4), a person who carries a concealed weapon or electric weapon or device on or about his or her person commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(2) A person who carries a concealed firearm on or about his or her person commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(3) This section does not apply to a person licensed to carry a concealed weapon or a concealed firearm pursuant to the provisions of s. 790.06.

(4) It is not a violation of this section for a person to carry for purposes of lawful self-defense, in a concealed manner:

(a) A self-defense chemical spray.

(b) A nonlethal stun gun or remote stun gun or other nonlethal electric weapon or device which does not fire a dart or projectile and is designed solely for defensive purposes.

(5) This section does not preclude any prosecution for the use of an electric weapon or device or remote stun gun or self-defense chemical spray during the commission of any criminal offense under s. 790.07, s. 790.10, s. 790.23, or s. 790.235, or for any other criminal offense.

History.–s. 1, ch. 4929, 1901; GS 3262; RGS 5095; CGL 7197; s. 1, ch. 67-165; s. 2, ch. 69-306; s. 739, ch. 71-136; s. 2, ch. 76-165; s. 3, ch. 80-268; s. 2, ch. 92-183; s. 2, ch. 97-72; s. 1203, ch. 97-102; s. 5, ch. 2004-286.

790.015 Nonresidents who are United States citizens and hold a concealed weapons license in another state; reciprocity.–

(1) Notwithstanding s. 790.01, a resident of the United States who is a nonresident of Florida may carry a concealed weapon or concealed firearm while in this state if the nonresident:

(a) Is 21 years of age or older; and

(b) Has in his or her immediate possession a valid license to carry a concealed weapon or concealed firearm issued to the nonresident in his or her state of residence.

(2) A nonresident is subject to the same laws and restrictions with respect to carrying a concealed weapon or concealed firearm as a resident of Florida who is so licensed.

(3) If the resident of another state who is the holder of a valid license to carry a concealed weapon or concealed firearm issued in another state establishes legal residence in this state by registering to vote, or making a statement of domicile pursuant to s. 222.17, or filing for homestead tax exemption on property in this state, the license shall remain in effect for 90 days following the date on which the holder of the license establishes legal state residence. This section applies only to nonresident concealed weapon or concealed firearm licenseholders from states that honor Florida concealed weapon or concealed firearm licenses.

History.–s. 1, ch. 99-132.

790.02 Officer to arrest without warrant and upon probable cause.–The carrying of a concealed weapon is declared a breach of peace, and any officer authorized to make arrests under the laws of this state may make arrests without warrant of persons violating the provisions of s. 790.01 when said officer has reasonable grounds or probable cause to believe that the offense of carrying a concealed weapon is being committed.

History.–s. 1, ch. 4929, 1901; GS 3263; RGS 5096; CGL 7198; s. 3, ch. 69-306.

790.051 Exemption from licensing requirements; law enforcement officers.–Law enforcement officers are exempt from the licensing and penal provisions of this chapter when acting at any time within the scope or course of their official duties or when acting at any time in the line of or performance of duty.

History.–s. 11, ch. 69-306.

790.052 Carrying concealed firearms; off-duty law enforcement officers.–

(1) All persons holding active certifications from the Criminal Justice Standards and Training Commission as law enforcement officers or correctional officers as defined in s. 943.10(1), (2), (6), (7), (8), or (9) shall have the right to carry, on or about their persons, concealed firearms, during off-duty hours, at the discretion of their superior officers, and may perform those law enforcement functions that they normally perform during duty hours, utilizing their weapons in a manner which is reasonably expected of on-duty officers in similar situations. However, nothing in this subsection shall be construed to limit the right of a law enforcement officer, correctional officer, or correctional probation officer to carry a concealed firearm off duty as a private citizen under the exemption provided in s. 790.06 that allows a law enforcement officer, correctional officer, or correctional probation officer as defined in s. 943.10(1), (2), (3), (6), (7), (8), or (9) to carry a concealed firearm without a concealed weapon or firearm license. The appointing or employing agency or department of an officer carrying a concealed firearm as a private citizen under s. 790.06 shall not be liable for the use of the firearm in such capacity. Nothing herein limits the authority of the appointing or employing agency or department from establishing policies limiting law enforcement officers or correctional officers from carrying concealed firearms during off-duty hours in their capacity as appointees or employees of the agency or department.

(2) The superior officer of any police department or sheriff’s office or the Florida Highway Patrol, if he or she elects to direct the officers under his or her supervision to carry concealed firearms while off duty, shall file a statement with the governing body of such department of his or her instructions and requirements relating to the carrying of said firearms.

History.–ss. 1, 2, 3, ch. 72-84; s. 235, ch. 77-104; s. 23, ch. 79-8; s. 3, ch. 88-183; s. 4, ch. 95-318; s. 1204, ch. 97-102.

790.053 Open carrying of weapons.–

(1) Except as otherwise provided by law and in subsection (2), it is unlawful for any person to openly carry on or about his or her person any firearm or electric weapon or device.

(2) A person may openly carry, for purposes of lawful self-defense:

(a) A self-defense chemical spray.

(b) A nonlethal stun gun or remote stun gun or other nonlethal electric weapon or device which does not fire a dart or projectile and is designed solely for defensive purposes.

(3) Any person violating this section commits a misdemeanor of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

History.–s. 1, ch. 87-537; s. 173, ch. 91-224; s. 3, ch. 97-72; s. 1205, ch. 97-102.

790.054 Prohibited use of self-defense weapon or device against law enforcement officer; penalties.–A person who knowingly and willfully uses a self-defense chemical spray or a nonlethal stun gun or other nonlethal electric weapon or device or remote stun gun against a law enforcement officer engaged in the performance of his or her duties commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

History.–s. 4, ch. 97-72.

790.06 License to carry concealed weapon or firearm.–

(1) The Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services is authorized to issue licenses to carry concealed weapons or concealed firearms to persons qualified as provided in this section. Each such license must bear a color photograph of the licensee. For the purposes of this section, concealed weapons or concealed firearms are defined as a handgun, electronic weapon or device, tear gas gun, knife, or billie, but the term does not include a machine gun as defined in s. 790.001(9). Such licenses shall be valid throughout the state for a period of 5 years from the date of issuance. Any person in compliance with the terms of such license may carry a concealed weapon or concealed firearm notwithstanding the provisions of s. 790.01. The licensee must carry the license, together with valid identification, at all times in which the licensee is in actual possession of a concealed weapon or firearm and must display both the license and proper identification upon demand by a law enforcement officer. Violations of the provisions of this subsection shall constitute a noncriminal violation with a penalty of $25, payable to the clerk of the court.

(2) The Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services shall issue a license if the applicant:

(a) Is a resident of the United States or is a consular security official of a foreign government that maintains diplomatic relations and treaties of commerce, friendship, and navigation with the United States and is certified as such by the foreign government and by the appropriate embassy in this country;

(b) Is 21 years of age or older;

(c) Does not suffer from a physical infirmity which prevents the safe handling of a weapon or firearm;

(d) Is not ineligible to possess a firearm pursuant to s. 790.23 by virtue of having been convicted of a felony;

(e) Has not been committed for the abuse of a controlled substance or been found guilty of a crime under the provisions of chapter 893 or similar laws of any other state relating to controlled substances within a 3-year period immediately preceding the date on which the application is submitted;

(f) Does not chronically and habitually use alcoholic beverages or other substances to the extent that his or her normal faculties are impaired. It shall be presumed that an applicant chronically and habitually uses alcoholic beverages or other substances to the extent that his or her normal faculties are impaired if the applicant has been committed under chapter 397 or under the provisions of former chapter 396 or has been convicted under s. 790.151 or has been deemed a habitual offender under s. 856.011(3), or has had two or more convictions under s. 316.193 or similar laws of any other state, within the 3-year period immediately preceding the date on which the application is submitted;

(g) Desires a legal means to carry a concealed weapon or firearm for lawful self-defense;

(h) Demonstrates competence with a firearm by any one of the following:

1. Completion of any hunter education or hunter safety course approved by the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission or a similar agency of another state;

2. Completion of any National Rifle Association firearms safety or training course;

3. Completion of any firearms safety or training course or class available to the general public offered by a law enforcement, junior college, college, or private or public institution or organization or firearms training school, utilizing instructors certified by the National Rifle Association, Criminal Justice Standards and Training Commission, or the Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services;

4. Completion of any law enforcement firearms safety or training course or class offered for security guards, investigators, special deputies, or any division or subdivision of law enforcement or security enforcement;

5. Presents evidence of equivalent experience with a firearm through participation in organized shooting competition or military service;

6. Is licensed or has been licensed to carry a firearm in this state or a county or municipality of this state, unless such license has been revoked for cause; or

7. Completion of any firearms training or safety course or class conducted by a state-certified or National Rifle Association certified firearms instructor;

A photocopy of a certificate of completion of any of the courses or classes; or an affidavit from the instructor, school, club, organization, or group that conducted or taught said course or class attesting to the completion of the course or class by the applicant; or a copy of any document which shows completion of the course or class or evidences participation in firearms competition shall constitute evidence of qualification under this paragraph; any person who conducts a course pursuant to subparagraph 2., subparagraph 3., or subparagraph 7., or who, as an instructor, attests to the completion of such courses, must maintain records certifying that he or she observed the student safely handle and discharge the firearm;

(i) Has not been adjudicated an incapacitated person under s. 744.331, or similar laws of any other state, unless 5 years have elapsed since the applicant’s restoration to capacity by court order;

(j) Has not been committed to a mental institution under chapter 394, or similar laws of any other state, unless the applicant produces a certificate from a licensed psychiatrist that he or she has not suffered from disability for at least 5 years prior to the date of submission of the application;

(k) Has not had adjudication of guilt withheld or imposition of sentence suspended on any felony or misdemeanor crime of domestic violence unless 3 years have elapsed since probation or any other conditions set by the court have been fulfilled, or the record has been sealed or expunged;

(l) Has not been issued an injunction that is currently in force and effect and that restrains the applicant from committing acts of domestic violence or acts of repeat violence; and

(m) Is not prohibited from purchasing or possessing a firearm by any other provision of Florida or federal law.

(3) The Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services shall deny a license if the applicant has been found guilty of, had adjudication of guilt withheld for, or had imposition of sentence suspended for one or more crimes of violence constituting a misdemeanor, unless 3 years have elapsed since probation or any other conditions set by the court have been fulfilled or the record has been sealed or expunged. The Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services shall revoke a license if the licensee has been found guilty of, had adjudication of guilt withheld for, or had imposition of sentence suspended for one or more crimes of violence within the preceding 3 years. The department shall, upon notification by a law enforcement agency, a court, or the Florida Department of Law Enforcement and subsequent written verification, suspend a license or the processing of an application for a license if the licensee or applicant is arrested or formally charged with a crime that would disqualify such person from having a license under this section, until final disposition of the case. The department shall suspend a license or the processing of an application for a license if the licensee or applicant is issued an injunction that restrains the licensee or applicant from committing acts of domestic violence or acts of repeat violence.

(4) The application shall be completed, under oath, on a form promulgated by the Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services and shall include:

(a) The name, address, place and date of birth, race, and occupation of the applicant;

(b) A statement that the applicant is in compliance with criteria contained within subsections (2) and (3);

(c) A statement that the applicant has been furnished a copy of this chapter and is knowledgeable of its provisions;

(d) A conspicuous warning that the application is executed under oath and that a false answer to any question, or the submission of any false document by the applicant, subjects the applicant to criminal prosecution under s. 837.06; and

(e) A statement that the applicant desires a concealed weapon or firearms license as a means of lawful self-defense.

(5) The applicant shall submit to the Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services:

(a) A completed application as described in subsection (4).

(b) A nonrefundable license fee not to exceed $85, if he or she has not previously been issued a statewide license, or a nonrefundable license fee not to exceed $70 for renewal of a statewide license. Costs for processing the set of fingerprints as required in paragraph (c) shall be borne by the applicant. However, an individual holding an active certification from the Criminal Justice Standards and Training Commission as a “law enforcement officer,” “correctional officer,” or “correctional probation officer” as defined in s. 943.10(1), (2), (3), (6), (7), (8), or (9) is exempt from the licensing requirements of this section. If any individual holding an active certification from the Criminal Justice Standards and Training Commission as a “law enforcement officer,” a “correctional officer,” or a “correctional probation officer” as defined in s. 943.10(1), (2), (3), (6), (7), (8), or (9) wishes to receive a concealed weapons or firearms license, such person is exempt from the background investigation and all background investigation fees, but shall pay the current license fees regularly required to be paid by nonexempt applicants. Further, a law enforcement officer, a correctional officer, or a correctional probation officer as defined in s. 943.10(1), (2), or (3) is exempt from the required fees and background investigation for a period of 1 year subsequent to the date of retirement of said officer as a law enforcement officer, a correctional officer, or a correctional probation officer.

(c) A full set of fingerprints of the applicant administered by a law enforcement agency.

(d) A photocopy of a certificate or an affidavit or document as described in paragraph (2)(h).

(e) A full frontal view color photograph of the applicant taken within the preceding 30 days, in which the head, including hair, measures 7/8 of an inch wide and 11/8 inches high.

(6)(a) The Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, upon receipt of the items listed in subsection (5), shall forward the full set of fingerprints of the applicant to the Department of Law Enforcement for state and federal processing, provided the federal service is available, to be processed for any criminal justice information as defined in s. 943.045. The cost of processing such fingerprints shall be payable to the Department of Law Enforcement by the Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.

(b) The sheriff’s office shall provide fingerprinting service if requested by the applicant and may charge a fee not to exceed $5 for this service.

(c) The Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services shall, within 90 days after the date of receipt of the items listed in subsection (5):

1. Issue the license; or

2. Deny the application based solely on the ground that the applicant fails to qualify under the criteria listed in subsection (2) or subsection (3). If the Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services denies the application, it shall notify the applicant in writing, stating the ground for denial and informing the applicant of any right to a hearing pursuant to chapter 120.

3. In the event the department receives criminal history information with no final disposition on a crime which may disqualify the applicant, the time limitation prescribed by this paragraph may be suspended until receipt of the final disposition or proof of restoration of civil and firearm rights.

(d) In the event a legible set of fingerprints, as determined by the Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services or the Federal Bureau of Investigation, cannot be obtained after two attempts, the Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services shall determine eligibility based upon the name checks conducted by the Florida Department of Law Enforcement.

(e) A consular security official of a foreign government that maintains diplomatic relations and treaties of commerce, friendship, and navigation with the United States and is certified as such by the foreign government and by the appropriate embassy in this country must be issued a license within 20 days after the date of the receipt of a completed application, certification document, color photograph as specified in paragraph (5)(e), and a nonrefundable license fee of $300. Consular security official licenses shall be valid for 1 year and may be renewed upon completion of the application process as provided in this section.

(7) The Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services shall maintain an automated listing of licenseholders and pertinent information, and such information shall be available on-line, upon request, at all times to all law enforcement agencies through the Florida Crime Information Center.

(8) Within 30 days after the changing of a permanent address, or within 30 days after having a license lost or destroyed, the licensee shall notify the Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services of such change. Failure to notify the Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services pursuant to the provisions of this subsection shall constitute a noncriminal violation with a penalty of $25.

(9) In the event that a concealed weapon or firearm license is lost or destroyed, the license shall be automatically invalid, and the person to whom the same was issued may, upon payment of $15 to the Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, obtain a duplicate, or substitute thereof, upon furnishing a notarized statement to the Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services that such license has been lost or destroyed.

(10) A license issued under this section shall be suspended or revoked pursuant to chapter 120 if the licensee:

(a) Is found to be ineligible under the criteria set forth in subsection (2);

(b) Develops or sustains a physical infirmity which prevents the safe handling of a weapon or firearm;

(c) Is convicted of a felony which would make the licensee ineligible to possess a firearm pursuant to s. 790.23;

(d) Is found guilty of a crime under the provisions of chapter 893, or similar laws of any other state, relating to controlled substances;

(e) Is committed as a substance abuser under chapter 397, or is deemed a habitual offender under s. 856.011(3), or similar laws of any other state;

(f) Is convicted of a second violation of s. 316.193, or a similar law of another state, within 3 years of a previous conviction of such section, or similar law of another state, even though the first violation may have occurred prior to the date on which the application was submitted;

(g) Is adjudicated an incapacitated person under s. 744.331, or similar laws of any other state; or

(h) Is committed to a mental institution under chapter 394, or similar laws of any other state.

(11) No less than 90 days prior to the expiration date of the license, the Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services shall mail to each licensee a written notice of the expiration and a renewal form prescribed by the Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. The licensee must renew his or her license on or before the expiration date by filing with the Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services the renewal form containing a notarized affidavit stating that the licensee remains qualified pursuant to the criteria specified in subsections (2) and (3), a color photograph as specified in paragraph (5)(e), and the required renewal fee. Out-of-state residents must also submit a completed fingerprint card and fingerprint processing fee. The license shall be renewed upon receipt of the completed renewal form, color photograph, appropriate payment of fees, and, if applicable, a completed fingerprint card. Additionally, a licensee who fails to file a renewal application on or before its expiration date must renew his or her license by paying a late fee of $15. No license shall be renewed 6 months or more after its expiration date, and such license shall be deemed to be permanently expired. A person whose license has been permanently expired may reapply for licensure; however, an application for licensure and fees pursuant to subsection (5) must be submitted, and a background investigation shall be conducted pursuant to the provisions of this section. Persons who knowingly file false information pursuant to this subsection shall be subject to criminal prosecution under s. 837.06.

(12) No license issued pursuant to this section shall authorize any person to carry a concealed weapon or firearm into any place of nuisance as defined in s. 823.05; any police, sheriff, or highway patrol station; any detention facility, prison, or jail; any courthouse; any courtroom, except that nothing in this section would preclude a judge from carrying a concealed weapon or determining who will carry a concealed weapon in his or her courtroom; any polling place; any meeting of the governing body of a county, public school district, municipality, or special district; any meeting of the Legislature or a committee thereof; any school, college, or professional athletic event not related to firearms; any school administration building; any portion of an establishment licensed to dispense alcoholic beverages for consumption on the premises, which portion of the establishment is primarily devoted to such purpose; any elementary or secondary school facility; any career center; any college or university facility unless the licensee is a registered student, employee, or faculty member of such college or university and the weapon is a stun gun or nonlethal electric weapon or device designed solely for defensive purposes and the weapon does not fire a dart or projectile; inside the passenger terminal and sterile area of any airport, provided that no person shall be prohibited from carrying any legal firearm into the terminal, which firearm is encased for shipment for purposes of checking such firearm as baggage to be lawfully transported on any aircraft; or any place where the carrying of firearms is prohibited by federal law. Any person who willfully violates any provision of this subsection commits a misdemeanor of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(13) All moneys collected by the department pursuant to this section shall be deposited in the Division of Licensing Trust Fund, and the Legislature shall appropriate from the fund those amounts deemed necessary to administer the provisions of this section. All revenues collected, less those costs determined by the Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services to be nonrecurring or one-time costs, shall be deferred over the 13-year licensure period. Notwithstanding the provisions of s. 493.6117, all moneys collected pursuant to this section shall not revert to the General Revenue Fund; however, this shall not abrogate the requirement for payment of the service charge imposed pursuant to chapter 215.

(14) All funds received by the sheriff pursuant to the provisions of this section shall be deposited into the general revenue fund of the county and shall be budgeted to the sheriff.

(15) The Legislature finds as a matter of public policy and fact that it is necessary to provide statewide uniform standards for issuing licenses to carry concealed weapons and firearms for self-defense and finds it necessary to occupy the field of regulation of the bearing of concealed weapons or firearms for self-defense to ensure that no honest, law-abiding person who qualifies under the provisions of this section is subjectively or arbitrarily denied his or her rights. The Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services shall implement and administer the provisions of this section. The Legislature does not delegate to the Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services the authority to regulate or restrict the issuing of licenses provided for in this section, beyond those provisions contained in this section. Subjective or arbitrary actions or rules which encumber the issuing process by placing burdens on the applicant beyond those sworn statements and specified documents detailed in this section or which create restrictions beyond those specified in this section are in conflict with the intent of this section and are prohibited. This section shall be liberally construed to carry out the constitutional right to bear arms for self-defense. This section is supplemental and additional to existing rights to bear arms, and nothing in this section shall impair or diminish such rights.

(16) The Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services shall maintain statistical information on the number of licenses issued, revoked, suspended, and denied.

(17) As amended by chapter 87-24, Laws of Florida, this section shall be known and may be cited as the “Jack Hagler Self Defense Act.”

History.–s. 2, ch. 4147, 1893; s. 1, ch. 5139, 1903; GS 3268; RGS 5101; CGL 7203; s. 2, ch. 76-165; s. 67, ch. 77-121; s. 1, ch. 77-302; s. 176, ch. 79-164; ss. 1, 2, ch. 87-24; s. 4, ch. 88-183; s. 2, ch. 89-60; s. 110, ch. 89-96; s. 3, ch. 90-311; s. 2, ch. 90-316; ss. 1, 7, ch. 90-364; s. 1, ch. 92-52; s. 1, ch. 92-183; s. 38, ch. 93-39; s. 52, ch. 95-196; s. 1, ch. 95-229; s. 10, ch. 95-430; s. 17, ch. 97-94; s. 1206, ch. 97-102; s. 5, ch. 98-284; s. 3, ch. 98-335; s. 228, ch. 99-245; s. 61, ch. 2000-258; s. 10, ch. 2002-295; s. 108, ch. 2003-1; s. 60, ch. 2004-357.

1Note.–The 3-year licensure period required in s. 790.06(1) was changed to a 5-year licensure period by s. 3, ch. 98-335.

790.061 Judges and justices; exceptions from licensure provisions.–A county court judge, circuit court judge, district court of appeal judge, justice of the supreme court, federal district court judge, or federal court of appeals judge serving in this state is not required to comply with the provisions of s. 790.06 in order to receive a license to carry a concealed weapon or firearm, except that any such justice or judge must comply with the provisions of s. 790.06(2)(h). The Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services shall issue a license to carry a concealed weapon or firearm to any such justice or judge upon demonstration of competence of the justice or judge pursuant to s. 790.06(2)(h).

History.–s. 2, ch. 90-311; s. 2, ch. 95-229; s. 158, ch. 2004-5.

1790.065 Sale and delivery of firearms.–

(1) A licensed importer, licensed manufacturer, or licensed dealer may not sell or deliver from her or his inventory at her or his licensed premises any firearm to another person, other than a licensed importer, licensed manufacturer, licensed dealer, or licensed collector, until she or he has:

(a) Obtained a completed form from the potential buyer or transferee, which form shall have been promulgated by the Department of Law Enforcement and provided by the licensed importer, licensed manufacturer, or licensed dealer, which shall include the name, date of birth, gender, race, and social security number or other identification number of such potential buyer or transferee and has inspected proper identification including an identification containing a photograph of the potential buyer or transferee.

(b) Collected a fee from the potential buyer for processing the criminal history check of the potential buyer. The fee shall be established by the Department of Law Enforcement and may not exceed $8 per transaction. The Department of Law Enforcement may reduce, or suspend collection of, the fee to reflect payment received from the Federal Government applied to the cost of maintaining the criminal history check system established by this section as a means of facilitating or supplementing the National Instant Criminal Background Check System. The Department of Law Enforcement shall, by rule, establish procedures for the fees to be transmitted by the licensee to the Department of Law Enforcement. All such fees shall be deposited into the Department of Law Enforcement Operating Trust Fund, but shall be segregated from all other funds deposited into such trust fund and must be accounted for separately. Such segregated funds must not be used for any purpose other than the operation of the criminal history checks required by this section. The Department of Law Enforcement, each year prior to February 1, shall make a full accounting of all receipts and expenditures of such funds to the President of the Senate, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the majority and minority leaders of each house of the Legislature, and the chairs of the appropriations committees of each house of the Legislature. In the event that the cumulative amount of funds collected exceeds the cumulative amount of expenditures by more than $2.5 million, excess funds may be used for the purpose of purchasing soft body armor for law enforcement officers.

(c) Requested, by means of a toll-free telephone call, the Department of Law Enforcement to conduct a check of the information as reported and reflected in the Florida Crime Information Center and National Crime Information Center systems as of the date of the request.

(d) Received a unique approval number for that inquiry from the Department of Law Enforcement, and recorded the date and such number on the consent form.

However, if the person purchasing, or receiving delivery of, the firearm is a holder of a valid concealed weapons or firearms license pursuant to the provisions of s. 790.06 or holds an active certification from the Criminal Justice Standards and Training Commission as a “law enforcement officer,” a “correctional officer,” or a “correctional probation officer” as defined in s. 943.10(1), (2), (3), (6), (7), (8), or (9), the provisions of this subsection do not apply.

(2) Upon receipt of a request for a criminal history record check, the Department of Law Enforcement shall, during the licensee’s call or by return call, forthwith:

(a) Review criminal history records to determine if the potential buyer or transferee:

1. Has been convicted of a felony and is prohibited from receipt or possession of a firearm pursuant to s. 790.23;

2. Has been convicted of a misdemeanor crime of domestic violence, and therefore is prohibited from purchasing a firearm; or

3. Has had adjudication of guilt withheld or imposition of sentence suspended on any felony or misdemeanor crime of domestic violence unless 3 years have elapsed since probation or any other conditions set by the court have been fulfilled or expunction has occurred.

(b) Inform the licensee making the inquiry either that records demonstrate that the buyer or transferee is so prohibited and provide the licensee a nonapproval number, or provide the licensee with a unique approval number.

(c)1. Review any records available to it to determine whether the potential buyer or transferee has been indicted or has had an information filed against her or him for an offense that is a felony under either state or federal law, or, as mandated by federal law, has had an injunction for protection against domestic violence entered against the potential buyer or transferee under s. 741.30, has had an injunction for protection against repeat violence entered against the potential buyer or transferee under s. 784.046, or has been arrested for a dangerous crime as specified in s. 907.041(4)(a) or for any of the following enumerated offenses:

a. Criminal anarchy under ss. 876.01 and 876.02.

b. Extortion under s. 836.05.

c. Explosives violations under s. 552.22(1) and (2).

d. Controlled substances violations under chapter 893.

e. Resisting an officer with violence under s. 843.01.

f. Weapons and firearms violations under this chapter.

g. Treason under s. 876.32.

h. Assisting self-murder under s. 782.08.

i. Sabotage under s. 876.38.

j. Stalking or aggravated stalking under s. 784.048.

If the review indicates any such indictment, information, or arrest, the department shall provide to the licensee a conditional nonapproval number.

2. Within 24 working hours, the department shall determine the disposition of the indictment, information, or arrest and inform the licensee as to whether the potential buyer is prohibited from receiving or possessing a firearm. For purposes of this paragraph, “working hours” means the hours from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Monday through Friday, excluding legal holidays.

3. The office of the clerk of court, at no charge to the department, shall respond to any department request for data on the disposition of the indictment, information, or arrest as soon as possible, but in no event later than 8 working hours.

4. The department shall determine as quickly as possible within the allotted time period whether the potential buyer is prohibited from receiving or possessing a firearm.

5. If the potential buyer is not so prohibited, or if the department cannot determine the disposition information within the allotted time period, the department shall provide the licensee with a conditional approval number.

6. If the buyer is so prohibited, the conditional nonapproval number shall become a nonapproval number.

7. The department shall continue its attempts to obtain the disposition information and may retain a record of all approval numbers granted without sufficient disposition information. If the department later obtains disposition information which indicates:

a. That the potential buyer is not prohibited from owning a firearm, it shall treat the record of the transaction in accordance with this section; or

b. That the potential buyer is prohibited from owning a firearm, it shall immediately revoke the conditional approval number and notify local law enforcement.

8. During the time that disposition of the indictment, information, or arrest is pending and until the department is notified by the potential buyer that there has been a final disposition of the indictment, information, or arrest, the conditional nonapproval number shall remain in effect.

(3) In the event of scheduled computer downtime, electronic failure, or similar emergency beyond the control of the Department of Law Enforcement, the department shall immediately notify the licensee of the reason for, and estimated length of, such delay. After such notification, the department shall forthwith, and in no event later than the end of the next business day of the licensee, either inform the requesting licensee if its records demonstrate that the buyer or transferee is prohibited from receipt or possession of a firearm pursuant to Florida and Federal law or provide the licensee with a unique approval number. Unless notified by the end of said next business day that the buyer or transferee is so prohibited, and without regard to whether she or he has received a unique approval number, the licensee may complete the sale or transfer and shall not be deemed in violation of this section with respect to such sale or transfer.

(4)(a) Any records containing any of the information set forth in subsection (1) pertaining to a buyer or transferee who is not found to be prohibited from receipt or transfer of a firearm by reason of Florida and federal law which records are created by the Department of Law Enforcement to conduct the criminal history record check shall be confidential and exempt from the provisions of s. 119.07(1) and may not be disclosed by the Department of Law Enforcement or any officer or employee thereof to any person or to another agency. The Department of Law Enforcement shall destroy any such records forthwith after it communicates the approval and nonapproval numbers to the licensee and, in any event, such records shall be destroyed within 48 hours after the day of the response to the licensee’s request.

(b) Notwithstanding the provisions of this subsection, the Department of Law Enforcement may maintain records of NCIC transactions to the extent required by the Federal Government, and may maintain a log of dates of requests for criminal history records checks, unique approval and nonapproval numbers, license identification numbers, and transaction numbers corresponding to such dates for a period of not longer than 2 years or as otherwise required by law.

(c) Nothing in this chapter shall be construed to allow the State of Florida to maintain records containing the names of purchasers or transferees who receive unique approval numbers or to maintain records of firearm transactions.

(d) Any officer or employee, or former officer or employee of the Department of Law Enforcement or law enforcement agency who intentionally and maliciously violates the provisions of this subsection commits a felony of the third degree punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(5) The Department of Law Enforcement shall establish a toll-free telephone number which shall be operational 7 days a week with the exception of Christmas Day and New Year’s Day, for a period of 12 hours a day beginning at 9 a.m. and ending at 9 p.m., for purposes of responding to inquiries as described in this section from licensed manufacturers, licensed importers, and licensed dealers. The Department of Law Enforcement shall employ and train such personnel as are necessary expeditiously to administer the provisions of this section.

(6) Any person who is denied the right to receive or purchase a firearm as a result of the procedures established by this section may request a criminal history records review and correction in accordance with the rules promulgated by the Department of Law Enforcement.

(7) It shall be unlawful for any licensed dealer, licensed manufacturer, or licensed importer willfully and intentionally to request criminal history record information under false pretenses, or willfully and intentionally to disseminate criminal history record information to any person other than the subject of such information. Any person convicted of a violation of this subsection commits a felony of the third degree punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(8) The Department of Law Enforcement shall promulgate regulations to ensure the identity, confidentiality, and security of all records and data provided pursuant to this section.

(9) This section shall become effective at such time as the Department of Law Enforcement has notified all licensed importers, licensed manufacturers, and licensed dealers in writing that the procedures and toll-free number described in this section are operational. This section shall remain in effect only during such times as the procedures described in subsection (2) remain operational.

(10) A licensed importer, licensed manufacturer, or licensed dealer is not required to comply with the requirements of this section in the event of:

(a) Unavailability of telephone service at the licensed premises due to the failure of the entity which provides telephone service in the state, region, or other geographical area in which the licensee is located to provide telephone service to the premises of the licensee due to the location of said premises; or the interruption of telephone service by reason of hurricane, tornado, flood, natural disaster, or other act of God, war, invasion, insurrection, riot, or other bona fide emergency, or other reason beyond the control of the licensee; or

(b) Failure of the Department of Law Enforcement to comply with the requirements of subsections (2) and (3).

(11) Compliance with the provisions of this chapter shall be a complete defense to any claim or cause of action under the laws of any state for liability for damages arising from the importation or manufacture, or the subsequent sale or transfer to any person who has been convicted in any court of a crime punishable by imprisonment for a term exceeding 1 year, of any firearm which has been shipped or transported in interstate or foreign commerce. The Department of Law Enforcement, its agents and employees shall not be liable for any claim or cause of action under the laws of any state for liability for damages arising from its actions in lawful compliance with this section.

(12)(a) Any potential buyer or transferee who willfully and knowingly provides false information or false or fraudulent identification commits a felony of the third degree punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(b) Any licensed importer, licensed manufacturer, or licensed dealer who violates the provisions of subsection (1) commits a felony of the third degree punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(c) Any employee or agency of a licensed importer, licensed manufacturer, or licensed dealer who violates the provisions of subsection (1) commits a felony of the third degree punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(d) Any person who knowingly acquires a firearm through purchase or transfer intended for the use of a person who is prohibited by state or federal law from possessing or receiving a firearm commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(13) This section does not apply to employees of sheriff’s offices, municipal police departments, correctional facilities or agencies, or other criminal justice or governmental agencies when the purchases or transfers are made on behalf of an employing agency for official law enforcement purposes.

(14) This section is repealed effective October 1, 2009.

History.–s. 1, ch. 89-191; s. 1, ch. 90-316; s. 4, ch. 92-183; s. 1, ch. 93-197; s. 1, ch. 94-256; s. 14, ch. 95-195; s. 8, ch. 95-430; s. 7, ch. 96-392; s. 429, ch. 96-406; s. 29, ch. 97-94; s. 1816, ch. 97-102; s. 6, ch. 98-284; ss. 8, 9, ch. 99-300; s. 1, ch. 2000-218; s. 12, ch. 2002-205; s. 3, ch. 2003-23; s. 1, ch. 2004-79.

1Note.–

A. Section 1, ch. 89-191, provides that “[t]his section expires on the effective date of federal law which provides access to national criminal history information and requires national criminal history checks on potential buyers or transferees on firearms.”

B. Section 3, ch. 90-316, provides that “[t]his act shall not be construed to nullify the expiration of s. 790.065, Florida Statutes, provided for in chapter 89-191, Laws of Florida.”

790.0655 Purchase and delivery of handguns; mandatory waiting period; exceptions; penalties.–

(1)(a) There shall be a mandatory 3-day waiting period, which shall be 3 days, excluding weekends and legal holidays, between the purchase and the delivery at retail of any handgun. “Purchase” means the transfer of money or other valuable consideration to the retailer. “Handgun” means a firearm capable of being carried and used by one hand, such as a pistol or revolver. “Retailer” means and includes every person engaged in the business of making sales at retail or for distribution, or use, or consumption, or storage to be used or consumed in this state, as defined in s. 212.02(13).

(b) Records of handgun sales must be available for inspection by any law enforcement agency, as defined in s. 934.02, during normal business hours.

(2) The 3-day waiting period shall not apply in the following circumstances:

(a) When a handgun is being purchased by a holder of a concealed weapons permit as defined in s. 790.06.

(b) To a trade-in of another handgun.

(3) It is a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084:

(a) For any retailer, or any employee or agent of a retailer, to deliver a handgun before the expiration of the 3-day waiting period, subject to the exceptions provided in subsection (2).

(b) For a purchaser to obtain delivery of a handgun by fraud, false pretense, or false representation.

History.–s. 1, ch. 91-24; s. 3, ch. 92-183; s. 98, ch. 99-3.

790.07 Persons engaged in criminal offense, having weapons.–

(1) Whoever, while committing or attempting to commit any felony or while under indictment, displays, uses, threatens, or attempts to use any weapon or electric weapon or device or carries a concealed weapon is guilty of a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(2) Whoever, while committing or attempting to commit any felony, displays, uses, threatens, or attempts to use any firearm or carries a concealed firearm is guilty of a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, and s. 775.084.

(3) The following crimes are excluded from application of this section: Antitrust violations, unfair trade practices, restraints of trade, nonsupport of dependents, bigamy, or other similar offenses.

(4) Whoever, having previously been convicted of a violation of subsection (1) or subsection (2) and, subsequent to such conviction, displays, uses, threatens, or attempts to use any weapon, firearm, or electric weapon or device, carries a concealed weapon, or carries a concealed firearm while committing or attempting to commit any felony or while under indictment is guilty of a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. Sentence shall not be suspended or deferred under the provisions of this subsection.

History.–s. 10, ch. 1637, 1868; RS 2423; s. 2, ch. 4124, 1893; GS 3269; RGS 5102; CGL 7204; s. 4, ch. 69-306; s. 741, ch. 71-136; s. 2, ch. 76-165; s. 2, ch. 91-223.

790.08 Taking possession of weapons and arms; reports; disposition; custody.–

(1) Every officer making an arrest under s. 790.07, or under any other law or municipal ordinance within the state, shall take possession of any weapons, electric weapons or devices, or arms mentioned in s. 790.07 found upon the person arrested and deliver them to the sheriff of the county, or the chief of police of the municipality wherein the arrest is made, who shall retain the same until after the trial of the person arrested.

(2) If the person arrested as aforesaid is convicted of violating s. 790.07, or of a similar offense under any municipal ordinance, or any other offense involving the use or attempted use of such weapons, electric weapons or devices, or arms, such weapons, electric weapons or devices, or arms shall become forfeited to the state, without any order of forfeiture being necessary, although the making of such an order shall be deemed proper, and such weapons, electric weapons or devices, or arms shall be forthwith delivered to the sheriff by the chief of police or other person having custody thereof, and the sheriff is hereby made the custodian of such weapons, electric weapons or devices, and arms for the state.

(3) If the person arrested as aforesaid is acquitted of the offenses mentioned in subsection (2), the said weapons, electric weapons or devices, or arms taken from the person as aforesaid shall be returned to him or her; however, if he or she fails to call for or receive the same within 60 days from and after his or her acquittal or the dismissal of the charges against him or her, the same shall be delivered to the sheriff as aforesaid to be held by the sheriff as hereinafter provided. This subsection shall likewise apply to persons and their weapons, electric weapons or devices, or arms who have heretofore been acquitted or the charges against them dismissed.

(4) All such weapons, electric weapons or devices, and arms now in, or hereafter coming into, the hands of any of the peace officers of this state or any of its political subdivisions, which have been found abandoned or otherwise discarded, or left in their hands and not reclaimed by the owners shall, within 60 days, be delivered by such peace officers to the sheriff of the county aforesaid.

(5) Weapons, electric weapons or devices, and arms coming into the hands of the sheriff pursuant to subsections (3) and (4) aforesaid shall, unless reclaimed by the owner thereof within 6 months from the date the same come into the hands of the said sheriff, become forfeited to the state, and no action or proceeding for their recovery shall thereafter be maintained in this state.

(6) Weapons, electric weapons or devices, and arms coming into the hands of the sheriff as aforesaid shall be listed, kept, and held by him or her as custodian for the state. Any or all such weapons, electric weapons or devices, and arms suitable for use by the sheriff may be so used. All such weapons, electric weapons or devices, and arms not needed by the said sheriff may be loaned to any other department of the state or to any county or municipality having use for such weapons, electric weapons or devices, and arms. The sheriff shall take the receipt of such other department, county, or municipality for such weapons, electric weapons or devices, and arms loaned to them. All weapons, electric weapons or devices, and arms which are not needed or which are useless or unfit for use shall be destroyed or otherwise disposed of by the sheriff as provided in chapter 705 or as provided in the Florida Contraband Forfeiture Act. All sums received from the sale or other disposition of the said weapons, electric weapons or devices, or arms disposed of by the sheriff under chapter 705 as aforesaid shall be paid into the State Treasury for the benefit of the State School Fund and shall become a part thereof. All sums received from the sale or other disposition of any such weapons, electric weapons or devices, or arms disposed of by the sheriff under the Florida Contraband Forfeiture Act shall be disbursed as provided therein.

(7) This section does not apply to any municipality in any county having home rule under the State Constitution.

History.–s. 3, ch. 3620, 1885; RS 2424; GS 3270; RGS 5103; CGL 7205; s. 1, ch. 22049, 1943; s. 1, ch. 65-189; ss. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, ch. 67-523; s. 3, ch. 67-2207; ss. 20, 35, ch. 69-106; s. 2, ch. 76-165; s. 24, ch. 79-8; s. 12, ch. 80-68; s. 1, ch. 83-21; s. 17, ch. 97-93; s. 1207, ch. 97-102.

790.09 Manufacturing or selling slungshot.–Whoever manufactures or causes to be manufactured, or sells or exposes for sale any instrument or weapon of the kind usually known as slungshot, or metallic knuckles, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

History.–s. 11, ch. 1637, 1868; RS 2425; s. 3, ch. 4124, 1893; GS 3271; RGS 5104; CGL 7206; s. 742, ch. 71-136.

790.10 Improper exhibition of dangerous weapons or firearms.–If any person having or carrying any dirk, sword, sword cane, firearm, electric weapon or device, or other weapon shall, in the presence of one or more persons, exhibit the same in a rude, careless, angry, or threatening manner, not in necessary self-defense, the person so offending shall be guilty of a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

History.–s. 1, ch. 4532, 1897; GS 3272; RGS 5105; CGL 7207; s. 5, ch. 69-306; s. 743, ch. 71-136; s. 2, ch. 76-165; s. 174, ch. 91-224.

790.11 Carrying firearms in national forests prohibited.–Except during the hunting season as established by law, no person shall carry, on or about his or her person, or in any vehicle in which such person may be riding, or on any animal which such person may be using, within the limits of a national forest area within the state, any gun or firearm of any description whatever, without first having obtained a permit as hereinafter prescribed except on state roads when securely locked within a vehicle.

History.–s. 1, ch. 17911, 1937; CGL 1940 Supp. 7203(5); s. 1, ch. 65-188; s. 1208, ch. 97-102.

790.115 Possessing or discharging weapons or firearms at a school-sponsored event or on school property prohibited; penalties; exceptions.–

(1) A person who exhibits any sword, sword cane, firearm, electric weapon or device, destructive device, or other weapon, including a razor blade, box cutter, or knife, except as authorized in support of school-sanctioned activities, in the presence of one or more persons in a rude, careless, angry, or threatening manner and not in lawful self-defense, at a school-sponsored event or on the grounds or facilities of any school, school bus, or school bus stop, or within 1,000 feet of the real property that comprises a public or private elementary school, middle school, or secondary school, during school hours or during the time of a sanctioned school activity, commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. This subsection does not apply to the exhibition of a firearm or weapon on private real property within 1,000 feet of a school by the owner of such property or by a person whose presence on such property has been authorized, licensed, or invited by the owner.

(2)(a) A person shall not possess any firearm, electric weapon or device, destructive device, or other weapon, including a razor blade, box cutter, or knife, except as authorized in support of school-sanctioned activities, at a school-sponsored event or on the property of any school, school bus, or school bus stop; however, a person may carry a firearm:

1. In a case to a firearms program, class or function which has been approved in advance by the principal or chief administrative officer of the school as a program or class to which firearms could be carried;

2. In a case to a career center having a firearms training range; or

3. In a vehicle pursuant to s. 790.25(5); except that school districts may adopt written and published policies that waive the exception in this subparagraph for purposes of student and campus parking privileges.

For the purposes of this section, “school” means any preschool, elementary school, middle school, junior high school, secondary school, career center, or postsecondary school, whether public or nonpublic.

(b) A person who willfully and knowingly possesses any electric weapon or device, destructive device, or other weapon, including a razor blade, box cutter, or knife, except as authorized in support of school-sanctioned activities, in violation of this subsection commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(c)1. A person who willfully and knowingly possesses any firearm in violation of this subsection commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

2. A person who stores or leaves a loaded firearm within the reach or easy access of a minor who obtains the firearm and commits a violation of subparagraph 1. commits a misdemeanor of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083; except that this does not apply if the firearm was stored or left in a securely locked box or container or in a location which a reasonable person would have believed to be secure, or was securely locked with a firearm-mounted push-button combination lock or a trigger lock; if the minor obtains the firearm as a result of an unlawful entry by any person; or to members of the Armed Forces, National Guard, or State Militia, or to police or other law enforcement officers, with respect to firearm possession by a minor which occurs during or incidental to the performance of their official duties.

(d) A person who discharges any weapon or firearm while in violation of paragraph (a), unless discharged for lawful defense of himself or herself or another or for a lawful purpose, commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(e) The penalties of this subsection shall not apply to persons licensed under s. 790.06. Persons licensed under s. 790.06 shall be punished as provided in s. 790.06(12), except that a licenseholder who unlawfully discharges a weapon or firearm on school property as prohibited by this subsection commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(3) This section does not apply to any law enforcement officer as defined in s. 943.10(1), (2), (3), (4), (6), (7), (8), (9), or (14).

(4) Notwithstanding s. 985.213, s. 985.214, or s. 985.215(1), any minor under 18 years of age who is charged under this section with possessing or discharging a firearm on school property shall be detained in secure detention, unless the state attorney authorizes the release of the minor, and shall be given a probable cause hearing within 24 hours after being taken into custody. At the hearing, the court may order that the minor continue to be held in secure detention for a period of 21 days, during which time the minor shall receive medical, psychiatric, psychological, or substance abuse examinations pursuant to s. 985.224, and a written report shall be completed.

History.–s. 4, ch. 92-130; s. 11, ch. 93-230; s. 1, ch. 94-289; s. 1209, ch. 97-102; s. 20, ch. 97-234; s. 3, ch. 99-284; s. 61, ch. 2004-357.

790.12 Permit may be granted by county commissioners.–The board of county commissioners of the county, or counties, where such national forest area is located, may grant special permit for the carrying of firearms to be specifically described in such permit, when the granting of such permit shall have been recommended in writing by the officer or employee of the United States Government in charge of such national forest area; and, where such area lies in more than one county, such permit must be granted by the board of county commissioners of each of the several counties involved before the same shall be valid.

History.–s. 2, ch. 17911, 1937; CGL 1940 Supp. 7203(6).

790.14 Penalty for violation of ss. 790.11 and 790.12.–Any person violating the provisions of ss. 790.11 and 790.12 shall be guilty of a misdemeanor of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

History.–s. 4, ch. 17911, 1937; CGL 1940 Supp. 7203(8); s. 7, ch. 22858, 1945; s. 744, ch. 71-136.

790.145 Crimes in pharmacies; possession of weapons; penalties.–

(1) Unless otherwise provided by law, any person who is in possession of a concealed “firearm,” as defined in s. 790.001(6), or a “destructive device,” as defined in s. 790.001(4), within the premises of a “pharmacy,” as defined in chapter 465, is guilty of a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(2) The provisions of this section do not apply:

(a) To any law enforcement officer;

(b) To any person employed and authorized by the owner, operator, or manager of a pharmacy to carry a firearm or destructive device on such premises; or

(c) To any person licensed to carry a concealed weapon.

History.–s. 1, ch. 81-278; s. 2, ch. 90-124; s. 2, ch. 90-176.

790.15 Discharging firearm in public.–

(1) Except as provided in subsection (2) or subsection (3), any person who knowingly discharges a firearm in any public place or on the right-of-way of any paved public road, highway, or street or whosoever knowingly discharges any firearm over the right-of-way of any paved public road, highway, or street or over any occupied premises is guilty of a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083. This section does not apply to a person lawfully defending life or property or performing official duties requiring the discharge of a firearm or to a person discharging a firearm on public roads or properties expressly approved for hunting by the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission or Division of Forestry.

(2) Any occupant of any vehicle who knowingly and willfully discharges any firearm from the vehicle within 1,000 feet of any person commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(3) Any driver or owner of any vehicle, whether or not the owner of the vehicle is occupying the vehicle, who knowingly directs any other person to discharge any firearm from the vehicle commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

History.–s. 1, ch. 3289, 1881; RS 2683; GS 3626; RGS 5557; CGL 7743; s. 1, ch. 61-334; s. 745, ch. 71-136; s. 1, ch. 78-17; s. 1, ch. 89-157; s. 229, ch. 99-245.

790.151 Using firearm while under the influence of alcoholic beverages, chemical substances, or controlled substances; penalties.–

(1) As used in ss. 790.151-790.157, to “use a firearm” means to discharge a firearm or to have a firearm readily accessible for immediate discharge.

(2) For the purposes of this section, “readily accessible for immediate discharge” means loaded and in a person’s hand.

(3) It is unlawful and punishable as provided in subsection (4) for any person who is under the influence of alcoholic beverages, any chemical substance set forth in s. 877.111, or any substance controlled under chapter 893, when affected to the extent that his or her normal faculties are impaired, to use a firearm in this state.

(4) Any person who violates subsection (3) commits a misdemeanor of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(5) This section does not apply to persons exercising lawful self-defense or defense of one’s property.

History.–s. 1, ch. 91-84; s. 1210, ch. 97-102.

790.153 Tests for impairment or intoxication; right to refuse.–

(1)(a) Any person who uses a firearm within this state shall submit to an approved chemical or physical breath test to determine the alcoholic content of the blood and to a urine test to detect the presence of controlled substances, if there is probable cause to believe that the person was using a firearm while under the influence of alcoholic beverages or controlled substances or that the person is lawfully arrested for any offense allegedly committed while he or she was using a firearm while under the influence of alcoholic beverages or controlled substances. The breath test shall be incidental to a lawful arrest and administered at the request of a law enforcement officer who has probable cause to believe such person was using the firearm within this state while under the influence of alcoholic beverages. The urine test shall be incidental to a lawful arrest and administered at a detention facility, mobile or otherwise, which is equipped to administer such tests at the request of a law enforcement officer who has probable cause to believe such person was using a firearm within this state while under the influence of controlled substances. The urine test shall be administered at a detention facility or any other facility, mobile or otherwise, which is equipped to administer such tests in a reasonable manner that will ensure the accuracy of the specimen and maintain the privacy of the individual involved. The administration of either test shall not preclude the administration of the other test. The refusal to submit to a chemical or physical breath or urine test upon the request of a law enforcement officer as provided in this section shall be admissible into evidence in any criminal proceeding. This section shall not hinder the taking of a mandatory blood test as outlined in s. 790.155.

(b) If the arresting officer does not request a chemical or physical test of the person arrested for any offense allegedly committed while the person was using a firearm while under the influence of alcoholic beverages or controlled substances, such person may request the arresting officer to have a chemical or physical test made of the arrested person’s breath for the purpose of determining the alcoholic content of the person’s blood or a chemical test of urine or blood for the purpose of determining the presence of controlled substances; and, if so requested, the arresting officer shall have the test performed.

(c) The provisions of s. 316.1932(1)(f), relating to administration of tests for determining the weight of alcohol in the defendant’s blood, additional tests at the defendant’s expense, availability of test information to the defendant or the defendant’s attorney, and liability of medical institutions and persons administering such tests are incorporated into this act.

(2) The results of any test administered pursuant to this section for the purpose of detecting the presence of any controlled substance shall not be admissible as evidence in a criminal prosecution for the possession of a controlled substance.

(3) Notwithstanding any provision of law pertaining to the confidentiality of hospital records or other medical records, information obtained pursuant to this section shall be released to a court, prosecuting attorney, defense attorney, or law enforcement officer in connection with an alleged violation of s. 790.151 upon request for such information.

History.–s. 2, ch. 91-84; s. 1211, ch. 97-102.

790.155 Blood test for impairment or intoxication in cases of death or serious bodily injury; right to use reasonable force.–

(1)(a) Notwithstanding any recognized ability to refuse to submit to the tests provided in s. 790.153, if a law enforcement officer has probable cause to believe that a firearm used by a person under the influence of alcoholic beverages or controlled substances has caused the death or serious bodily injury of a human being, such person shall submit, upon the request of a law enforcement officer, to a test of his or her blood for the purpose of determining the alcoholic content thereof or the presence of controlled substances therein. The law enforcement officer may use reasonable force if necessary to require such person to submit to the administration of the blood test. The blood test shall be performed in a reasonable manner.

(b) The term “serious bodily injury” means a physical condition which creates a substantial risk of death, serious personal disfigurement, or protracted loss or impairment of the function of any bodily member or organ.

(2) The provisions of s. 316.1933(2), relating to blood tests for impairment or intoxication, are incorporated into this act.

(3)(a) Any criminal charge resulting from the incident giving rise to the officer’s demand for testing should be tried concurrently with a charge of any violation of s. 790.151. If such charges are tried separately, the fact that such person refused, resisted, obstructed, or opposed testing shall be admissible at the trial of the criminal offense which gave rise to the demand for testing.

(b) The results of any test administered pursuant to this section for the purpose of detecting the presence of any controlled substance shall not be admissible as evidence in a criminal prosecution for the possession of a controlled substance.

(4) Notwithstanding any provision of law pertaining to the confidentiality of hospital records or other medical records, information obtained pursuant to this section shall be released to a court, prosecuting attorney, defense attorney, or law enforcement officer in connection with an alleged violation of s. 790.151 upon request for such information.

History.–s. 3, ch. 91-84; s. 1212, ch. 97-102.

790.157 Presumption of impairment; testing methods.–

(1) It is unlawful and punishable as provided in s. 790.151 for any person who is under the influence of alcoholic beverages or controlled substances, when affected to the extent that his or her normal faculties are impaired, to use a firearm in this state.

(2) Upon the trial of any civil or criminal action or proceeding arising out of acts alleged to have been committed by any person while using a firearm while under the influence of alcoholic beverages or controlled substances, when affected to the extent that his or her normal faculties were impaired or to the extent that the person was deprived of full possession of his or her normal faculties, the results of any test administered in accordance with s. 790.153 or s. 790.155 and this section shall be admissible into evidence when otherwise admissible, and the amount of alcohol in the person’s blood at the time alleged, as shown by chemical analysis of the person’s blood or chemical or physical analysis of the person’s breath, shall give rise to the following presumptions:

(a) If there was at that time 0.05 percent or less by weight of alcohol in the person’s blood, it shall be presumed that the person was not under the influence of alcoholic beverages to the extent that his or her normal faculties were impaired.

(b) If there was at that time in excess of 0.05 percent but less than 0.10 percent by weight of alcohol in the person’s blood, such fact shall not give rise to any presumption that the person was or was not under the influence of alcoholic beverages to the extent that his or her normal faculties were impaired, but such fact may be considered with other competent evidence in determining whether the person was under the influence of alcoholic beverages to the extent that his or her normal faculties were impaired.

(c) If there was at that time 0.10 percent or more by weight of alcohol in the person’s blood, that fact shall be prima facie evidence that the person was under the influence of alcoholic beverages to the extent that his or her normal faculties were impaired.

The percent by weight of alcohol in the blood shall be based upon grams of alcohol per 100 milliliters of blood. The foregoing provisions of this subsection shall not be construed as limiting the introduction of any other competent evidence bearing upon the question of whether the person was under the influence of alcoholic beverages to the extent that his or her normal faculties were impaired.

(3) A chemical analysis of a person’s blood to determine its alcoholic content or a chemical or physical analysis of a person’s breath, in order to be considered valid under the provisions of this section, must have been performed substantially in accordance with methods approved by the Florida Department of Law Enforcement and by an individual possessing a valid permit issued by the department for this purpose. Any insubstantial differences between approved techniques and actual testing procedures in an individual case shall not render the test or test results invalid. The Florida Department of Law Enforcement may approve satisfactory techniques or methods, ascertain the qualification and competence of individuals to conduct such analyses, and issue permits which shall be subject to termination or revocation in accordance with rules adopted by the department.

(4) Any person charged with using a firearm while under the influence of alcoholic beverages or controlled substances to the extent that his or her normal faculties were impaired, whether in a municipality or not, shall be entitled to trial by jury according to the Florida Rules of Criminal Procedure.

History.–s. 4, ch. 91-84; s. 1213, ch. 97-102; s. 294, ch. 99-8.

790.16 Discharging machine guns; penalty.–

(1) It is unlawful for any person to shoot or discharge any machine gun upon, across, or along any road, street, or highway in the state; upon or across any public park in the state; or in, upon, or across any public place where people are accustomed to assemble in the state. The discharge of such machine gun in, upon, or across such public street; in, upon, or across such public park; or in, upon, or across such public place, whether indoors or outdoors, including all theaters and athletic stadiums, with intent to do bodily harm to any person or with intent to do damage to property not resulting in the death of another person shall be a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082. A sentence not exceeding life imprisonment is specifically authorized when great bodily harm to another or serious disruption of governmental operations results.

(2) This section shall not apply to the use of such machine guns by any United States or state militia or by any law enforcement officer while in the discharge of his or her lawful duty in suppressing riots and disorderly conduct and in preserving and protecting the public peace or in the preservation of public property, or when said use is authorized by law.

History.–s. 1, ch. 16111, 1933; CGL 1936 Supp. 7748(1); s. 746, ch. 71-136; s. 5, ch. 72-724; s. 1, ch. 76-38; s. 1214, ch. 97-102.

790.161 Making, possessing, throwing, projecting, placing, or discharging any destructive device or attempt so to do, felony; penalties.–A person who willfully and unlawfully makes, possesses, throws, projects, places, discharges, or attempts to make, possess, throw, project, place, or discharge any destructive device:

(1) Commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.084.

(2) If the act is perpetrated with the intent to do bodily harm to any person, or with the intent to do property damage, or if the act results in a disruption of governmental operations, commerce, or the private affairs of another person, commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.084.

(3) If the act results in bodily harm to another person or in property damage, commits a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.084.

(4) If the act results in the death of another person, commits a capital felony, punishable as provided in s. 775.082. In the event the death penalty in a capital felony is held to be unconstitutional by the Florida Supreme Court or the United States Supreme Court, the court having jurisdiction over a person previously sentenced to death for a capital felony shall cause such person to be brought before the court, and the court shall sentence such person to life imprisonment if convicted of murder in the first degree or of a capital felony under this subsection, and such person shall be ineligible for parole. No sentence of death shall be reduced as a result of a determination that a method of execution is held to be unconstitutional under the State Constitution or the Constitution of the United States.

History.–s. 1, ch. 59-29; s. 6, ch. 69-306; s. 1, ch. 70-85; s. 747, ch. 71-136; s. 6, ch. 72-724; s. 2, ch. 76-38; s. 44, ch. 88-381; s. 3, ch. 90-124; s. 3, ch. 90-176; s. 19, ch. 93-406; s. 2, ch. 94-228; s. 3, ch. 98-3.

790.1612 Authorization for governmental manufacture, possession, and use of destructive devices.–The governing body of any municipality or county and the Division of State Fire Marshal of the Department of Financial Services have the power to authorize the manufacture, possession, and use of destructive devices as defined in s. 790.001(4).

History.–s. 6, ch. 90-124; s. 6, ch. 90-176; s. 1905, ch. 2003-261.

790.1615 Unlawful throwing, projecting, placing, or discharging of destructive device or bomb that results in injury to another; penalty.–

(1) A person who perpetrates any unlawful throwing, projecting, placing, or discharging of a destructive device or bomb that results in any bodily harm to a firefighter or any other person, regardless of intent or lack of intent to cause such harm, commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(2) A person who perpetrates any unlawful throwing, projecting, placing, or discharging of a destructive device or bomb that results in great bodily harm, permanent disability, or permanent disfigurement to a firefighter or any other person, regardless of intent or lack of intent to cause such harm, commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(3) Upon conviction and adjudication of guilt, a person may be sentenced separately, pursuant to s. 775.021(4), for any violation of this section and for any unlawful throwing, projecting, placing, or discharging of a destructive device or bomb committed during the same criminal episode. A conviction for any unlawful throwing, projecting, placing, or discharging of a destructive device or bomb, however, is not necessary for a conviction under this section.

History.–s. 1, ch. 84-23; s. 7, ch. 90-124; s. 7, ch. 90-176.

790.162 Threat to throw, project, place, or discharge any destructive device, felony; penalty.–It is unlawful for any person to threaten to throw, project, place, or discharge any destructive device with intent to do bodily harm to any person or with intent to do damage to any property of any person, and any person convicted thereof commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

History.–s. 2, ch. 59-29; s. 7, ch. 69-306; s. 748, ch. 71-136; s. 45, ch. 88-381; s. 4, ch. 90-124; s. 4, ch. 90-176.

790.163 False report about planting bomb, explosive, or weapon of mass destruction; penalty.–

(1) It is unlawful for any person to make a false report, with intent to deceive, mislead, or otherwise misinform any person, concerning the placing or planting of any bomb, dynamite, other deadly explosive, or weapon of mass destruction as defined in s. 790.166; and any person convicted thereof commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(2) Notwithstanding any other law, adjudication of guilt or imposition of sentence for a violation of this section may not be suspended, deferred, or withheld. However, the state attorney may move the sentencing court to reduce or suspend the sentence of any person who is convicted of a violation of this section and who provides substantial assistance in the identification, arrest, or conviction of any of his or her accomplices, accessories, coconspirators, or principals.

(3) Proof that a person accused of violating this section knowingly made a false report is prima facie evidence of the accused person’s intent to deceive, mislead, or otherwise misinform any person.

(4) In addition to any other penalty provided by law with respect to any person who is convicted of a violation of this section that resulted in the mobilization or action of any law enforcement officer or any state or local agency, a person convicted of a violation of this section may be required by the court to pay restitution for all of the costs and damages arising from the criminal conduct.

History.–s. 3, ch. 59-29; s. 749, ch. 71-136; s. 1, ch. 2002-28.

790.164 False reports concerning planting a bomb, explosive, or weapon of mass destruction in, or committing arson against, state-owned property; penalty; reward.–

(1) It is unlawful for any person to make a false report, with intent to deceive, mislead, or otherwise misinform any person, concerning the placing or planting of any bomb, dynamite, other deadly explosive, or weapon of mass destruction as defined in s. 790.166, or concerning any act of arson or other violence to property owned by the state or any political subdivision. Any person violating this subsection commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(2) Notwithstanding any other law, adjudication of guilt or imposition of sentence for a violation of this section may not be suspended, deferred, or withheld. However, the state attorney may move the sentencing court to reduce or suspend the sentence of any person who is convicted of a violation of this section and who provides substantial assistance in the identification, arrest, or conviction of any of his or her accomplices, accessories, coconspirators, or principals.

(3) Proof that a person accused of violating this section knowingly made a false report is prima facie evidence of the accused person’s intent to deceive, mislead, or otherwise misinform any person.

(4)(a) There shall be a $5,000 reward for the giving of information to any law enforcement agency in the state, which information leads to the arrest and conviction of any person violating the provisions of this section. Any person claiming such reward shall apply to the law enforcement agency developing the case and be paid by the Department of Law Enforcement from the deficiency fund.

(b) There shall be only one reward given for each case, regardless of how many persons are arrested and convicted in connection with the case and regardless of how many persons submit claims for the reward.

(c) The Department of Law Enforcement shall establish procedures to be used by all reward applicants, and the circuit judge in whose jurisdiction the action occurs shall review all such applications and make final determination as to those applicants entitled to receive an award.

(d) In addition to any other penalty provided by law with respect to any person who is convicted of a violation of this section that resulted in the mobilization or action of any law enforcement officer or any state or local agency, a person convicted of a violation of this section may be required by the court to pay restitution for all of the costs and damages arising from the criminal conduct.

History.–ss. 2, 2A, ch. 71-306; s. 1, ch. 76-146; s. 236, ch. 77-104; s. 25, ch. 79-8; s. 2, ch. 2002-28.

790.165 Planting of “hoax bomb” prohibited; penalties.–

(1) For the purposes of this section, “hoax bomb” means any device or object that by its design, construction, content, or characteristics appears to be, or to contain, or is represented to be or to contain, a destructive device or explosive as defined in this chapter, but is, in fact, an inoperative facsimile or imitation of such a destructive device or explosive, or contains no destructive device or explosive as was represented.

(2) Any person who, without lawful authority, manufactures, possesses, sells, delivers, sends, mails, displays, uses, threatens to use, attempts to use, or conspires to use, or who makes readily accessible to others, a hoax bomb commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(3) Any person who, while committing or attempting to commit any felony, possesses, displays, or threatens to use any hoax bomb commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. Notwithstanding any other law, adjudication of guilt or imposition of sentence may not be suspended, deferred, or withheld. However, the state attorney may move the sentencing court to reduce or suspend the sentence of any person who is convicted of a violation of this section and who provides substantial assistance in the identification, arrest, or conviction of any of his or her accomplices, accessories, coconspirators, or principals.

(4) Subsection (2) does not apply to any law enforcement officer, firefighter, person, or corporation licensed pursuant to chapter 493, or member of the armed forces of the United States while engaged in training or other lawful activity within the scope of his or her employment, or to any person properly authorized to test a security system, or to any security personnel, while operating within the scope of their employment, including, but not limited to, security personnel in airports and other controlled access areas, or to any member of a theatrical company or production using a hoax bomb as property during the course of a rehearsal or performance.

(5) In addition to any other penalty provided by law with respect to any person who is convicted of a violation of this section that resulted in the mobilization or action of any law enforcement officer or any state or local agency, a person convicted of a violation of this section may be required by the court to pay restitution for all of the costs and damages arising from the criminal conduct.

History.–s. 39, ch. 87-243; s. 5, ch. 90-124; s. 5, ch. 90-176; s. 20, ch. 93-406; s. 1215, ch. 97-102; s. 3, ch. 2002-28.

790.166 Manufacture, possession, sale, delivery, display, use, or attempted or threatened use of a weapon of mass destruction or hoax weapon of mass destruction prohibited; definitions; penalties.–

(1) As used in this section, the term:

(a) “Weapon of mass destruction” means:

1. Any device or object that is designed or intended to cause death or serious bodily injury to any human or animal, or severe emotional or mental harm to any human, through the release, dissemination, or impact of toxic or poisonous chemicals, or their precursors;

2. Any device or object involving a biological agent;

3. Any device or object that is designed or intended to release radiation or radioactivity at a level dangerous to human or animal life; or

4. Any biological agent, toxin, vector, or delivery system.

(b) “Hoax weapon of mass destruction” means any device or object that by its design, construction, content, or characteristics appears to be or to contain, or is represented to be, constitute, or contain, a weapon of mass destruction as defined in this section, but which is, in fact, an inoperative facsimile, imitation, counterfeit, or representation of a weapon of mass destruction which does not meet the definition of a weapon of mass destruction or which does not actually contain or constitute a weapon, biological agent, toxin, vector, or delivery system prohibited by this section.

(c) “Biological agent” means any microorganism, virus, infectious substance, or biological product that may be engineered through biotechnology, or any naturally occurring or bioengineered component of any such microorganism, virus, infectious substance, or biological product, capable of causing:

1. Death, disease, or other biological malfunction in a human, an animal, a plant, or other living organism;

2. Deterioration of food, water, equipment, supplies, or material of any kind; or

3. Deleterious alteration of the environment.

(d) “Toxin” means the toxic material of plants, animals, microorganisms, viruses, fungi, or infectious substances, or a recombinant molecule, whatever its origin or method of reproduction, including:

1. Any poisonous substance or biological product that may be engineered through biotechnology produced by a living organism; or

2. Any poisonous isomer or biological product, homolog, or derivative of such substance.

(e) “Delivery system” means:

1. Any apparatus, equipment, device, or means of delivery specifically designed to deliver or disseminate a biological agent, toxin, or vector; or

2. Any vector.

(f) “Vector” means a living organism or molecule, including a recombinant molecule or biological product that may be engineered through biotechnology, capable of carrying a biological agent or toxin to a host.

(2) A person who, without lawful authority, manufactures, possesses, sells, delivers, sends, mails, displays, uses, threatens to use, attempts to use, or conspires to use, or who makes readily accessible to others a weapon of mass destruction commits a felony of the first degree, punishable by imprisonment for a term of years not exceeding life or as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084, and if death results, commits a capital felony, punishable as provided in s. 775.082.

(3) Any person who, without lawful authority, manufactures, possesses, sells, delivers, mails, sends, displays, uses, threatens to use, attempts to use, or conspires to use, or who makes readily accessible to others, a hoax weapon of mass destruction commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(4) Any person who, while committing or attempting to commit any felony, possesses, displays, or threatens to use any hoax weapon of mass destruction commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(5) Notwithstanding any other law, adjudication of guilt or imposition of sentence may not be suspended, deferred, or withheld for a violation of this section. However, the state attorney may move the sentencing court to reduce or suspend the sentence of any person who is convicted of a violation of this section and who provides substantial assistance in the identification, arrest, or conviction of any of his or her accomplices, accessories, coconspirators, or principals.

(6) Proof that a device or object described in subparagraph (1)(a)1. caused death or serious bodily injury to a human or animal through the release, dissemination, or impact of toxic or poisonous chemicals, or their precursors, is prima facie evidence that the device or object was designed or intended to cause such death or serious bodily injury. Proof that a device or object described in subparagraph (1)(a)3. released radiation or radioactivity at a level dangerous to human or animal life is prima facie evidence that the device or object was designed or intended for such release.

(7) This section does not apply to any member or employee of the Armed Forces of the United States, a federal or state governmental agency, or a private entity who is otherwise engaged in lawful activity within the scope of his or her employment, if such person is otherwise duly authorized or licensed to manufacture, possess, sell, deliver, display, or otherwise engage in activity relative to this section and if such person is in compliance with applicable federal and state law.

(8) For purposes of this section, the term “weapon of mass destruction” does not include:

(a) A device or instrument that emits or discharges smoke or an offensive, noxious, or irritant liquid, powder, gas, or chemical for the purpose of immobilizing, incapacitating, or thwarting an attack by a person or animal and that is lawfully possessed or used by a person for the purpose of self-protection or, as provided in subsection (7), is lawfully possessed or used by any member or employee of the Armed Forces of the United States, a federal or state governmental agency, or a private entity. A member or employee of a federal or state governmental agency includes, but is not limited to, a law enforcement officer, as defined in s. 784.07; a federal law enforcement officer, as defined in s. 901.1505; and an emergency service employee, as defined in s. 496.404.

(b) The liquid, powder, gas, chemical, or smoke that is emitted or discharged from a device or instrument as specified in paragraph (a).

(9) In addition to any other penalty provided by law with respect to any person who is convicted of a violation of this section that resulted in the mobilization or action of any law enforcement officer or any state or local agency, a person convicted of a violation of this section may be required by the court to pay restitution for all of the costs and damages arising from the criminal conduct.

History.–s. 2, ch. 2000-218; s. 4, ch. 2002-28.

790.169 Juvenile offenders; release of names and addresses.–A law enforcement agency may release for publication the name and address of a child who has been convicted of any offense involving possession or use of a firearm.

History.–s. 1, ch. 93-416.

790.17 Furnishing weapons to minors under 18 years of age or persons of unsound mind and furnishing firearms to minors under 18 years of age prohibited.–

(1) A person who sells, hires, barters, lends, transfers, or gives any minor under 18 years of age any dirk, electric weapon or device, or other weapon, other than an ordinary pocketknife, without permission of the minor’s parent or guardian, or sells, hires, barters, lends, transfers, or gives to any person of unsound mind an electric weapon or device or any dangerous weapon, other than an ordinary pocketknife, commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(2)(a) A person may not knowingly or willfully sell or transfer a firearm to a minor under 18 years of age, except that a person may transfer ownership of a firearm to a minor with permission of the parent or guardian. A person who violates this paragraph commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(b) The parent or guardian must maintain possession of the firearm except pursuant to s. 790.22.

History.–ss. 1, 2, ch. 3285, 1881; RS 2684; GS 3627; RGS 5558; CGL 7744; s. 1, ch. 65-187; s. 750, ch. 71-136; s. 2, ch. 76-165; s. 175, ch. 91-224; s. 2, ch. 93-416.

790.173 Legislative findings and intent.–

(1) The Legislature finds that a tragically large number of Florida children have been accidentally killed or seriously injured by negligently stored firearms; that placing firearms within the reach or easy access of children is irresponsible, encourages such accidents, and should be prohibited; and that legislative action is necessary to protect the safety of our children.

(2) It is the intent of the Legislature that adult citizens of the state retain their constitutional right to keep and bear firearms for hunting and sporting activities and for defense of self, family, home, and business and as collectibles. Nothing in this act shall be construed to reduce or limit any existing right to purchase and own firearms, or to provide authority to any state or local agency to infringe upon the privacy of any family, home, or business, except by lawful warrant.

History.–s. 1, ch. 89-534.

790.174 Safe storage of firearms required.–

(1) A person who stores or leaves, on a premise under his or her control, a loaded firearm, as defined in s. 790.001, and who knows or reasonably should know that a minor is likely to gain access to the firearm without the lawful permission of the minor’s parent or the person having charge of the minor, or without the supervision required by law, shall keep the firearm in a securely locked box or container or in a location which a reasonable person would believe to be secure or shall secure it with a trigger lock, except when the person is carrying the firearm on his or her body or within such close proximity thereto that he or she can retrieve and use it as easily and quickly as if he or she carried it on his or her body.

(2) It is a misdemeanor of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083, if a person violates subsection (1) by failing to store or leave a firearm in the required manner and as a result thereof a minor gains access to the firearm, without the lawful permission of the minor’s parent or the person having charge of the minor, and possesses or exhibits it, without the supervision required by law:

(a) In a public place; or

(b) In a rude, careless, angry, or threatening manner in violation of s. 790.10.

This subsection does not apply if the minor obtains the firearm as a result of an unlawful entry by any person.

1(3) As used in this act, the term “minor” means any person under the age of 16.

History.–ss. 2, 7, ch. 89-534; s. 1216, ch. 97-102.

1Note.–Also published at s. 784.05(4).

790.175 Transfer or sale of firearms; required warnings; penalties.–

(1) Upon the retail commercial sale or retail transfer of any firearm, the seller or transferor shall deliver a written warning to the purchaser or transferee, which warning states, in block letters not less than 1/4 inch in height:

“IT IS UNLAWFUL, AND PUNISHABLE BY IMPRISONMENT AND FINE, FOR ANY ADULT TO STORE OR LEAVE A FIREARM IN ANY PLACE WITHIN THE REACH OR EASY ACCESS OF A MINOR UNDER 18 YEARS OF AGE OR TO KNOWINGLY SELL OR OTHERWISE TRANSFER OWNERSHIP OR POSSESSION OF A FIREARM TO A MINOR OR A PERSON OF UNSOUND MIND.”

(2) Any retail or wholesale store, shop, or sales outlet which sells firearms must conspicuously post at each purchase counter the following warning in block letters not less than 1 inch in height:

“IT IS UNLAWFUL TO STORE OR LEAVE A FIREARM IN ANY PLACE WITHIN THE REACH OR EASY ACCESS OF A MINOR UNDER 18 YEARS OF AGE OR TO KNOWINGLY SELL OR OTHERWISE TRANSFER OWNERSHIP OR POSSESSION OF A FIREARM TO A MINOR OR A PERSON OF UNSOUND MIND.”

(3) Any person or business knowingly violating a requirement to provide warning under this section commits a misdemeanor of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

History.–ss. 4, 7, ch. 89-534; s. 3, ch. 93-416.

790.18 Sale or transfer of arms to minors by dealers.–It is unlawful for any dealer in arms to sell or transfer to a minor any firearm, pistol, Springfield rifle or other repeating rifle, bowie knife or dirk knife, brass knuckles, slungshot, or electric weapon or device. A person who violates this section commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

History.–s. 11, ch. 6421, 1913; RGS 5559; CGL 7745; s. 751, ch. 71-136; s. 2, ch. 76-165; s. 176, ch. 91-224; s. 4, ch. 93-416.

790.19 Shooting into or throwing deadly missiles into dwellings, public or private buildings, occupied or not occupied; vessels, aircraft, buses, railroad cars, streetcars, or other vehicles.–Whoever, wantonly or maliciously, shoots at, within, or into, or throws any missile or hurls or projects a stone or other hard substance which would produce death or great bodily harm, at, within, or in any public or private building, occupied or unoccupied, or public or private bus or any train, locomotive, railway car, caboose, cable railway car, street railway car, monorail car, or vehicle of any kind which is being used or occupied by any person, or any boat, vessel, ship, or barge lying in or plying the waters of this state, or aircraft flying through the airspace of this state shall be guilty of a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

History.–s. 2, ch. 3281, 1881; RS 2696; ss. 1, 2, ch. 4987, 1901; ss. 1, 2, ch. 4988, 1901; GS 3628; RGS 5560; CGL 7746; s. 1, ch. 59-458; s. 752, ch. 71-136; s. 1, ch. 74-67.

790.22 Use of BB guns, air or gas-operated guns, or electric weapons or devices by minor under 16; limitation; possession of firearms by minor under 18 prohibited; penalties.–

(1) The use for any purpose whatsoever of BB guns, air or gas-operated guns, or electric weapons or devices, by any minor under the age of 16 years is prohibited unless such use is under the supervision and in the presence of an adult who is acting with the consent of the minor’s parent.

(2) Any adult responsible for the welfare of any child under the age of 16 years who knowingly permits such child to use or have in his or her possession any BB gun, air or gas-operated gun, electric weapon or device, or firearm in violation of the provisions of subsection (1) of this section commits a misdemeanor of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(3) A minor under 18 years of age may not possess a firearm, other than an unloaded firearm at his or her home, unless:

(a) The minor is engaged in a lawful hunting activity and is:

1. At least 16 years of age; or

2. Under 16 years of age and supervised by an adult.

(b) The minor is engaged in a lawful marksmanship competition or practice or other lawful recreational shooting activity and is:

1. At least 16 years of age; or

2. Under 16 years of age and supervised by an adult who is acting with the consent of the minor’s parent or guardian.

(c) The firearm is unloaded and is being transported by the minor directly to or from an event authorized in paragraph (a) or paragraph (b).

(4)(a) Any parent or guardian of a minor, or other adult responsible for the welfare of a minor, who knowingly and willfully permits the minor to possess a firearm in violation of subsection (3) commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(b) Any natural parent or adoptive parent, whether custodial or noncustodial, or any legal guardian or legal custodian of a minor, if that minor possesses a firearm in violation of subsection (3) may, if the court finds it appropriate, be required to participate in classes on parenting education which are approved by the Department of Juvenile Justice, upon the first conviction of the minor. Upon any subsequent conviction of the minor, the court may, if the court finds it appropriate, require the parent to attend further parent education classes or render community service hours together with the child.

(c) The juvenile justice circuit boards or juvenile justice county councils or the Department of Juvenile Justice shall establish appropriate community service programs to be available to the alternative sanctions coordinators of the circuit courts in implementing this subsection. The boards or councils or department shall propose the implementation of a community service program in each circuit, and may submit a circuit plan, to be implemented upon approval of the circuit alternative sanctions coordinator.

(d) For the purposes of this section, community service may be provided on public property as well as on private property with the expressed permission of the property owner. Any community service provided on private property is limited to such things as removal of graffiti and restoration of vandalized property.

(5)(a) A minor who violates subsection (3) commits a misdemeanor of the first degree; for a first offense, may serve a period of detention of up to 3 days in a secure detention facility; and, in addition to any other penalty provided by law, shall be required to perform 100 hours of community service; and:

1. If the minor is eligible by reason of age for a driver license or driving privilege, the court shall direct the Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles to revoke or to withhold issuance of the minor’s driver license or driving privilege for up to 1 year.

2. If the minor’s driver license or driving privilege is under suspension or revocation for any reason, the court shall direct the Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles to extend the period of suspension or revocation by an additional period of up to 1 year.

3. If the minor is ineligible by reason of age for a driver license or driving privilege, the court shall direct the Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles to withhold issuance of the minor’s driver license or driving privilege for up to 1 year after the date on which the minor would otherwise have become eligible.

(b) For a second or subsequent offense, a minor who violates subsection (3) commits a felony of the third degree and shall serve a period of detention of up to 15 days in a secure detention facility and shall be required to perform not less than 100 nor more than 250 hours of community service, and:

1. If the minor is eligible by reason of age for a driver license or driving privilege, the court shall direct the Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles to revoke or to withhold issuance of the minor’s driver license or driving privilege for up to 2 years.

2. If the minor’s driver license or driving privilege is under suspension or revocation for any reason, the court shall direct the Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles to extend the period of suspension or revocation by an additional period of up to 2 years.

3. If the minor is ineligible by reason of age for a driver license or driving privilege, the court shall direct the Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles to withhold issuance of the minor’s driver license or driving privilege for up to 2 years after the date on which the minor would otherwise have become eligible.

For the purposes of this subsection, community service shall be performed, if possible, in a manner involving a hospital emergency room or other medical environment that deals on a regular basis with trauma patients and gunshot wounds.

(6) Any firearm that is possessed or used by a minor in violation of this section shall be promptly seized by a law enforcement officer and disposed of in accordance with s. 790.08(1)-(6).

(7) The provisions of this section are supplemental to all other provisions of law relating to the possession, use, or exhibition of a firearm.

(8) Notwithstanding s. 985.213 or s. 985.215(1), if a minor under 18 years of age is charged with an offense that involves the use or possession of a firearm, as defined in s. 790.001, including a violation of subsection (3), or is charged for any offense during the commission of which the minor possessed a firearm, the minor shall be detained in secure detention, unless the state attorney authorizes the release of the minor, and shall be given a hearing within 24 hours after being taken into custody. At the hearing, the court may order that the minor continue to be held in secure detention in accordance with the applicable time periods specified in s. 985.215(5), if the court finds that the minor meets the criteria specified in s. 985.215(2), or if the court finds by clear and convincing evidence that the minor is a clear and present danger to himself or herself or the community. The Department of Juvenile Justice shall prepare a form for all minors charged under this subsection that states the period of detention and the relevant demographic information, including, but not limited to, the sex, age, and race of the minor; whether or not the minor was represented by private counsel or a public defender; the current offense; and the minor’s complete prior record, including any pending cases. The form shall be provided to the judge to be considered when determining whether the minor should be continued in secure detention under this subsection. An order placing a minor in secure detention because the minor is a clear and present danger to himself or herself or the community must be in writing, must specify the need for detention and the benefits derived by the minor or the community by placing the minor in secure detention, and must include a copy of the form provided by the department. The Department of Juvenile Justice must send the form, including a copy of any order, without client-identifying information, to the Office of Economic and Demographic Research.

(9) Notwithstanding s. 985.214, if the minor is found to have committed an offense that involves the use or possession of a firearm, as defined in s. 790.001, other than a violation of subsection (3), or an offense during the commission of which the minor possessed a firearm, and the minor is not committed to a residential commitment program of the Department of Juvenile Justice, in addition to any other punishment provided by law, the court shall order:

(a) For a first offense, that the minor shall serve a minimum period of detention of 15 days in a secure detention facility; and

1. Perform 100 hours of community service; and may

2. Be placed on community control or in a nonresidential commitment program.

(b) For a second or subsequent offense, that the minor shall serve a mandatory period of detention of at least 21 days in a secure detention facility; and

1. Perform not less than 100 nor more than 250 hours of community service; and may

2. Be placed on community control or in a nonresidential commitment program.

The minor shall not receive credit for time served before adjudication. For the purposes of this subsection, community service shall be performed, if possible, in a manner involving a hospital emergency room or other medical environment that deals on a regular basis with trauma patients and gunshot wounds.

(10) If a minor is found to have committed an offense under subsection (9), the court shall impose the following penalties in addition to any penalty imposed under paragraph (9)(a) or paragraph (9)(b):

(a) For a first offense:

1. If the minor is eligible by reason of age for a driver license or driving privilege, the court shall direct the Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles to revoke or to withhold issuance of the minor’s driver license or driving privilege for up to 1 year.

2. If the minor’s driver license or driving privilege is under suspension or revocation for any reason, the court shall direct the Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles to extend the period of suspension or revocation by an additional period for up to 1 year.

3. If the minor is ineligible by reason of age for a driver license or driving privilege, the court shall direct the Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles to withhold issuance of the minor’s driver license or driving privilege for up to 1 year after the date on which the minor would otherwise have become eligible.

(b) For a second or subsequent offense:

1. If the minor is eligible by reason of age for a driver license or driving privilege, the court shall direct the Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles to revoke or to withhold issuance of the minor’s driver license or driving privilege for up to 2 years.

2. If the minor’s driver license or driving privilege is under suspension or revocation for any reason, the court shall direct the Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles to extend the period of suspension or revocation by an additional period for up to 2 years.

3. If the minor is ineligible by reason of age for a driver license or driving privilege, the court shall direct the Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles to withhold issuance of the minor’s driver license or driving privilege for up to 2 years after the date on which the minor would otherwise have become eligible.

History.–ss. 1, 2, ch. 26946, 1951; s. 8, ch. 69-306; s. 753, ch. 71-136; s. 2, ch. 76-165; s. 177, ch. 91-224; s. 5, ch. 93-416; s. 29, ch. 95-267; s. 6, ch. 96-398; s. 1817, ch. 97-102; s. 32, ch. 98-136; s. 50, ch. 98-280; s. 1, ch. 99-284; s. 10, ch. 2000-135.

790.221 Possession of short-barreled rifle, short-barreled shotgun, or machine gun; penalty.–

(1) It is unlawful for any person to own or to have in his or her care, custody, possession, or control any short-barreled rifle, short-barreled shotgun, or machine gun which is, or may readily be made, operable; but this section shall not apply to antique firearms.

(2) A person who violates this section commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(3) Firearms in violation hereof which are lawfully owned and possessed under provisions of federal law are excepted.

History.–s. 10, ch. 69-306; s. 1, ch. 89-312; s. 21, ch. 93-406; s. 1217, ch. 97-102.

790.225 Ballistic self-propelled knives; unlawful to manufacture, sell, or possess; forfeiture; penalty.–

(1) It is unlawful for any person to manufacture, display, sell, own, possess, or use a ballistic self-propelled knife which is a device that propels a knifelike blade as a projectile and which physically separates the blade from the device by means of a coil spring, elastic material, or compressed gas. A ballistic self-propelled knife is declared to be a dangerous or deadly weapon and a contraband item. It shall be subject to seizure and shall be disposed of as provided in s. 790.08(1) and (6).

(2) This section shall not apply to:

(a) Any device from which a knifelike blade opens, where such blade remains physically integrated with the device when open.

(b) Any device which propels an arrow, a bolt, or a dart by means of any common bow, compound bow, crossbow, or underwater spear gun.

(3) Any person violating the provisions of subsection (1) is guilty of a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

History.–s. 1, ch. 85-258; s. 178, ch. 91-224; s. 1, ch. 2003-82.

790.23 Felons and delinquents; possession of firearms, ammunition, or electric weapons or devices unlawful.–

(1) It is unlawful for any person to own or to have in his or her care, custody, possession, or control any firearm, ammunition, or electric weapon or device, or to carry a concealed weapon, including a tear gas gun or chemical weapon or device, if that person has been:

(a) Convicted of a felony in the courts of this state;

(b) Found, in the courts of this state, to have committed a delinquent act that would be a felony if committed by an adult and such person is under 24 years of age;

(c) Convicted of or found to have committed a crime against the United States which is designated as a felony;

(d) Found to have committed a delinquent act in another state, territory, or country that would be a felony if committed by an adult and which was punishable by imprisonment for a term exceeding 1 year and such person is under 24 years of age; or

(e) Found guilty of an offense that is a felony in another state, territory, or country and which was punishable by imprisonment for a term exceeding 1 year.

(2) This section shall not apply to a person convicted of a felony whose civil rights and firearm authority have been restored.

(3) Any person who violates this section commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

History.–ss. 1, 2, 3, ch. 29766, 1955; s. 1, ch. 63-31; s. 9, ch. 69-306; s. 754, ch. 71-136; s. 1, ch. 71-318; s. 169, ch. 71-355; s. 2, ch. 76-165; s. 6, ch. 93-416; s. 51, ch. 98-280; s. 39, ch. 99-284; s. 2, ch. 2004-286.

790.233 Possession of firearm or ammunition prohibited when person is subject to an injunction against committing acts of domestic violence; penalties.–

(1) A person may not have in his or her care, custody, possession, or control any firearm or ammunition if the person has been issued a final injunction that is currently in force and effect, restraining that person from committing acts of domestic violence, and that has been issued under s. 741.30.

(2) A person who violates subsection (1) commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(3) It is the intent of the Legislature that the disabilities regarding possession of firearms and ammunition are consistent with federal law. Accordingly, this section shall not apply to a state or local officer as defined in s. 943.10(14), holding an active certification, who receives or possesses a firearm or ammunition for use in performing official duties on behalf of the officer’s employing agency, unless otherwise prohibited by the employing agency.

History.–s. 1, ch. 98-284.

790.235 Possession of firearm or ammunition by violent career criminal unlawful; penalty.–

(1) Any person who meets the violent career criminal criteria under s. 775.084(1)(d), regardless of whether such person is or has previously been sentenced as a violent career criminal, who owns or has in his or her care, custody, possession, or control any firearm, ammunition, or electric weapon or device, or carries a concealed weapon, including a tear gas gun or chemical weapon or device, commits a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. A person convicted of a violation of this section shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum of 15 years’ imprisonment; however, if the person would be sentenced to a longer term of imprisonment under s. 775.084(4)(d), the person must be sentenced under that provision. A person convicted of a violation of this section is not eligible for any form of discretionary early release, other than pardon, executive clemency, or conditional medical release under s. 947.149.

(2) For purposes of this section, the previous felony convictions necessary to meet the violent career criminal criteria under s. 775.084(1)(d) may be convictions for felonies committed as an adult or adjudications of delinquency for felonies committed as a juvenile. In order to be counted as a prior felony for purposes of this section, the felony must have resulted in a conviction sentenced separately, or an adjudication of delinquency entered separately, prior to the current offense, and sentenced or adjudicated separately from any other felony that is to be counted as a prior felony.

(3) This section shall not apply to a person whose civil rights and firearm authority have been restored.

History.–s. 7, ch. 95-182; s. 45, ch. 96-388; s. 6, ch. 99-188; s. 1, ch. 2002-210; s. 3, ch. 2004-286.

790.24 Report of medical treatment of certain wounds; penalty for failure to report.–Any physician, nurse, or employee thereof and any employee of a hospital, sanitarium, clinic, or nursing home knowingly treating any person suffering from a gunshot wound or life-threatening injury indicating an act of violence, or receiving a request for such treatment, shall report the same immediately to the sheriff’s department of the county in which said treatment is administered or request therefor received. This section does not affect any requirement that a person has to report abuse pursuant to chapter 39 or chapter 415. Any such person willfully failing to report such treatment or request therefor is guilty of a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

History.–s. 1, ch. 59-35; s. 755, ch. 71-136; s. 1, ch. 99-235.

790.25 Lawful ownership, possession, and use of firearms and other weapons.–

(1) DECLARATION OF POLICY.–The Legislature finds as a matter of public policy and fact that it is necessary to promote firearms safety and to curb and prevent the use of firearms and other weapons in crime and by incompetent persons without prohibiting the lawful use in defense of life, home, and property, and the use by United States or state military organizations, and as otherwise now authorized by law, including the right to use and own firearms for target practice and marksmanship on target practice ranges or other lawful places, and lawful hunting and other lawful purposes.

(2) USES NOT AUTHORIZED.–

(a) This section does not authorize carrying a concealed weapon without a permit, as prohibited by ss. 790.01 and 790.02.

(b) The protections of this section do not apply to the following:

1. A person who has been adjudged mentally incompetent, who is addicted to the use of narcotics or any similar drug, or who is a habitual or chronic alcoholic, or a person using weapons or firearms in violation of ss. 790.07-790.12, 790.14-790.19, 790.22-790.24;

2. Vagrants and other undesirable persons as defined in 1s. 856.02;

3. A person in or about a place of nuisance as defined in s. 823.05, unless such person is there for law enforcement or some other lawful purpose.

(3) LAWFUL USES.–The provisions of ss. 790.053 and 790.06 do not apply in the following instances, and, despite such sections, it is lawful for the following persons to own, possess, and lawfully use firearms and other weapons, ammunition, and supplies for lawful purposes:

(a) Members of the Militia, National Guard, Florida State Defense Force, Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, Coast Guard, organized reserves, and other armed forces of the state and of the United States, when on duty, when training or preparing themselves for military duty, or while subject to recall or mobilization;

(b) Citizens of this state subject to duty in the Armed Forces under s. 2, Art. X of the State Constitution, under chapters 250 and 251, and under federal laws, when on duty or when training or preparing themselves for military duty;

(c) Persons carrying out or training for emergency management duties under chapter 252;

(d) Sheriffs, marshals, prison or jail wardens, police officers, Florida highway patrol officers, game wardens, revenue officers, forest officials, special officers appointed under the provisions of chapter 354, and other peace and law enforcement officers and their deputies and assistants and full-time paid peace officers of other states and of the Federal Government who are carrying out official duties while in this state;

(e) Officers or employees of the state or United States duly authorized to carry a concealed weapon;

(f) Guards or messengers of common carriers, express companies, armored car carriers, mail carriers, banks, and other financial institutions, while actually employed in and about the shipment, transportation, or delivery of any money, treasure, bullion, bonds, or other thing of value within this state;

(g) Regularly enrolled members of any organization duly authorized to purchase or receive weapons from the United States or from this state, or regularly enrolled members of clubs organized for target, skeet, or trap shooting, while at or going to or from shooting practice; or regularly enrolled members of clubs organized for modern or antique firearms collecting, while such members are at or going to or from their collectors’ gun shows, conventions, or exhibits;

(h) A person engaged in fishing, camping, or lawful hunting or going to or returning from a fishing, camping, or lawful hunting expedition;

(i) A person engaged in the business of manufacturing, repairing, or dealing in firearms, or the agent or representative of any such person while engaged in the lawful course of such business;

(j) A person firing weapons for testing or target practice under safe conditions and in a safe place not prohibited by law or going to or from such place;

(k) A person firing weapons in a safe and secure indoor range for testing and target practice;

(l) A person traveling by private conveyance when the weapon is securely encased or in a public conveyance when the weapon is securely encased and not in the person’s manual possession;

(m) A person while carrying a pistol unloaded and in a secure wrapper, concealed or otherwise, from the place of purchase to his or her home or place of business or to a place of repair or back to his or her home or place of business;

(n) A person possessing arms at his or her home or place of business;

(o) Investigators employed by the several public defenders of the state, while actually carrying out official duties, provided such investigators:

1. Are employed full time;

2. Meet the official training standards for firearms established by the Criminal Justice Standards and Training Commission as provided in s. 943.12(5) and the requirements of ss. 493.6108(1)(a) and 943.13(1)-(4); and

3. Are individually designated by an affidavit of consent signed by the employing public defender and filed with the clerk of the circuit court in the county in which the employing public defender resides.

(p) Investigators employed by the capital collateral representative, while actually carrying out official duties, provided such investigators:

1. Are employed full time;

2. Meet the official training standards for firearms as established by the Criminal Justice Standards and Training Commission as provided in s. 943.12(1) and the requirements of ss. 493.6108(1)(a) and 943.13(1)-(4); and

3. Are individually designated by an affidavit of consent signed by the capital collateral representative and filed with the clerk of the circuit court in the county in which the investigator is headquartered.

(4) CONSTRUCTION.–This act shall be liberally construed to carry out the declaration of policy herein and in favor of the constitutional right to keep and bear arms for lawful purposes. This act is supplemental and additional to existing rights to bear arms now guaranteed by law and decisions of the courts of Florida, and nothing herein shall impair or diminish any of such rights. This act shall supersede any law, ordinance, or regulation in conflict herewith.

(5) POSSESSION IN PRIVATE CONVEYANCE.–Notwithstanding subsection (2), it is lawful and is not a violation of s. 790.01 for a person 18 years of age or older to possess a concealed firearm or other weapon for self-defense or other lawful purpose within the interior of a private conveyance, without a license, if the firearm or other weapon is securely encased or is otherwise not readily accessible for immediate use. Nothing herein contained prohibits the carrying of a legal firearm other than a handgun anywhere in a private conveyance when such firearm is being carried for a lawful use. Nothing herein contained shall be construed to authorize the carrying of a concealed firearm or other weapon on the person. This subsection shall be liberally construed in favor of the lawful use, ownership, and possession of firearms and other weapons, including lawful self-defense as provided in s. 776.012.

History.–s. 1, ch. 65-410; s. 32, ch. 69-216; s. 32, ch. 73-334; s. 2, ch. 77-302; s. 2, ch. 82-131; s. 15, ch. 83-167; ss. 45, 49, ch. 83-334; s. 32, ch. 84-258; s. 68, ch. 85-62; s. 5, ch. 85-332; s. 15, ch. 87-274; s. 2, ch. 87-537; s. 1, ch. 89-60; s. 8, ch. 90-364; s. 1, ch. 93-269; s. 7, ch. 93-416; s. 89, ch. 95-211; s. 1218, ch. 97-102.

1Note.–Repealed by s. 3, ch. 72-133.

790.256 Public service announcements.–The Department of Health shall prepare public service announcements for dissemination to parents throughout the state, of the provisions of chapter 93-416, Laws of Florida.

History.–s. 9, ch. 93-416; s. 295, ch. 99-8.

790.27 Alteration or removal of firearm serial number or possession, sale, or delivery of firearm with serial number altered or removed prohibited; penalties.–

(1)(a) It is unlawful for any person to knowingly alter or remove the manufacturer’s or importer’s serial number from a firearm with intent to disguise the true identity thereof.

(b) Any person violating paragraph (a) is guilty of a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(2)(a) It is unlawful for any person to knowingly sell, deliver, or possess any firearm on which the manufacturer’s or importer’s serial number has been unlawfully altered or removed.

(b) Any person violating paragraph (a) is guilty of a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(3) This section shall not apply to antique firearms.

History.–s. 2, ch. 79-58; s. 179, ch. 91-224.

790.28 Purchase of rifles and shotguns in contiguous states.–A resident of this state may purchase a rifle or shotgun in any state contiguous to this state if he or she conforms to applicable laws and regulations of the United States, of the state where the purchase is made, and of this state.

History.–s. 1, ch. 79-44; s. 1219, ch. 97-102.

790.29 Paramilitary training; teaching or participation prohibited.–

(1) This act shall be known and may be cited as the “State Antiparamilitary Training Act.”

(2) As used in this section, the term “civil disorder” means a public disturbance involving acts of violence by an assemblage of three or more persons, which disturbance causes an immediate danger of, or results in, damage or injury to the property or person of any other individual within the United States.

(3)(a) Whoever teaches or demonstrates to any other person the use, application, or making of any firearm, destructive device, or technique capable of causing injury or death to persons, knowing or having reason to know or intending that the same will be unlawfully employed for use in, or in furtherance of, a civil disorder within the United States, is guilty of a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(b) Whoever assembles with one or more persons for the purpose of training with, practicing with, or being instructed in the use of any firearm, destructive device, or technique capable of causing injury or death to persons, intending to unlawfully employ the same for use in, or in furtherance of, a civil disorder within the United States, is guilty of a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(4) Nothing contained in this section shall be construed to prohibit any act of a law enforcement officer which is performed in connection with the lawful performance of his or her official duties or to prohibit the training or teaching of the use of weapons to be used for hunting, recreation, competition, self-defense or the protection of one’s person or property, or other lawful use.

History.–s. 1, ch. 82-5; s. 164, ch. 83-216; s. 1220, ch. 97-102.

790.31 Armor-piercing or exploding ammunition or dragon’s breath shotgun shells, bolo shells, or flechette shells prohibited.–

(1) As used in this section, the term:

(a) “Armor-piercing bullet” means any bullet which has a steel inner core or core of equivalent hardness and a truncated cone and which is designed for use in a handgun as an armor-piercing or metal-piercing bullet.

(b) “Exploding bullet” means any bullet that can be fired from any firearm, if such bullet is designed or altered so as to detonate or forcibly break up through the use of an explosive or deflagrant contained wholly or partially within or attached to such bullet. The term does not include any bullet designed to expand or break up through the mechanical forces of impact alone or any signaling device or pest control device not designed to impact on any target.

(c) “Handgun” means a firearm capable of being carried and used by one hand, such as a pistol or revolver.

(d) “Dragon’s breath shotgun shell” means any shotgun shell that contains exothermic pyrophoric misch metal as the projectile and that is designed for the sole purpose of throwing or spewing a flame or fireball to simulate a flamethrower.

(e) “Bolo shell” means any shell that can be fired in a firearm and that expels as projectiles two or more metal balls connected by solid metal wire.

(f) “Flechette shell” means any shell that can be fired in a firearm and that expels two or more pieces of fin-stabilized solid metal wire or two or more solid dart-type projectiles.

(2)(a) Any person who manufactures, sells, offers for sale, or delivers any armor-piercing bullet or exploding bullet, or dragon’s breath shotgun shell, bolo shell, or flechette shell is guilty of a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(b) Any person who possesses an armor-piercing bullet or exploding bullet with knowledge of its armor-piercing or exploding capabilities loaded in a handgun, or who possesses a dragon’s breath shotgun shell, bolo shell, or flechette shell with knowledge of its capabilities loaded in a firearm, is guilty of a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(c) Any person who possesses with intent to use an armor-piercing bullet or exploding bullet or dragon’s breath shotgun shell, bolo shell, or flechette shell to assist in the commission of a criminal act is guilty of a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(3) This section does not apply to:

(a) The possession of any item described in subsection (1) by any law enforcement officer, when possessed in connection with the performance of his or her duty as a law enforcement officer, or law enforcement agency.

(b) The manufacture of items described in subsection (1) exclusively for sale or delivery to law enforcement agencies.

(c) The sale or delivery of items described in subsection (1) to law enforcement agencies.

History.–s. 1, ch. 83-253; s. 1, ch. 92-141; s. 1221, ch. 97-102.

790.33 Field of regulation of firearms and ammunition preempted.–

(1) PREEMPTION.–Except as expressly provided by general law, the Legislature hereby declares that it is occupying the whole field of regulation of firearms and ammunition, including the purchase, sale, transfer, taxation, manufacture, ownership, possession, and transportation thereof, to the exclusion of all existing and future county, city, town, or municipal ordinances or regulations relating thereto. Any such existing ordinances are hereby declared null and void. This subsection shall not affect zoning ordinances which encompass firearms businesses along with other businesses. Zoning ordinances which are designed for the purpose of restricting or prohibiting the sale, purchase, transfer, or manufacture of firearms or ammunition as a method of regulating firearms or ammunition are in conflict with this subsection and are prohibited.

(2) LIMITED EXCEPTION; COUNTY WAITING-PERIOD ORDINANCES.–

(a) Any county may have the option to adopt a waiting-period ordinance requiring a waiting period of up to, but not to exceed, 3 working days between the purchase and delivery of a handgun. For purposes of this subsection, “purchase” means payment of deposit, payment in full, or notification of intent to purchase. Adoption of a waiting-period ordinance, by any county, shall require a majority vote of the county commission on votes on waiting-period ordinances. This exception is limited solely to individual counties and is limited to the provisions and restrictions contained in this subsection.

(b) Ordinances authorized by this subsection shall apply to all sales of handguns to individuals by a retail establishment except those sales to individuals exempted in this subsection. For purposes of this subsection, “retail establishment” means a gun shop, sporting goods store, pawn shop, hardware store, department store, discount store, bait or tackle shop, or any other store or shop that offers handguns for walk-in retail sale but does not include gun collectors shows or exhibits, or gun shows.

(c) Ordinances authorized by this subsection shall not require any reporting or notification to any source outside the retail establishment, but records of handgun sales must be available for inspection, during normal business hours, by any law enforcement agency as defined in s. 934.02.

(d) The following shall be exempt from any waiting period:

1. Individuals who are licensed to carry concealed firearms under the provisions of s. 790.06 or who are licensed to carry concealed firearms under any other provision of state law and who show a valid license;

2. Individuals who already lawfully own another firearm and who show a sales receipt for another firearm; who are known to own another firearm through a prior purchase from the retail establishment; or who have another firearm for trade-in;

3. A law enforcement or correctional officer as defined in s. 943.10;

4. A law enforcement agency as defined in s. 934.02;

5. Sales or transactions between dealers or between distributors or between dealers and distributors who have current federal firearms licenses; or

6. Any individual who has been threatened or whose family has been threatened with death or bodily injury, provided the individual may lawfully possess a firearm and provided such threat has been duly reported to local law enforcement.

(3) POLICY AND INTENT.–

(a) It is the intent of this section to provide uniform firearms laws in the state; to declare all ordinances and regulations null and void which have been enacted by any jurisdictions other than state and federal, which regulate firearms, ammunition, or components thereof; to prohibit the enactment of any future ordinances or regulations relating to firearms, ammunition, or components thereof unless specifically authorized by this section or general law; and to require local jurisdictions to enforce state firearms laws.

(b) As created by chapter 87-23, Laws of Florida, this section shall be known and may be cited as the “Joe Carlucci Uniform Firearms Act.”

History.–ss. 1, 2, 3, 4, ch. 87-23; s. 5, ch. 88-183.

790.331 Prohibition of civil actions against firearms or ammunition manufacturers, firearms trade associations, firearms or ammunition distributors, or firearms or ammunition dealers.–

(1) The Legislature finds and declares that the manufacture, distribution, or sale of firearms and ammunition by manufacturers, distributors, or dealers duly licensed by the appropriate federal and state authorities is a lawful activity and is not unreasonably dangerous, and further finds that the unlawful use of firearms and ammunition, rather than their lawful manufacture, distribution, or sale, is the proximate cause of injuries arising from their unlawful use.

(2) Except as permitted by this section, a legal action against a firearms or ammunition manufacturer, firearms trade association, firearms or ammunition distributor, or firearms or ammunition dealer on behalf of the state or its agencies and instrumentalities, or on behalf of a county, municipality, special district, or any other political subdivision or agency of the state, for damages, abatement, or injunctive relief resulting from or arising out of the lawful design, marketing, distribution, or sale of firearms or ammunition to the public is prohibited. However, this subsection does not preclude a natural person from bringing an action against a firearms or ammunition manufacturer, firearms trade association, firearms or ammunition distributor, or firearms or ammunition dealer for breach of a written contract, breach of an express warranty, or injuries resulting from a defect in the materials or workmanship in the manufacture of a firearm or ammunition.

(3) A county, municipality, special district, or other political subdivision or agency of the state may not sue for or recover from a firearms or ammunition manufacturer, firearms trade association, firearms or ammunition distributor, or firearms or ammunition dealer damages, abatement, or injunctive relief in any case that arises out of or results from the lawful design, marketing, distribution, or sale of firearms or ammunition to the public.

(4) This section does not prohibit an action against a firearms or ammunition manufacturer, distributor, or dealer for:

(a) Breach of contract or warranty in connection with a firearm or ammunition purchased by a county, municipality, special district, or other political subdivision or agency of the state.

(b) Injuries resulting from the malfunction of a firearm or ammunition due to a defect in design or manufacture.

(5)(a) For the purposes of this section, the potential of a firearm or ammunition to cause serious injury, damage, or death as a result of normal function does not constitute a defective condition of the product.

(b) A firearm or ammunition may not be deemed defective on the basis of its potential to cause serious injury, damage, or death when discharged legally or illegally.

(6)(a) If a civil action is brought in violation of this section, the defendant may recover all expenses resulting from such action from the governmental entity bringing such action.

(b) In any civil action where the court finds that the defendant is immune as provided in this section, the court shall award the defendant all attorney’s fees, costs and compensation for loss of income, and expenses incurred as a result of such action.

(7) This section applies to any action brought on or after the effective date of this section.

History.–s. 1, ch. 2001-38.

790.333 Sport shooting and training range protection; liability; claims, expenses, and fees; penalties; preemption; construction.–

(1) LEGISLATIVE FINDINGS.–

(a) The Legislature finds that in excess of 400 sport shooting and training ranges exist on public and private lands throughout this state.

(b) These sport shooting and training ranges are widely used and enjoyed by the residents of this state and are a necessary component of the guarantees of the Second Amendment to the United States Constitution and of s. 8, Art. I of the State Constitution.

(c) Many of these ranges are used by state and local law enforcement agencies for training, practice, and regular mandatory qualification by law enforcement officers; by Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission hunter safety instructors who teach adults and youngsters in the safe use and handling of firearms in preparation for obtaining hunting licenses; by school boards, colleges, and universities for reserve officer training corps training and activities; by school shooting teams; by Olympic competitors; and by certified instructors who teach the safe use and handling of firearms in preparation for applying for licenses to carry concealed firearms for lawful self-protection.

(d) The public policy of the State of Florida is to encourage the safe handling and operation of firearms and mandates appropriate training in the safe use and handling of firearms for persons licensed to carry concealed firearms and for persons licensed to hunt in the state. Sport shooting and training ranges throughout this state provide the location at which this important public purpose is served and at which the firearms training mandates are fulfilled.

(e) Projectiles are integral to sport shooting and training range activity and to the ownership and use of firearms.

(f) Over years of operation, projectiles have accumulated in the environment at many ranges. Whether this projectile accumulation has caused or will cause degradation of the environment or harm to human health depends on factors that are site-specific. Therefore, sport shooting and training ranges must be allowed flexibility to apply appropriate environmental management practices at ranges. The use of environmental management practices can be implemented to avoid or reduce any potential for adverse environmental impact.

(g) The Department of Environmental Protection, in collaboration with shooting range owners and operators, sport shooting organizations, law enforcement representatives, and university researchers, has developed shooting range best management practices in order to minimize any potential for any adverse environmental impact resulting from the operation of shooting ranges.

(h) Appropriate environmental management practices, when implemented where applicable, can minimize or eliminate environmental impacts associated with projectiles. Environmental management practices to maintain or to improve the condition of ranges is evolving and will continue to evolve.

(i) Unnecessary litigation and unnecessary regulation by governmental agencies of sport shooting and training ranges impairs the ability of residents of this state to ensure safe handling of firearms and to enjoy the recreational opportunities ranges provide. The cost of defending these actions is prohibitive and threatens to bankrupt and destroy the sport shooting and training range industry.

(j) The Department of Environmental Protection does not have nor has it ever had authority to force permitting requirements of part IV of chapter 403 on owners and operators of sport shooting and training ranges.

(k) The elimination of sport shooting ranges will unnecessarily impair the ability of residents of this state to exercise and practice their constitutional guarantees under the Second Amendment to the United States Constitution and under s. 8, Art. I of the State Constitution.

(2) LEGISLATIVE INTENT.–The Legislature intends to protect public and private sport shooting or training range owners, operators, users, employees, agents, contractors, customers, lenders, and insurers from lawsuits and other legal actions by the state, special purpose districts, or political subdivisions and to promote maximum flexibility for implementation of environmental management practices and of the principles of risk-based corrective action pursuant to s. 376.30701. It is also the intent of the Legislature that legal action against sport shooting and training ranges will only be a last-resort option and be available only to the department and only after all reasonable efforts to resolve disputes at shooting ranges, including compliance assistance, negotiations, and alternative dispute resolution, have been attempted.

(3) DEFINITIONS.–As used in this act:

(a) “Department” means the Department of Environmental Protection.

(b) “Operator” means any person who operates or has operated a sport shooting or training range.

(c) “Owner” means any person who owns or has owned a sport shooting or training range or any interest therein.

(d) “Projectile” means any object expelled, propelled, discharged, shot, or otherwise released from a firearm, BB gun, airgun, or similar device, including, but not limited to, gunpowder, ammunition, lead, shot, skeet, and trap targets and associated chemicals, derivatives, and constituents thereof.

(e) “Environmental management practices” includes but is not limited to Best Management Practices for Environmental Stewardship of Florida Shooting Ranges as developed by the Department of Environmental Protection. Such practices include, but are not limited to, control and containment of projectiles, prevention of the migration of projectiles and their constituents to ground and surface water, periodic removal and recycling of projectiles, and documentation of actions taken.

(f) “Environment” means the air, water, surface water, sediment, soil, and groundwater and other natural and manmade resources of this state.

(g) “User” means any person, partner, joint venture, business or social entity, or corporation, or any group of the foregoing, organized or united for a business, sport, or social purpose.

(h) “Sport shooting and training range” or “range” means any area that has been designed, or operated for the use of, firearms, rifles, shotguns, pistols, silhouettes, skeet, trap, black powder, BB guns, airguns, or similar devices, or any other type of sport or training shooting.

(4) DUTIES.–

(a) No later than January 1, 2005, the department shall make a good faith effort to provide copies of the Best Management Practices for Environmental Stewardship of Florida Shooting Ranges to all owners or operators of sport shooting or training ranges. The department shall also provide technical assistance with implementing environmental management practices, which may include workshops, demonstrations, or other guidance, if any owner or operator of sport shooting or training ranges requests such assistance.

(b) No later than January 1, 2006, sport shooting or training range owners, operators, tenants, or occupants shall implement situation appropriate environmental management practices.

(c) If contamination is suspected or identified by any owner, operator, tenant, or occupant of sport shooting or training ranges, any owner, operator, tenant, or occupant of sport shooting or training ranges may request that the department assist with or perform contamination assessment, including, but not limited to, assistance preparing and presenting a plan to confirm the presence and extent of contamination.

(d) If contamination is suspected or identified by a third-party complaint or adjacent property sampling events, the department shall give 60 days’ notice to the sport shooting or training range owner, operator, tenant, or occupant of the department’s intent to enter the site for the purpose of investigating potential sources of contamination. The department may assist with or perform contamination assessment, including, but not limited to, assistance preparing and presenting a plan to confirm the presence and extent of contamination.

(e) If the department confirms contamination under paragraph (c) or paragraph (d), principles of risk-based corrective action pursuant to s. 376.30701 shall be applied to sport shooting or training ranges. Application of the minimum risk-based corrective action principles shall be the primary responsibility of the sport shooting range or training range owner or operator for implementation, however, the department may assist in these efforts. Risk-based corrective action plans used for these cleanups shall be based upon the presumption that the sport shooting or training range is an industrial use and not a residential use and will continue to be operated as a sport shooting or training range.

(5) SPORT SHOOTING AND TRAINING RANGE PROTECTION.–

(a) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, any public or private owner, operator, employee, agent, contractor, customer, lender, insurer, or user of any sport shooting or training range located in this state shall have immunity from lawsuits and other legal actions from the state and any of its agencies, special purpose districts, or political subdivisions for any claims of any kind associated with the use, release, placement, deposition, or accumulation of any projectile in the environment, on or under that sport shooting or training range, or any other property over which the range has an easement, leasehold, or other legal right of use, if the sport shooting or training range owner or operator has made a good faith effort to comply with subsection (4).

(b) Nothing in this act is intended to impair or diminish the private property rights of owners of property adjoining a sport shooting or training range.

(c) The sport shooting and training range protections provided by this act are supplemental to any other protections provided by general law.

(6) WITHDRAWALS OF CLAIMS AND RECOVERY OF EXPENSES AND ATTORNEY’S FEES.–

(a) Within 90 days after the effective date of this act becoming law, all claims by the state and any of its agencies, special purpose districts, or political subdivisions against sport shooting or training ranges pending in any court of this state or before any administrative agency on January 1, 2004, shall be withdrawn. The termination of such cases shall have no effect on the defendant’s cause of action for damages, reasonable attorney’s fees, and costs.

(b) In any action filed in violation of this act after the effective date of this act, the defendant shall recover all expenses resulting from such action from the governmental body, person, or entity bringing such unlawful action.

(7) PENALTIES.–Any official, agent, or employee of a county, municipality, town, special purpose district, or other political subdivision or agent of the state, while he or she was acting in his or her official capacity and within the scope of his or her employment or office, who intentionally and maliciously violates the provisions of this section or is party to bringing an action in violation of this section commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in ss. 775.082 and 775.083.

(8) PREEMPTION.–Except as expressly provided by general law, the Legislature hereby declares that it is occupying the whole field of regulation of firearms and ammunition use at sport shooting and training ranges, including the environmental effects of projectile deposition at sport shooting and training ranges.

(9) The provisions of this act shall supersede any conflicting provisions of chapter 376 or chapter 403.

(10) CONSTRUCTION.–This act shall be liberally construed to effectuate its remedial and deterrent purposes.

History.–s. 1, ch. 2004-56.

790.335 Prohibition of registration of firearms.–

(1) LEGISLATIVE FINDINGS AND INTENT.–

(a) The Legislature finds and declares that:

1. The right of individuals to keep and bear arms is guaranteed under both the Second Amendment to the United States Constitution and s. 8, Art. I of the State Constitution.

2. A list, record, or registry of legally owned firearms or law-abiding firearm owners is not a law enforcement tool and can become an instrument for profiling, harassing, or abusing law-abiding citizens based on their choice to own a firearm and exercise their Second Amendment right to keep and bear arms as guaranteed under the United States Constitution. Further, such a list, record, or registry has the potential to fall into the wrong hands and become a shopping list for thieves.

3. A list, record, or registry of legally owned firearms or law-abiding firearm owners is not a tool for fighting terrorism, but rather is an instrument that can be used as a means to profile innocent citizens and to harass and abuse American citizens based solely on their choice to own firearms and exercise their Second Amendment right to keep and bear arms as guaranteed under the United States Constitution.

4. Law-abiding firearm owners whose names have been illegally recorded in a list, record, or registry are entitled to redress.

(b) The Legislature intends through the provisions of this section to:

1. Protect the right of individuals to keep and bear arms as guaranteed under both the Second Amendment to the United States Constitution and s. 8, Art. I of the State Constitution.

2. Protect the privacy rights of law-abiding firearm owners.

(2) PROHIBITIONS.–No state governmental agency or local government, special district, or other political subdivision or official, agent, or employee of such state or other governmental entity or any other person, public or private, shall knowingly and willfully keep or cause to be kept any list, record, or registry of privately owned firearms or any list, record, or registry of the owners of those firearms.

(3) EXCEPTIONS.–The provisions of this section shall not apply to:

(a) Records of firearms that have been used in committing any crime.

(b) Records relating to any person who has been convicted of a crime.

(c) Records of firearms that have been reported stolen that are retained for a period not in excess of 10 days after such firearms are recovered. Official documentation recording the theft of a recovered weapon may be maintained no longer than the balance of the year entered, plus 2 years.

(d) Firearm records that must be retained by firearm dealers under federal law, including copies of such records transmitted to law enforcement agencies. However, no state governmental agency or local government, special district, or other political subdivision or official, agent, or employee of such state or other governmental entity or any other person, private or public, shall accumulate, compile, computerize, or otherwise collect or convert such written records into any form of list, registry, or database for any purpose.

(e)1. Records kept pursuant to the recordkeeping provisions of s. 790.065; however, nothing in this section shall be construed to authorize the public release or inspection of records that are made confidential and exempt from the provisions of s. 119.07(1) by s. 790.065(4)(a).

2. Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to allow the maintaining of records containing the names of purchasers or transferees who receive unique approval numbers or the maintaining of records of firearm transactions.

(f) Firearm records, including paper pawn transaction forms and contracts on firearm transactions, required by chapters 538 and 539.

1. Electronic firearm records held pursuant to chapter 538 may only be kept by a secondhand dealer for 30 days after the date of the purchase of the firearm by the secondhand dealer.

2. Electronic firearm records held pursuant to chapter 539 may only be kept by a pawnbroker for 30 days after the expiration of the loan that is secured by a firearm or 30 days after the date of purchase of a firearm, whichever is applicable.

3. Except as required by federal law, any firearm records kept pursuant to chapter 538 or chapter 539 shall not, at any time, be electronically transferred to any public or private entity, agency, business, or enterprise, nor shall any such records be copied or transferred for purposes of accumulation of such records into lists, registries, or databases.

4. Notwithstanding subparagraph 3., secondhand dealers and pawnbrokers may electronically submit firearm transaction records to the appropriate law enforcement agencies as required by chapters 538 and 539; however, the law enforcement agencies may not electronically submit such records to any other person or entity and must destroy such records within 60 days after receipt of such records.

5. Notwithstanding subparagraph 3., secondhand dealers and pawnbrokers may electronically submit limited firearms records consisting solely of the manufacturer, model, serial number, and caliber of pawned or purchased firearms to a third-party private provider that is exclusively incorporated, exclusively owned, and exclusively operated in the United States and that restricts access to such information to only appropriate law enforcement agencies for legitimate law enforcement purposes. Such records must be destroyed within 30 days by the third-party provider. As a condition of receipt of such records, the third-party provider must agree in writing to comply with the requirements of this section. Any pawnbroker or secondhand dealer who contracts with a third-party provider other than as provided in this act or electronically transmits any records of firearms transactions to any third-party provider other than the records specifically allowed by this paragraph commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(g) Records kept by the Department of Law Enforcement of NCIC transactions to the extent required by federal law and a log of dates of requests for criminal history record checks, unique approval and nonapproval numbers, license identification numbers, and transaction numbers corresponding to such dates.

(h) Records of an insurer that, as a condition to providing insurance against theft or loss of a firearm, identify such firearm. Such records may not be sold, commingled with records relating to other firearms, or transferred to any other person or entity. The insurer may not keep a record of such firearm more than 60 days after the policy of insurance expires or after notification by the insured that the insured is no longer the owner of such firearm.

(i) Lists of customers of a firearm dealer retained by such dealer, provided that such lists do not disclose the particular firearms purchased. Such lists, or any parts thereof, may not be sold, commingled with records relating to other firearms, or transferred to any other person or entity.

(j) Sales receipts retained by the seller of firearms or by a person providing credit for such purchase, provided that such receipts shall not serve as or be used for the creation of a database for registration of firearms.

(k) Personal records of firearms maintained by the owner of such firearms.

(l) Records maintained by a business that stores or acts as the selling agent of firearms on behalf of the lawful owner of the firearms.

(m) Membership lists of organizations comprised of firearm owners.

(n) Records maintained by an employer or contracting entity of the firearms owned by its officers, employees, or agents, if such firearms are used in the course of business performed on behalf of the employer.

(o) Records maintained pursuant to s. 790.06 by the Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services of a person who was a licensee within the prior 2 years.

(p) Records of firearms involved in criminal investigations, criminal prosecutions, criminal appeals, and postconviction motions, civil proceedings relating to the surrender or seizure of firearms including protective injunctions, Baker Act commitments, and sheriff’s levies pursuant to court judgments, and voluntary surrender by the owner or custodian of the firearm.

(q) Paper documents relating to firearms involved in criminal cases, criminal investigations, and criminal prosecutions, civil proceedings relating to the surrender or seizure of firearms including protective injunctions, Baker Act commitments, and sheriff’s levies pursuant to court judgments, and voluntary surrender by the owner or custodian of the firearm.

(r) Noncriminal records relating to the receipt, storage or return of firearms, including, but not limited to, records relating to firearms impounded for storage or safekeeping, receipts proving that a firearm was returned to the rightful owner and supporting records of identification and proof of ownership, or records relating to firearms impounded pursuant to levies or court orders, provided, however, that such records shall not be compiled, sorted, or otherwise arranged into any lists, indexes, or registries of firearms or firearms owners.

(4) PENALTIES.–

(a) Any person who violates a provision of this section commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(b) Except as required by the provisions of s. 16, Art. I of the State Constitution or the Sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution, no public funds shall be used to defend the unlawful conduct of any person charged with a violation of this section, unless the charges against such person are dismissed or such person is determined to be not guilty at trial. Notwithstanding this paragraph, public funds may be expended to provide the services of the office of public defender or court-appointed conflict counsel as provided by law.

(c) The governmental entity, or the designee of such governmental entity, in whose service or employ a list, record, or registry was compiled in violation of this section may be assessed a fine of not more than $5 million, if the court determines that the evidence shows that the list, record, or registry was compiled or maintained with the knowledge or complicity of the management of the governmental entity. The Attorney General may bring a civil cause of action to enforce the fines assessed under this paragraph.

(d) The state attorney in the appropriate jurisdiction shall investigate complaints of criminal violations of this section and, where evidence indicates a violation may have occurred, shall prosecute violators.

(5) CONSTRUCTION.–This section shall be construed to effectuate its remedial and deterrent purposes. This section may not be construed to grant any substantive, procedural privacy right or civil claim to any criminal defendant, and a violation of this section may not be grounds for the suppression of evidence in any criminal case.

History.–s. 1, ch. 2004-59.

790.336 Lists, records, or registries to be destroyed.–Any list, record, or registry maintained or under construction on the effective date of this act shall be destroyed, unless prohibited by law, within 60 calendar days after this act becomes law. Thereafter, failure to destroy any such list, record, or registry may result in prosecution under this act.
History.–s. 2, ch. 2004-59.

Homicide / Murder

782.02 Justifiable use of deadly force.

782.03 Excusable homicide.

782.035 Abrogation of common-law rule of evidence known as “year-and-a-day rule”.

782.04 Murder.

782.051 Attempted felony murder.

782.07 Manslaughter; aggravated manslaughter of an elderly person or disabled adult; aggravated manslaughter of a child; aggravated manslaughter of an officer, a firefighter, an emergency medical technician, or a paramedic.

782.071 Vehicular homicide.

782.072 Vessel homicide.

782.08 Assisting self-murder.

782.081 Commercial exploitation of self-murder.

782.09 Killing of unborn child by injury to mother.

782.11 Unnecessary killing to prevent unlawful act.

782.30 Short title.

782.32 Definitions.

782.34 Partial-birth abortion.

782.36 Exceptions.

782.02 Justifiable use of deadly force.–The use of deadly force is justifiable when a person is resisting any attempt to murder such person or to commit any felony upon him or her or upon or in any dwelling house in which such person shall be.

History.–ss. 4, 5, ch. 1637, 1868; RS 2378; ch. 4967, 1901; s. 1, ch. 4964, 1901; GS 3203; RGS 5033; CGL 7135; s. 66, ch. 74-383; s. 1, ch. 75-24; s. 45, ch. 75-298; s. 1197, ch. 97-102.

782.03 Excusable homicide.–Homicide is excusable when committed by accident and misfortune in doing any lawful act by lawful means with usual ordinary caution, and without any unlawful intent, or by accident and misfortune in the heat of passion, upon any sudden and sufficient provocation, or upon a sudden combat, without any dangerous weapon being used and not done in a cruel or unusual manner.

History.–s. 6, ch. 1637, 1868; RS 2379; GS 3204; RGS 5034; CGL 7136; s. 1, ch. 75-13.

782.035 Abrogation of common-law rule of evidence known as “year-and-a-day rule”.–The common-law rule of evidence applicable to homicide prosecutions known as the “year-and-a-day rule,” which provides a conclusive presumption that an injury is not the cause of death or that whether it is the cause cannot be discerned if the interval between the infliction of the injury and the victim’s death exceeds a year and a day, is hereby abrogated and does not apply in this state.

History.–s. 1, ch. 88-39.

782.04 Murder.–

(1)(a) The unlawful killing of a human being:

1. When perpetrated from a premeditated design to effect the death of the person killed or any human being;

2. When committed by a person engaged in the perpetration of, or in the attempt to perpetrate, any:

a. Trafficking offense prohibited by s. 893.135(1),

b. Arson,

c. Sexual battery,

d. Robbery,

e. Burglary,

f. Kidnapping,

g. Escape,

h. Aggravated child abuse,

i. Aggravated abuse of an elderly person or disabled adult,

j. Aircraft piracy,

k. Unlawful throwing, placing, or discharging of a destructive device or bomb,

l. Carjacking,

m. Home-invasion robbery,

n. Aggravated stalking,

o. Murder of another human being,

p. Resisting an officer with violence to his or her person,

q. Felony that is an act of terrorism or is in furtherance of an act of terrorism; or

3. Which resulted from the unlawful distribution of any substance controlled under s. 893.03(1), cocaine as described in s. 893.03(2)(a)4., or opium or any synthetic or natural salt, compound, derivative, or preparation of opium by a person 18 years of age or older, when such drug is proven to be the proximate cause of the death of the user,

is murder in the first degree and constitutes a capital felony, punishable as provided in s. 775.082.

(b) In all cases under this section, the procedure set forth in s. 921.141 shall be followed in order to determine sentence of death or life imprisonment.

(2) The unlawful killing of a human being, when perpetrated by any act imminently dangerous to another and evincing a depraved mind regardless of human life, although without any premeditated design to effect the death of any particular individual, is murder in the second degree and constitutes a felony of the first degree, punishable by imprisonment for a term of years not exceeding life or as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(3) When a person is killed in the perpetration of, or in the attempt to perpetrate, any:

(a) Trafficking offense prohibited by s. 893.135(1),

(b) Arson,

(c) Sexual battery,

(d) Robbery,

(e) Burglary,

(f) Kidnapping,

(g) Escape,

(h) Aggravated child abuse,

(i) Aggravated abuse of an elderly person or disabled adult,

(j) Aircraft piracy,

(k) Unlawful throwing, placing, or discharging of a destructive device or bomb,

(l) Carjacking,

(m) Home-invasion robbery,

(n) Aggravated stalking,

(o) Murder of another human being,

(p) Resisting an officer with violence to his or her person, or

(q) Felony that is an act of terrorism or is in furtherance of an act of terrorism,

by a person other than the person engaged in the perpetration of or in the attempt to perpetrate such felony, the person perpetrating or attempting to perpetrate such felony is guilty of murder in the second degree, which constitutes a felony of the first degree, punishable by imprisonment for a term of years not exceeding life or as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(4) The unlawful killing of a human being, when perpetrated without any design to effect death, by a person engaged in the perpetration of, or in the attempt to perpetrate, any felony other than any:

(a) Trafficking offense prohibited by s. 893.135(1),

(b) Arson,

(c) Sexual battery,

(d) Robbery,

(e) Burglary,

(f) Kidnapping,

(g) Escape,

(h) Aggravated child abuse,

(i) Aggravated abuse of an elderly person or disabled adult,

(j) Aircraft piracy,

(k) Unlawful throwing, placing, or discharging of a destructive device or bomb,

(l) Unlawful distribution of any substance controlled under s. 893.03(1), cocaine as described in s. 893.03(2)(a)4., or opium or any synthetic or natural salt, compound, derivative, or preparation of opium by a person 18 years of age or older, when such drug is proven to be the proximate cause of the death of the user,

(m) Carjacking,

(n) Home-invasion robbery,

(o) Aggravated stalking,

(p) Murder of another human being,

(q) Resisting an officer with violence to his or her person, or

(r) Felony that is an act of terrorism or is in furtherance of an act of terrorism,

is murder in the third degree and constitutes a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(5) As used in this section, the term “terrorism” means an activity that:

(a)1. Involves a violent act or an act dangerous to human life which is a violation of the criminal laws of this state or of the United States; or

2. Involves a violation of s. 815.06; and

(b) Is intended to:

1. Intimidate, injure, or coerce a civilian population;

2. Influence the policy of a government by intimidation or coercion; or

3. Affect the conduct of government through destruction of property, assassination, murder, kidnapping, or aircraft piracy.

History.–s. 2, ch. 1637, 1868; RS 2380; GS 3205; RGS 5035; s. 1, ch. 8470, 1921; CGL 7137; s. 1, ch. 28023, 1953; s. 712, ch. 71-136; s. 3, ch. 72-724; s. 14, ch. 74-383; s. 6, ch. 75-298; s. 1, ch. 76-141; s. 290, ch. 79-400; s. 1, ch. 82-4; s. 1, ch. 82-69; s. 1, ch. 84-16; s. 6, ch. 87-243; ss. 2, 4, ch. 89-281; s. 4, ch. 90-112; s. 3, ch. 93-212; s. 11, ch. 95-195; s. 18, ch. 96-322; s. 1, ch. 98-417; s. 10, ch. 99-188; s. 16, ch. 2000-320; s. 2, ch. 2001-236; s. 2, ch. 2001-357; s. 1, ch. 2002-212.

782.051 Attempted felony murder.–

(1) Any person who perpetrates or attempts to perpetrate any felony enumerated in s. 782.04(3) and who commits, aids, or abets an intentional act that is not an essential element of the felony and that could, but does not, cause the death of another commits a felony of the first degree, punishable by imprisonment for a term of years not exceeding life, or as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084, which is an offense ranked in level 9 of the Criminal Punishment Code. Victim injury points shall be scored under this subsection.

(2) Any person who perpetrates or attempts to perpetrate any felony other than a felony enumerated in s. 782.04(3) and who commits, aids, or abets an intentional act that is not an essential element of the felony and that could, but does not, cause the death of another commits a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084, which is an offense ranked in level 8 of the Criminal Punishment Code. Victim injury points shall be scored under this subsection.

(3) When a person is injured during the perpetration of or the attempt to perpetrate any felony enumerated in s. 782.04(3) by a person other than the person engaged in the perpetration of or the attempt to perpetrate such felony, the person perpetrating or attempting to perpetrate such felony commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084, which is an offense ranked in level 7 of the Criminal Punishment Code. Victim injury points shall be scored under this subsection.

History.–s. 1, ch. 96-359; s. 18, ch. 97-194; s. 12, ch. 98-204; s. 4, ch. 2001-236.

782.07 Manslaughter; aggravated manslaughter of an elderly person or disabled adult; aggravated manslaughter of a child; aggravated manslaughter of an officer, a firefighter, an emergency medical technician, or a paramedic.–

(1) The killing of a human being by the act, procurement, or culpable negligence of another, without lawful justification according to the provisions of chapter 776 and in cases in which such killing shall not be excusable homicide or murder, according to the provisions of this chapter, is manslaughter, a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(2) A person who causes the death of any elderly person or disabled adult by culpable negligence under s. 825.102(3) commits aggravated manslaughter of an elderly person or disabled adult, a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(3) A person who causes the death of any person under the age of 18 by culpable negligence under s. 827.03(3) commits aggravated manslaughter of a child, a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(4) A person who causes the death, through culpable negligence, of an officer as defined in s. 943.10(14), a firefighter as defined in s. 112.191, an emergency medical technician as defined in s. 401.23, or a paramedic as defined in s. 401.23, while the officer, firefighter, emergency medical technician, or paramedic is performing duties that are within the course of his or her employment, commits aggravated manslaughter of an officer, a firefighter, an emergency medical technician, or a paramedic, a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

History.–RS 2384; GS 3209; RGS 5039; CGL 7141; s. 715, ch. 71-136; s. 180, ch. 73-333; s. 15, ch. 74-383; s. 6, ch. 75-298; s. 12, ch. 96-322; s. 2, ch. 2002-74.

782.071 Vehicular homicide.–“Vehicular homicide” is the killing of a human being, or the killing of a viable fetus by any injury to the mother, caused by the operation of a motor vehicle by another in a reckless manner likely to cause the death of, or great bodily harm to, another.

(1) Vehicular homicide is:

(a) A felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(b) A felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084, if:

1. At the time of the accident, the person knew, or should have known, that the accident occurred; and

2. The person failed to give information and render aid as required by s. 316.062.

This paragraph does not require that the person knew that the accident resulted in injury or death.

(2) For purposes of this section, a fetus is viable when it becomes capable of meaningful life outside the womb through standard medical measures.

(3) A right of action for civil damages shall exist under s. 768.19, under all circumstances, for all deaths described in this section.

(4) In addition to any other punishment, the court may order the person to serve 120 community service hours in a trauma center or hospital that regularly receives victims of vehicle accidents, under the supervision of a registered nurse, an emergency room physician, or an emergency medical technician pursuant to a voluntary community service program operated by the trauma center or hospital.

History.–s. 16, ch. 74-383; s. 6, ch. 75-298; s. 12, ch. 86-296; s. 14, ch. 96-330; s. 9, ch. 98-417; s. 1, ch. 99-153; s. 2, ch. 2001-147.

782.072 Vessel homicide.–“Vessel homicide” is the killing of a human being by the operation of a vessel as defined in s. 327.02 by another in a reckless manner likely to cause the death of, or great bodily harm to, another. Vessel homicide is:

(1) A felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(2) A felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084, if:

(a) At the time of the accident, the person knew, or should have known, that the accident occurred; and

(b) The person failed to give information and render aid as required by s. 327.30(1).

This subsection does not require that the person knew that the accident resulted in injury or death.

History.–s. 1, ch. 87-20; s. 15, ch. 96-330; s. 2, ch. 99-153.

782.08 Assisting self-murder.–Every person deliberately assisting another in the commission of self-murder shall be guilty of manslaughter, a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

History.–s. 9, ch. 1637, 1868; RS 2385; GS 3210; RGS 5040; CGL 7142; s. 716, ch. 71-136.

782.081 Commercial exploitation of self-murder.–

(1) As used in this section, the term:

(a) “Deliberately assisting” means carrying out a public act that is intended to:

1. Aid, abet, facilitate, permit, advocate, or encourage;

2. Publicize, promote, advertise, operate, stage, schedule, or conduct;

3. Provide or secure a venue, transportation, or security; or

4. Result in the collection of an admission or fee.

(b) “Self-murder” means the voluntary and intentional taking of one’s own life. As used in this section, the term includes attempted self-murder.

(c) “Simulated self-murder” means the artistic depiction or portrayal of self-murder which is not an actual self-murder. The term includes, but is not limited to, an artistic depiction or portrayal of self-murder in a script, play, movie, or story presented to the public or during an event.

(2) A person may not for commercial or entertainment purposes:

(a) Conduct any event that the person knows or reasonably should know includes an actual self-murder as a part of the event or deliberately assist in an actual self-murder.

(b) Provide a theater, auditorium, club, or other venue or location for any event that the person knows or reasonably should know includes an actual self-murder as a part of the event.

(3) This section does not prohibit any event during which simulated self-murder will occur.

(4) It is not a defense to a prosecution under this section that an attempted self-murder did not result in a self-murder.

(5) A person who violates this section commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or 1s. 775.084.

(6) The Attorney General or any state attorney may bring a civil proceeding for declaratory, injunctive, or other relief to enforce the provisions of this section.

History.–s. 1, ch. 2004-30.

1Note.–Substituted by the editors for a reference to s. 774.084 which does not exist. Section 775.084 provides specified punishment for felonies.

782.09 Killing of unborn child by injury to mother.–The willful killing of an unborn quick child, by any injury to the mother of such child which would be murder if it resulted in the death of such mother, shall be deemed manslaughter, a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

History.–s. 10, ch. 1637, 1868; RS 2386; GS 3211; RGS 5041; CGL 7143; s. 717, ch. 71-136.

782.11 Unnecessary killing to prevent unlawful act.–Whoever shall unnecessarily kill another, either while resisting an attempt by such other person to commit any felony, or to do any other unlawful act, or after such attempt shall have failed, shall be deemed guilty of manslaughter, a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

History.–s. 13, ch. 1637, 1868; RS 2388; GS 3213; RGS 5043; CGL 7145; s. 719, ch. 71-136.

1782.30 Short title.–Sections 782.30-782.36 may be cited as the “Partial-Birth Abortion Act.”

History.–s. 1, ch. 2000-142.

1Note.–Section 5, ch. 2000-142, provides that “[t]his act shall be liberally construed to effectively carry out its purposes. In the event of conflict between this act and any other provision of law, the provisions of this act shall govern.”

1782.32 Definitions.–As used in this act, the term:

(1) “Partially born” means the living fetus’s intact body, with the entire head attached, is presented so that:

(a) There has been delivered past the mother’s vaginal opening:

1. The fetus’s entire head, in the case of a cephalic presentation, up until the point of complete separation from the mother whether or not the placenta has been delivered or the umbilical cord has been severed; or

2. Any portion of the fetus’s torso above the navel, in the case of a breech presentation, up until the point of complete separation from the mother whether or not the placenta has been delivered or the umbilical cord has been severed.

(b) There has been delivered outside the mother’s abdominal wall:

1. The fetus’s entire head, in the case of a cephalic presentation, up until the point of complete separation from the mother whether or not the placenta has been delivered or the umbilical cord has been severed; or

2. Any portion of the child’s torso above the navel, in the case of a breech presentation, up until the point of complete separation from the mother whether or not the placenta has been delivered or the umbilical cord has been severed.

(2) “Living fetus” means any unborn member of the human species who has a heartbeat or discernible spontaneous movement.

(3) “Suction or sharp curettage abortion” means an abortion, as defined in chapter 390, in which the developing fetus and the products of conception are evacuated from the uterus through a suction cannula with an attached vacuum apparatus or with a sharp curette.

History.–s. 2, ch. 2000-142.

1Note.–Section 5, ch. 2000-142, provides that “[t]his act shall be liberally construed to effectively carry out its purposes. In the event of conflict between this act and any other provision of law, the provisions of this act shall govern.”

1782.34 Partial-birth abortion.–Except as provided in s. 782.36, any person who intentionally kills a living fetus while that fetus is partially born commits the crime of partial-birth abortion, which is a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

History.–s. 3, ch. 2000-142.

1Note.–Section 5, ch. 2000-142, provides that “[t]his act shall be liberally construed to effectively carry out its purposes. In the event of conflict between this act and any other provision of law, the provisions of this act shall govern.”

1782.36 Exceptions.–

(1) A patient receiving a partial-birth-abortion procedure may not be prosecuted under this act.

(2) This act does not apply to a suction or sharp curettage abortion.

(3) This act does not constitute implicit approval of other types of abortion, which remain subject to all other applicable laws of this state.

(4) This act does not prohibit a physician from taking such measures as are necessary to save the life of a mother whose life is endangered by a physical disorder, physical illness, or physical injury, provided that every reasonable precaution is also taken, in such cases, to save the fetus’s life.

History.–s. 4, ch. 2000-142.

1Note.–Section 5, ch. 2000-142, provides that “[t]his act shall be liberally construed to effectively carry out its purposes. In the event of conflict between this act and any other provision of law, the provisions of this act shall govern.”

Insurance Fraud

817.22 Making false invoice to defraud insurer.–If the owner of a ship or vessel or of property laden or pretended to be laden on board the same, or if any other person concerned in the lading or fitting out of a ship or vessel, makes out or exhibits, or causes to be made out or exhibited, a false or fraudulent invoice, bill of lading, bill or parcels or other false estimates of any goods or property laden or pretended to be laden, on board such ship or vessel, with intent to injure and defraud an insurer of such ship, vessel or property, or of any part thereof, he or she shall be guilty of a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

History.–s. 72, ch. 1637, 1868; RS 2471; GS 3332; RGS 5172; CGL 7275; s. 7, ch. 22858, 1945; s. 855, ch. 71-136; s. 1250, ch. 97-102.

817.23 Making false affidavit to defraud insurer.–If a master, other officer, or mariner of a ship or vessel, makes or causes to be made, or swears to any false affidavit or protest, or if an owner or other person concerned in such ship or vessel or in the goods and property laden on board the same, procures any such false affidavits or protest to be made, or exhibits the same, with intent to injure, deceive or defraud an insurer of such ship or vessel, or of any goods or property laden on board the same, he or she shall be guilty of a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

History.–s. 73, ch. 1637, 1868; RS 2472; GS 3333; RGS 5173; CGL 7276; s. 856, ch. 71-136; s. 1251, ch. 97-102.

817.233 Burning to defraud the insurer.–Any person who willfully and with intent to injure or defraud the insurer sets fire to or burns or attempts so to do or who causes to be burned or who aids, counsels or procures the burning of any building, structure or personal property, of whatsoever class or character, whether the property of himself or herself or of another, which shall at the time be insured by any person against loss or damage by fire, shall be guilty of a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

History.–s. 1, ch. 15602, 1931; CGL 1936 Supp. 7208(12); s. 791, ch. 71-136; s. 65, ch. 74-383; s. 1252, ch. 97-102.

Note.–Former s. 806.06.

817.234 False and fraudulent insurance claims.–

(1)(a) A person commits insurance fraud punishable as provided in subsection (11) if that person, with the intent to injure, defraud, or deceive any insurer:

1. Presents or causes to be presented any written or oral statement as part of, or in support of, a claim for payment or other benefit pursuant to an insurance policy or a health maintenance organization subscriber or provider contract, knowing that such statement contains any false, incomplete, or misleading information concerning any fact or thing material to such claim;

2. Prepares or makes any written or oral statement that is intended to be presented to any insurer in connection with, or in support of, any claim for payment or other benefit pursuant to an insurance policy or a health maintenance organization subscriber or provider contract, knowing that such statement contains any false, incomplete, or misleading information concerning any fact or thing material to such claim; or

3.a. Knowingly presents, causes to be presented, or prepares or makes with knowledge or belief that it will be presented to any insurer, purported insurer, servicing corporation, insurance broker, or insurance agent, or any employee or agent thereof, any false, incomplete, or misleading information or written or oral statement as part of, or in support of, an application for the issuance of, or the rating of, any insurance policy, or a health maintenance organization subscriber or provider contract; or

b. Who knowingly conceals information concerning any fact material to such application.

(b) All claims and application forms shall contain a statement that is approved by the Office of Insurance Regulation of the Financial Services Commission which clearly states in substance the following: “Any person who knowingly and with intent to injure, defraud, or deceive any insurer files a statement of claim or an application containing any false, incomplete, or misleading information is guilty of a felony of the third degree.” This paragraph shall not apply to reinsurance contracts, reinsurance agreements, or reinsurance claims transactions.

(2)(a) Any physician licensed under chapter 458, osteopathic physician licensed under chapter 459, chiropractic physician licensed under chapter 460, or other practitioner licensed under the laws of this state who knowingly and willfully assists, conspires with, or urges any insured party to fraudulently violate any of the provisions of this section or part XI of chapter 627, or any person who, due to such assistance, conspiracy, or urging by said physician, osteopathic physician, chiropractic physician, or practitioner, knowingly and willfully benefits from the proceeds derived from the use of such fraud, commits insurance fraud, punishable as provided in subsection (11). In the event that a physician, osteopathic physician, chiropractic physician, or practitioner is adjudicated guilty of a violation of this section, the Board of Medicine as set forth in chapter 458, the Board of Osteopathic Medicine as set forth in chapter 459, the Board of Chiropractic Medicine as set forth in chapter 460, or other appropriate licensing authority shall hold an administrative hearing to consider the imposition of administrative sanctions as provided by law against said physician, osteopathic physician, chiropractic physician, or practitioner.

(b) In addition to any other provision of law, systematic upcoding by a provider, as defined in s. 641.19(14), with the intent to obtain reimbursement otherwise not due from an insurer is punishable as provided in s. 641.52(5).

(3) Any attorney who knowingly and willfully assists, conspires with, or urges any claimant to fraudulently violate any of the provisions of this section or part XI of chapter 627, or any person who, due to such assistance, conspiracy, or urging on such attorney’s part, knowingly and willfully benefits from the proceeds derived from the use of such fraud, commits insurance fraud, punishable as provided in subsection (11).

(4) Any person or governmental unit licensed under chapter 395 to maintain or operate a hospital, and any administrator or employee of any such hospital, who knowingly and willfully allows the use of the facilities of said hospital by an insured party in a scheme or conspiracy to fraudulently violate any of the provisions of this section or part XI of chapter 627 commits insurance fraud, punishable as provided in subsection (11). Any adjudication of guilt for a violation of this subsection, or the use of business practices demonstrating a pattern indicating that the spirit of the law set forth in this section or part XI of chapter 627 is not being followed, shall be grounds for suspension or revocation of the license to operate the hospital or the imposition of an administrative penalty of up to $5,000 by the licensing agency, as set forth in chapter 395.

(5) Any insurer damaged as a result of a violation of any provision of this section when there has been a criminal adjudication of guilt shall have a cause of action to recover compensatory damages, plus all reasonable investigation and litigation expenses, including attorneys’ fees, at the trial and appellate courts.

(6) For the purposes of this section, “statement” includes, but is not limited to, any notice, statement, proof of loss, bill of lading, invoice, account, estimate of property damages, bill for services, diagnosis, prescription, hospital or doctor records, X ray, test result, or other evidence of loss, injury, or expense.

(7)(a) It shall constitute a material omission and insurance fraud for any physician or other provider, other than a hospital, to engage in a general business practice of billing amounts as its usual and customary charge, if such provider has agreed with the patient or intends to waive deductibles or copayments, or does not for any other reason intend to collect the total amount of such charge. With respect to a determination as to whether a physician or other provider has engaged in such general business practice, consideration shall be given to evidence of whether the physician or other provider made a good faith attempt to collect such deductible or copayment. This paragraph does not apply to physicians or other providers who waive deductibles or copayments or reduce their bills as part of a bodily injury settlement or verdict.

(b) The provisions of this section shall also apply as to any insurer or adjusting firm or its agents or representatives who, with intent, injure, defraud, or deceive any claimant with regard to any claim. The claimant shall have the right to recover the damages provided in this section.

(c) An insurer, or any person acting at the direction of or on behalf of an insurer, may not change an opinion in a mental or physical report prepared under s. 627.736(7) or direct the physician preparing the report to change such opinion; however, this provision does not preclude the insurer from calling to the attention of the physician errors of fact in the report based upon information in the claim file. Any person who violates this paragraph commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(8)(a) It is unlawful for any person intending to defraud any other person to solicit or cause to be solicited any business from a person involved in a motor vehicle accident for the purpose of making, adjusting, or settling motor vehicle tort claims or claims for personal injury protection benefits required by s. 627.736. Any person who violates the provisions of this paragraph commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. A person who is convicted of a violation of this subsection shall be sentenced to a minimum term of imprisonment of 2 years.

(b) A person may not solicit or cause to be solicited any business from a person involved in a motor vehicle accident by any means of communication other than advertising directed to the public for the purpose of making motor vehicle tort claims or claims for personal injury protection benefits required by s. 627.736, within 60 days after the occurrence of the motor vehicle accident. Any person who violates this paragraph commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(c) A lawyer, health care practitioner as defined in s. 456.001, or owner or medical director of a clinic required to be licensed pursuant to s. 400.9905 may not, at any time after 60 days have elapsed from the occurrence of a motor vehicle accident, solicit or cause to be solicited any business from a person involved in a motor vehicle accident by means of in person or telephone contact at the person’s residence, for the purpose of making motor vehicle tort claims or claims for personal injury protection benefits required by s. 627.736. Any person who violates this paragraph commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(d) Charges for any services rendered by any person who violates this subsection in regard to the person for whom such services were rendered are noncompensable and unenforceable as a matter of law.

(9) A person may not organize, plan, or knowingly participate in an intentional motor vehicle crash for the purpose of making motor vehicle tort claims or claims for personal injury protection benefits as required by s. 627.736. Any person who violates this subsection commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. A person who is convicted of a violation of this subsection shall be sentenced to a minimum term of imprisonment of 2 years.

(10) As used in this section, the term “insurer” means any insurer, health maintenance organization, self-insurer, self-insurance fund, or other similar entity or person regulated under chapter 440 or chapter 641 or by the Office of Insurance Regulation under the Florida Insurance Code.

(11) If the value of any property involved in a violation of this section:

(a) Is less than $20,000, the offender commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(b) Is $20,000 or more, but less than $100,000, the offender commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(c) Is $100,000 or more, the offender commits a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(12) As used in this section:

(a) “Property” means property as defined in s. 812.012.

(b) “Value” means value as defined in s. 812.012.

History.–s. 7, ch. 76-266; s. 36, ch. 77-468; s. 3, ch. 78-258; s. 1, ch. 79-81; s. 487, ch. 81-259; s. 9, ch. 83-28; s. 24, ch. 88-370; s. 41, ch. 91-110; s. 123, ch. 92-149; s. 8, ch. 95-340; s. 1253, ch. 97-102; s. 65, ch. 97-264; s. 298, ch. 98-166; s. 6, ch. 99-204; s. 11, ch. 2000-252; s. 7, ch. 2001-271; s. 1909, ch. 2003-261; s. 10, ch. 2003-411.

Note.–Former s. 627.7375.

817.2341 False or misleading statements or supporting documents; penalty.–

(1) Any person who willfully files with the department or office, or who willfully signs for filing with the department or office, a materially false or materially misleading financial statement or document in support of such statement required by law or rule, with intent to deceive and with knowledge that the statement or document is materially false or materially misleading, commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(2)(a) Any person who makes a false entry of a material fact in any book, report, or statement relating to a transaction of an insurer or entity organized pursuant to chapter 624 or chapter 641, intending to deceive any person about the financial condition or solvency of the insurer or entity, commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(b) If the false entry of a material fact is made with the intent to deceive any person as to the impairment of capital, as defined in s. 631.011(12), of the insurer or entity or is the significant cause of the insurer or entity being placed in conservation, rehabilitation, or liquidation by a court, the person commits a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(3)(a) Any person who knowingly makes a material false statement or report to the department or office or any agent of the department or office, or knowingly and materially overvalues any property in any document or report prepared to be presented to the department or office or any agent of the department or office, commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(b) If the material false statement or report or the material overvaluation is made with the intent to deceive any person as to the impairment of capital, as defined in s. 631.011(12), of an insurer or entity organized pursuant to chapter 624 or chapter 641, or is the significant cause of the insurer or entity being placed in receivership by a court, the person commits a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(4) As used in this section, the term:

(a) “Department” means the Department of Financial Services.

(b) “Office” means the Office of Insurance Regulation of the Financial Services Commission.

History.–s. 18, ch. 2002-25; s. 1910, ch. 2003-261.

817.235 Personal property; removing or altering identification marks.–

(1) Except as otherwise provided by law, any person who, with intent to prevent identification by the true owner, removes, erases, defaces, or otherwise alters any serial number or other mark of identification placed on any item of personal property by the manufacturer or owner thereof is guilty of a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(2) Any person who possesses any item of personal property with the knowledge that the serial number or other mark of identification placed thereon by the manufacturer or owner thereof has been removed, erased, defaced, or otherwise altered with intent to prevent identification by the true owner is guilty of a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

History.–s. 1, ch. 74-6.

817.236 False and fraudulent motor vehicle insurance application.–Any person who, with intent to injure, defraud, or deceive any motor vehicle insurer, including any statutorily created underwriting association or pool of motor vehicle insurers, presents or causes to be presented any written application, or written statement in support thereof, for motor vehicle insurance knowing that the application or statement contains any false, incomplete, or misleading information concerning any fact or matter material to the application commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

History.–s. 49, ch. 90-119; s. 11, ch. 2003-411.

817.2361 False or fraudulent motor vehicle insurance card.–Any person who, with intent to deceive any other person, creates, markets, or presents a false or fraudulent motor vehicle insurance card commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

History.–s. 12, ch. 2003-411

Obstructing Justice

843.02 Resisting officer without violence to his or her person.

Whoever shall resist, obstruct, or oppose any officer as defined in s. 943.10(1), (2), (3), (6), (7), (8), or (9); member of the Parole Commission or any administrative aide or supervisor employed by the commission; county probation officer; parole and probation supervisor; personnel or representative of the Department of Law Enforcement; or other person legally authorized to execute process in the execution of legal process or in the lawful execution of any legal duty, without offering or doing violence to the person of the officer, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

History.–s. 2, ch. 3276, 1881; RS 2581; GS 3501; RGS 5386; CGL 7525; s. 1, ch. 63-433; s. 1, ch. 65-226; s. 3, ch. 67-2207; ss. 20, 33, 35, ch. 69-106; s. 1035, ch. 71-136; s. 1, ch. 77-174; s. 2, ch. 78-116; s. 21, ch. 79-3; s. 27, ch. 79-8; s. 6, ch. 85-87; s. 41, ch. 88-122; s. 2, ch. 88-373; s. 51, ch. 88-381; s. 43, ch. 89-526; s. 209, ch. 91-224.

Petit Theft

812.014 Theft.–

(1) A person commits theft if he or she knowingly obtains or uses, or endeavors to obtain or to use, the property of another with intent to, either temporarily or permanently:

(a) Deprive the other person of a right to the property or a benefit from the property.

(b) Appropriate the property to his or her own use or to the use of any person not entitled to the use of the property.

(2)(a)1. If the property stolen is valued at $100,000 or more; or

2. If the property stolen is cargo valued at $50,000 or more that has entered the stream of interstate or intrastate commerce from the shipper’s loading platform to the consignee’s receiving dock; or

3. If the offender commits any grand theft and:

a. In the course of committing the offense the offender uses a motor vehicle as an instrumentality, other than merely as a getaway vehicle, to assist in committing the offense and thereby damages the real property of another; or

b. In the course of committing the offense the offender causes damage to the real or personal property of another in excess of $1,000,

the offender commits grand theft in the first degree, punishable as a felony of the first degree, as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(b)1. If the property stolen is valued at $20,000 or more, but less than $100,000;

2. The property stolen is cargo valued at less than $50,000 that has entered the stream of interstate or intrastate commerce from the shipper’s loading platform to the consignee’s receiving dock; or

3. The property stolen is emergency medical equipment, valued at $300 or more, that is taken from a facility licensed under chapter 395 or from an aircraft or vehicle permitted under chapter 401,

the offender commits grand theft in the second degree, punishable as a felony of the second degree, as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. Emergency medical equipment means mechanical or electronic apparatus used to provide emergency services and care as defined in s. 395.002(10) or to treat medical emergencies.

(c) It is grand theft of the third degree and a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084, if the property stolen is:

1. Valued at $300 or more, but less than $5,000.

2. Valued at $5,000 or more, but less than $10,000.

3. Valued at $10,000 or more, but less than $20,000.

4. A will, codicil, or other testamentary instrument.

5. A firearm.

6. A motor vehicle, except as provided in paragraph (2)(a).

7. Any commercially farmed animal, including any animal of the equine, bovine, or swine class, or other grazing animal, and including aquaculture species raised at a certified aquaculture facility. If the property stolen is aquaculture species raised at a certified aquaculture facility, then a $10,000 fine shall be imposed.

8. Any fire extinguisher.

9. Any amount of citrus fruit consisting of 2,000 or more individual pieces of fruit.

10. Taken from a designated construction site identified by the posting of a sign as provided for in s. 810.09(2)(d).

11. Any stop sign.

12. Anhydrous ammonia.

(d) It is grand theft of the third degree and a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084, if the property stolen is valued at $100 or more, but less than $300, and is taken from a dwelling as defined in s. 810.011(2) or from the unenclosed curtilage of a dwelling pursuant to s. 810.09(1).

(e) Except as provided in paragraph (d), if the property stolen is valued at $100 or more, but less than $300, the offender commits petit theft of the first degree, punishable as a misdemeanor of the first degree, as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(3)(a) Theft of any property not specified in subsection (2) is petit theft of the second degree and a misdemeanor of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083, and as provided in subsection (5), as applicable.

(b) A person who commits petit theft and who has previously been convicted of any theft commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(c) A person who commits petit theft and who has previously been convicted two or more times of any theft commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(d)1. Every judgment of guilty or not guilty of a petit theft shall be in writing, signed by the judge, and recorded by the clerk of the circuit court. The judge shall cause to be affixed to every such written judgment of guilty of petit theft, in open court and in the presence of such judge, the fingerprints of the defendant against whom such judgment is rendered. Such fingerprints shall be affixed beneath the judge’s signature to such judgment. Beneath such fingerprints shall be appended a certificate to the following effect:

“I hereby certify that the above and foregoing fingerprints on this judgment are the fingerprints of the defendant, _____, and that they were placed thereon by said defendant in my presence, in open court, this the _____ day of _____, (year) .”

Such certificate shall be signed by the judge, whose signature thereto shall be followed by the word “Judge.”

2. Any such written judgment of guilty of a petit theft, or a certified copy thereof, is admissible in evidence in the courts of this state as prima facie evidence that the fingerprints appearing thereon and certified by the judge are the fingerprints of the defendant against whom such judgment of guilty of a petit theft was rendered.

(4) Failure to comply with the terms of a lease when the lease is for a term of 1 year or longer shall not constitute a violation of this section unless demand for the return of the property leased has been made in writing and the lessee has failed to return the property within 7 days of his or her receipt of the demand for return of the property. A demand mailed by certified or registered mail, evidenced by return receipt, to the last known address of the lessee shall be deemed sufficient and equivalent to the demand having been received by the lessee, whether such demand shall be returned undelivered or not.

(5)(a) No person shall drive a motor vehicle so as to cause it to leave the premises of an establishment at which gasoline offered for retail sale was dispensed into the fuel tank of such motor vehicle unless the payment of authorized charge for the gasoline dispensed has been made.

(b) In addition to the penalties prescribed in paragraph (3)(a), every judgment of guilty of a petit theft for property described in this subsection shall provide for the suspension of the convicted person’s driver’s license. The court shall forward the driver’s license to the Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles in accordance with s. 322.25.

1. The first suspension of a driver’s license under this subsection shall be for a period of up to 6 months.

2. The second or subsequent suspension of a driver’s license under this subsection shall be for a period of 1 year.

History.–s. 4, ch. 77-342; s. 1, ch. 78-348; s. 1, ch. 79-124; s. 1, ch. 80-389; s. 1, ch. 82-164; s. 1, ch. 86-161; s. 1, ch. 87-376; s. 1, ch. 88-312; s. 8, ch. 90-92; s. 1, ch. 92-79; s. 9, ch. 95-184; s. 30, ch. 96-247; s. 3, ch. 96-260; s. 49, ch. 96-388; s. 1819, ch. 97-102; s. 102, ch. 99-3; s. 36, ch. 99-6; ss. 67, 79, ch. 99-248; s. 2, ch. 2001-115; s. 1, ch. 2003-15; s. 2, ch. 2004-341.

812.035 Civil remedies; limitation on civil and criminal actions.–

(1) Any circuit court may, after making due provisions for the rights of innocent persons, enjoin violations of the provisions of ss. 812.012-812.037 or s. 812.081 by issuing appropriate orders and judgments, including, but not limited to:

(a) Ordering any defendant to divest himself or herself of any interest in any enterprise, including real estate.

(b) Imposing reasonable restrictions upon the future activities or investments of any defendant, including, but not limited to, prohibiting any defendant from engaging in the same type of endeavor as the enterprise in which he or she was engaged in violation of the provisions of ss. 812.012-812.037 or s. 812.081.

(c) Ordering the dissolution or reorganization of any enterprise.

(d) Ordering the suspension or revocation of any license, permit, or prior approval granted to any enterprise by any department or agency of the state.

(e) Ordering the forfeiture of the charter of a corporation organized under the laws of the state or the revocation of a certificate authorizing a foreign corporation to conduct business within the state, upon finding that the board of directors or a managerial agent acting on behalf of the corporation, in conducting the affairs of the corporation, has authorized or engaged in conduct in violation of ss. 812.012-812.037 or s. 812.081 and that, for the prevention of future criminal activity, the public interest requires the charter of the corporation forfeited and the corporation dissolved or the certificate revoked.

(2) All property, real or personal, including money, used in the course of, intended for use in the course of, derived from, or realized through conduct in violation of a provision of ss. 812.012-812.037 or s. 812.081 is subject to civil forfeiture to the state. The state shall dispose of all forfeited property as soon as commercially feasible. If property is not exercisable or transferable for value by the state, it shall expire. All forfeitures or dispositions under this section shall be made with due provision for the rights of innocent persons.

(3) Property subject to forfeiture under this section may be seized by a law enforcement officer upon court process. Seizure without process may be made if:

(a) The seizure is incident to a lawful arrest or search or an inspection under an administrative inspection warrant.

(b) The property subject to seizure has been the subject of a prior judgment in favor of the state in a forfeiture proceeding based upon this section.

(c) The law enforcement officer has probable cause to believe that the property is directly or indirectly dangerous to the public health or safety.

(d) The law enforcement officer has probable cause to believe that the property is otherwise subject to forfeiture under this section.

(4) In the event of a seizure under subsection (3), a forfeiture proceeding shall be instituted promptly. When property is seized under this section, pending forfeiture and final disposition, the law enforcement officer may:

(a) Place the property under seal.

(b) Remove the property to a place designated by the court.

(c) Require another agency authorized by law to take custody of the property and remove it to an appropriate location.

(5) The Department of Legal Affairs, any state attorney, or any state agency having jurisdiction over conduct in violation of a provision of ss. 812.012-812.037 or s. 812.081 may institute civil proceedings under this section. In any action brought under this section, the circuit court shall proceed as soon as practicable to the hearing and determination. Pending final determination, the circuit court may at any time enter such injunctions, prohibitions, or restraining orders, or take such actions, including the acceptance of satisfactory performance bonds, as the court may deem proper.

(6) Any aggrieved person may institute a proceeding under subsection (1). In such proceeding, relief shall be granted in conformity with the principles that govern the granting of injunctive relief from threatened loss or damage in other civil cases, except that no showing of special or irreparable damage to the person shall have to be made. Upon the execution of proper bond against damages for an injunction improvidently granted and a showing of immediate danger of significant loss or damage, a temporary restraining order and a preliminary injunction may be issued in any such action before a final determination on the merits.

(7) The state, including any of its agencies, instrumentalities, subdivisions, or municipalities, if it proves by clear and convincing evidence that it has been injured in any fashion by reason of any violation of the provisions of ss. 812.012-812.037 or s. 812.081, has a cause of action for threefold the actual damages sustained and, in any such action, is entitled to minimum damages in the amount of $200 and shall also recover court costs and reasonable attorney’s fees in the trial and appellate courts. In no event shall punitive damages be awarded under this section. The defendant shall be entitled to recover reasonable attorney’s fees and court costs in the trial and appellate courts upon a finding that the claimant raised a claim which was without substantial fact or legal support.

(8) A final judgment or decree rendered in favor of the state in any criminal proceeding under ss. 812.012-812.037 or s. 812.081 shall estop the defendant in any subsequent civil action or proceeding as to all matters as to which such judgment or decree would be an estoppel as between the parties.

(9) The Department of Legal Affairs may, upon timely application, intervene in any civil action or proceeding brought under subsection (6) or subsection (7) if he or she certifies that, in his or her opinion, the action or proceeding is of general public importance. In such action or proceeding, the state shall be entitled to the same relief as if the Department of Legal Affairs had instituted this action or proceeding.

(10) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a criminal or civil action or proceeding under ss. 812.012-812.037 or s. 812.081 may be commenced at any time within 5 years after the cause of action accrues; however, in a criminal proceeding under ss. 812.012-812.037 or s. 812.081, the period of limitation does not run during any time when the defendant is continuously absent from the state or is without a reasonably ascertainable place of abode or work within the state, but in no case shall this extend the period of limitation otherwise applicable by more than 1 year. If a criminal prosecution or civil action or other proceeding is brought, or intervened in, to punish, prevent, or restrain any violation of the provisions of ss. 812.012-812.037 or s. 812.081, the running of the period of limitations prescribed by this section with respect to any cause of action arising under subsection (6) or subsection (7) which is based in whole or in part upon any matter complained of in any such prosecution, action, or proceeding shall be suspended during the pendency of such prosecution, action, or proceeding and for 2 years following its termination.

(11) The application of one civil remedy under any provision of ss. 812.012-812.037 or s. 812.081 shall not preclude the application of any other remedy, civil or criminal, under ss. 812.012-812.037 or s. 812.081 or any other section of the Florida Statutes.

History.–s. 12, ch. 77-342; s. 293, ch. 79-400; s. 1, ch. 84-304; s. 2, ch. 85-34; s. 4, ch. 86-277; s. 5, ch. 92-79; s. 1238, ch. 97-102

Possession of Fraudulent or Stolen Driver License

322.212 Unauthorized possession of, and other unlawful acts in relation to, driver’s license or identification card.–

(1) It is unlawful for any person to:

(a) Knowingly have in his or her possession or to display any blank, forged, stolen, fictitious, counterfeit, or unlawfully issued driver’s license or identification card or any instrument in the similitude of a driver’s license or identification card unless possession by such person has been duly authorized by the department;

(b) Knowingly have in his or her possession any instrument in the similitude of a driver’s license issued by the department or its duly authorized agents or those of any state or jurisdiction issuing licenses recognized in this state for the operation of a motor vehicle;

(c) Knowingly have in his or her possession any instrument in the similitude of an identification card issued by the department or its duly authorized agents or those of any state or jurisdiction issuing identification cards recognized in this state for the purpose of indicating a person’s true name and age; or

(d) Knowingly sell, manufacture, or deliver, or knowingly offer to sell, manufacture, or deliver, a blank, forged, stolen, fictitious, counterfeit, or unlawfully issued driver’s license or identification card, or an instrument in the similitude of a driver’s license or identification card, unless that person is authorized to do so by the department. A violation of this section may be investigated by any law enforcement agency, including the Division of Alcoholic Beverages and Tobacco.

The term “driver’s license” includes a driver’s license issued by the department or its agents or a driver’s license issued by any state or jurisdiction that issues licenses recognized in this state for the operation of a motor vehicle. The term “identification card” includes any identification card issued by the department or its agents or any identification card issued by any state or jurisdiction that issues identification cards recognized in this state for the purpose of indicating a person’s true name and age. This subsection does not prohibit a person from possessing or displaying another person’s driver’s license or identification card for a lawful purpose.

(2) It is unlawful for any person to barter, trade, sell, or give away any driver’s license or identification card or to perpetrate a conspiracy to barter, trade, sell, or give away any such license or identification card unless such person has been duly authorized to issue the license or identification card by the department as provided in this chapter or in the adopted rules of the department.

(3) It is unlawful for any employee of the department to allow or permit the issuance of a driver’s license or identification card when he or she knows that the applicant has not lawfully fulfilled the requirements of this chapter for the issuance of such license or identification card.

(4) It is unlawful for any person to agree to supply or to aid in supplying any person with a driver’s license or identification card by any means whatsoever not in accordance with the provisions of this chapter.

(5)(a) It is unlawful for any person to use a false or fictitious name in any application for a driver’s license or identification card or knowingly to make a false statement, knowingly conceal a material fact, or otherwise commit a fraud in any such application.

(b) It is unlawful for any person to have in his or her possession a driver’s license or identification card upon which the date of birth has been altered.

(6) Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, any person who violates any of the provisions of this section is guilty of a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. Any person who violates paragraph (5)(a) by giving a false age in any application for a driver’s license or identification card or who violates paragraph (5)(b) by possessing a driver’s license, identification card, or any instrument in the similitude thereof, on which the date of birth has been altered is guilty of a misdemeanor of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083. Any person who violates paragraph (1)(d) commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(7) The provisions of this section are in addition and supplemental to all other provisions of this chapter and of the laws of this state relating to driver’s licenses and identification cards.

History.–s. 1, ch. 65-167; ss. 24, 35, ch. 69-106; s. 212, ch. 71-136; s. 24, ch. 73-334; s. 19, ch. 78-394; s. 1, ch. 84-91; s. 410, ch. 95-148; s. 4, ch. 97-206; s. 1, ch. 2002-178; s. 6, ch. 2002-259; s. 2, ch. 2003-286.

Prostitution Offenses / Soliciting

796.03 Procuring person under age of 18 for prostitution.

796.035 Selling or buying of minors into sex trafficking or prostitution; penalties.

796.04 Forcing, compelling, or coercing another to become a prostitute.

796.045 Sex trafficking; penalties.

796.05 Deriving support from the proceeds of prostitution.

796.06 Renting space to be used for lewdness, assignation, or prostitution.

796.07 Prohibiting prostitution, etc.; evidence; penalties; definitions.

796.08 Screening for HIV and sexually transmissible diseases; providing penalties.

796.09 Coercion; civil cause of action; evidence; defenses; attorney’s fees.

796.03 Procuring person under age of 18 for prostitution.–A person who procures for prostitution, or causes to be prostituted, any person who is under the age of 18 years commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

History.–RS 2617; GS 3537; RGS 5435; CGL 7578; s. 765, ch. 71-136; s. 1, ch. 78-45; s. 1, ch. 93-227.

796.035 Selling or buying of minors into sex trafficking or prostitution; penalties.–Any parent, legal guardian, or other person having custody or control of a minor who sells or otherwise transfers custody or control of such minor, or offers to sell or otherwise transfer custody of such minor, with knowledge that, as a consequence of the sale or transfer, force, fraud, or coercion will be used to cause the minor to engage in prostitution or otherwise participate in the trade of sex trafficking, commits a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

History.–s. 3, ch. 2004-391.

796.04 Forcing, compelling, or coercing another to become a prostitute.–

(1) After May 1, 1943, it shall be unlawful for anyone to force, compel, or coerce another to become a prostitute.

(2) Anyone violating this section shall be guilty of a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

History.–ss. 1, 2, ch. 21661, 1943; s. 766, ch. 71-136.

796.045 Sex trafficking; penalties.–Any person who knowingly recruits, entices, harbors, transports, provides, or obtains by any means a person, knowing that force, fraud, or coercion will be used to cause that person to engage in prostitution, commits the offense of sex trafficking, a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. A person commits a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084, if the offense of sex trafficking is committed against a person who is under the age of 14 or if such offense results in death.

History.–s. 4, ch. 2004-391.

796.05 Deriving support from the proceeds of prostitution.–

(1) It shall be unlawful for any person with reasonable belief or knowing another person is engaged in prostitution to live or derive support or maintenance in whole or in part from what is believed to be the earnings or proceeds of such person’s prostitution.

(2) Anyone violating this section commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

History.–ss. 1, 2, ch. 21662, 1943; s. 767, ch. 71-136; s. 2, ch. 81-281; s. 1, ch. 87-168; s. 3, ch. 93-227.

796.06 Renting space to be used for lewdness, assignation, or prostitution.–

(1) It is unlawful to let or rent any place, structure, or part thereof, trailer or other conveyance, with the knowledge that it will be used for the purpose of lewdness, assignation, or prostitution.

(2) A person who violates this section commits:

(a) A misdemeanor of the second degree for a first violation, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(b) A misdemeanor of the first degree for a second or subsequent violation, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

History.–ss. 1, 2, ch. 21663, 1943; ss. 1, 2, ch. 22025, 1943; s. 768, ch. 71-136; s. 4, ch. 93-227.

796.07 Prohibiting prostitution, etc.; evidence; penalties; definitions.–

(1) As used in this section:

(a) “Prostitution” means the giving or receiving of the body for sexual activity for hire but excludes sexual activity between spouses.

(b) “Lewdness” means any indecent or obscene act.

(c) “Assignation” means the making of any appointment or engagement for prostitution or lewdness, or any act in furtherance of such appointment or engagement.

(d) “Sexual activity” means oral, anal, or vaginal penetration by, or union with, the sexual organ of another; anal or vaginal penetration of another by any other object; or the handling or fondling of the sexual organ of another for the purpose of masturbation; however, the term does not include acts done for bona fide medical purposes.

(2) It is unlawful:

(a) To own, establish, maintain, or operate any place, structure, building, or conveyance for the purpose of lewdness, assignation, or prostitution.

(b) To offer, or to offer or agree to secure, another for the purpose of prostitution or for any other lewd or indecent act.

(c) To receive, or to offer or agree to receive, any person into any place, structure, building, or conveyance for the purpose of prostitution, lewdness, or assignation, or to permit any person to remain there for such purpose.

(d) To direct, take, or transport, or to offer or agree to direct, take, or transport, any person to any place, structure, or building, or to any other person, with knowledge or reasonable cause to believe that the purpose of such directing, taking, or transporting is prostitution, lewdness, or assignation.

(e) To offer to commit, or to commit, or to engage in, prostitution, lewdness, or assignation.

(f) To solicit, induce, entice, or procure another to commit prostitution, lewdness, or assignation.

(g) To reside in, enter, or remain in, any place, structure, or building, or to enter or remain in any conveyance, for the purpose of prostitution, lewdness, or assignation.

(h) To aid, abet, or participate in any of the acts or things enumerated in this subsection.

(i) To purchase the services of any person engaged in prostitution.

(3) In the trial of a person charged with a violation of this section, testimony concerning the reputation of any place, structure, building, or conveyance involved in the charge, testimony concerning the reputation of any person residing in, operating, or frequenting such place, structure, building, or conveyance, and testimony concerning the reputation of the defendant is admissible in evidence in support of the charge.

(4) A person who violates any provision of this section commits:

(a) A misdemeanor of the second degree for a first violation, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(b) A misdemeanor of the first degree for a second violation, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(c) A felony of the third degree for a third or subsequent violation, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(5) A person who is charged with a third or subsequent violation of this section shall be offered admission to a pretrial intervention program or a substance-abuse treatment program as provided in s. 948.08.

(6) A person who violates paragraph (2)(f) shall be assessed a civil penalty of $500 if the violation results in any judicial disposition other than acquittal or dismissal. The proceeds from penalties assessed under this subsection shall be paid to the circuit court administrator for the sole purpose of paying the administrative costs of treatment-based drug court programs provided under s. 397.334.

History.–ss. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, ch. 21664, 1943; s. 769, ch. 71-136; s. 3, ch. 81-281; s. 1, ch. 86-143; s. 39, ch. 91-110; s. 181, ch. 91-224; s. 5, ch. 93-227; s. 4, ch. 2002-297; s. 118, ch. 2003-402.

796.08 Screening for HIV and sexually transmissible diseases; providing penalties.–

(1)(a) For the purposes of this section, “sexually transmissible disease” means a bacterial, viral, fungal, or parasitic disease, determined by rule of the Department of Health to be sexually transmissible, a threat to the public health and welfare, and a disease for which a legitimate public interest is served by providing for regulation and treatment.

(b) In considering which diseases are designated as sexually transmissible diseases, the Department of Health shall consider such diseases as chancroid, gonorrhea, granuloma inguinale, lymphogranuloma venereum, genital herpes simplex, chlamydia, nongonococcal urethritis (NGU), pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)/acute salpingitis, syphilis, and human immunodeficiency virus infection for designation and shall consider the recommendations and classifications of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and other nationally recognized authorities. Not all diseases that are sexually transmissible need be designated for purposes of this section.

(2) A person arrested under s. 796.07 may request screening for a sexually transmissible disease under direction of the Department of Health and, if infected, shall submit to appropriate treatment and counseling. A person who requests screening for a sexually transmissible disease under this subsection must pay any costs associated with such screening.

(3) A person convicted under s. 796.07 of prostitution or procuring another to commit prostitution must undergo screening for a sexually transmissible disease, including, but not limited to, screening to detect exposure to the human immunodeficiency virus, under direction of the Department of Health. If the person is infected, he or she must submit to treatment and counseling prior to release from probation, community control, or incarceration. Notwithstanding the provisions of s. 384.29, the results of tests conducted pursuant to this subsection shall be made available by the Department of Health to the offender, medical personnel, appropriate state agencies, state attorneys, and courts of appropriate jurisdiction in need of such information in order to enforce the provisions of this chapter.

(4) A person who commits prostitution or procures another for prostitution and who, prior to the commission of such crime, had tested positive for a sexually transmissible disease other than human immunodeficiency virus infection and knew or had been informed that he or she had tested positive for such sexually transmissible disease and could possibly communicate such disease to another person through sexual activity commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083. A person may be convicted and sentenced separately for a violation of this subsection and for the underlying crime of prostitution or procurement of prostitution.

(5) A person who:

(a) Commits or offers to commit prostitution; or

(b) Procures another for prostitution by engaging in sexual activity in a manner likely to transmit the human immunodeficiency virus,

and who, prior to the commission of such crime, had tested positive for human immunodeficiency virus and knew or had been informed that he or she had tested positive for human immunodeficiency virus and could possibly communicate such disease to another person through sexual activity commits criminal transmission of HIV, a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, s. 775.084, or s. 775.0877(7). A person may be convicted and sentenced separately for a violation of this subsection and for the underlying crime of prostitution or procurement of prostitution.

History.–s. 2, ch. 86-143; s. 44, ch. 88-380; s. 6, ch. 90-292; s. 67, ch. 91-110; s. 258, ch. 91-224; s. 7, ch. 93-227; s. 7, ch. 94-90; s. 2, ch. 94-205; s. 7, ch. 96-409; s. 3, ch. 97-37; s. 35, ch. 97-93; s. 296, ch. 99-8.

796.09 Coercion; civil cause of action; evidence; defenses; attorney’s fees.–

(1) A person has a cause of action for compensatory and punitive damages against:

(a) A person who coerced that person into prostitution;

(b) A person who coerces that person to remain in prostitution; or

(c) A person who uses coercion to collect or receive any part of that person’s earnings derived from prostitution.

(2) As used in this section, the term “prostitution” has the same meaning as in s. 796.07.

(3) As used in this section, the term “coercion” means any practice of domination, restraint, or inducement for the purpose of or with the reasonably foreseeable effect of causing another person to engage in or remain in prostitution or to relinquish earnings derived from prostitution, and includes, but is not limited to:

(a) Physical force or threats of physical force.

(b) Physical or mental torture.

(c) Kidnapping.

(d) Blackmail.

(e) Extortion or claims of indebtedness.

(f) Threat of legal complaint or report of delinquency.

(g) Threat to interfere with parental rights or responsibilities, whether by judicial or administrative action or otherwise.

(h) Promise of legal benefit.

(i) Promise of greater financial rewards.

(j) Promise of marriage.

(k) Restraint of speech or communication with others.

(l) Exploitation of a condition of developmental disability, cognitive limitation, affective disorder, or substance dependency.

(m) Exploitation of victimization by sexual abuse.

(n) Exploitation of pornographic performance.

(o) Exploitation of human needs for food, shelter, safety, or affection.

(4) In the course of litigation under this section, any transaction about which a plaintiff testifies or produces evidence does not subject such plaintiff to criminal prosecution or any penalty or forfeiture. Further, any testimony or evidence, documentary or otherwise, or information directly or indirectly derived from such testimony or evidence which is given or produced by a plaintiff or a witness for a plaintiff shall not be used against these persons in any other investigation or proceeding. Such testimony or evidence, however, may be used against a plaintiff or a witness for a plaintiff upon any criminal investigation or proceeding for perjury committed while giving such testimony or producing such evidence.

(5) It does not constitute a defense to a complaint under this section that:

(a) The plaintiff was paid or otherwise compensated for acts of prostitution;

(b) The plaintiff engaged in acts of prostitution prior to any involvement with the defendant; or

(c) The plaintiff made no attempt to escape, flee, or otherwise terminate contact with the defendant.

(6) Evidence of convictions for prostitution or prostitution-related offenses are inadmissible in a proceeding brought under this section for purposes of attacking the plaintiff’s credibility.

(7) In any action brought under this section, the court, in its discretion, may award prevailing plaintiffs reasonable attorney’s fees and costs.

History.–s. 1, ch. 91-32; s. 20, ch. 93-227.

Resisting with Violence

843.02 Resisting officer without violence to his or her person.

Whoever shall resist, obstruct, or oppose any officer as defined in s. 943.10(1), (2), (3), (6), (7), (8), or (9); member of the Parole Commission or any administrative aide or supervisor employed by the commission; county probation officer; parole and probation supervisor; personnel or representative of the Department of Law Enforcement; or other person legally authorized to execute process in the execution of legal process or in the lawful execution of any legal duty, without offering or doing violence to the person of the officer, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.
History.–s. 2, ch. 3276, 1881; RS 2581; GS 3501; RGS 5386; CGL 7525; s. 1, ch. 63-433; s. 1, ch. 65-226; s. 3, ch. 67-2207; ss. 20, 33, 35, ch. 69-106; s. 1035, ch. 71-136; s. 1, ch. 77-174; s. 2, ch. 78-116; s. 21, ch. 79-3; s. 27, ch. 79-8; s. 6, ch. 85-87; s. 41, ch. 88-122; s. 2, ch. 88-373; s. 51, ch. 88-381; s. 43, ch. 89-526; s. 209, ch. 91-224.

Robbery / Armed Robbery

812.13 Robbery.–

(1) “Robbery” means the taking of money or other property which may be the subject of larceny from the person or custody of another, with intent to either permanently or temporarily deprive the person or the owner of the money or other property, when in the course of the taking there is the use of force, violence, assault, or putting in fear.

(2)(a) If in the course of committing the robbery the offender carried a firearm or other deadly weapon, then the robbery is a felony of the first degree, punishable by imprisonment for a term of years not exceeding life imprisonment or as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(b) If in the course of committing the robbery the offender carried a weapon, then the robbery is a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(c) If in the course of committing the robbery the offender carried no firearm, deadly weapon, or other weapon, then the robbery is a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(3)(a) An act shall be deemed “in the course of committing the robbery” if it occurs in an attempt to commit robbery or in flight after the attempt or commission.

(b) An act shall be deemed “in the course of the taking” if it occurs either prior to, contemporaneous with, or subsequent to the taking of the property and if it and the act of taking constitute a continuous series of acts or events.

History.–s. 1, ch. 28217, 1953; s. 1, ch. 29930, 1955; s. 839, ch. 71-136; s. 38, ch. 74-383; s. 29, ch. 75-298; s. 1, ch. 87-315; s. 1, ch. 92-155.

Note.–Former s. 813.011.

812.131 Robbery by sudden snatching.–

(1) “Robbery by sudden snatching” means the taking of money or other property from the victim’s person, with intent to permanently or temporarily deprive the victim or the owner of the money or other property, when, in the course of the taking, the victim was or became aware of the taking. In order to satisfy this definition, it is not necessary to show that:

(a) The offender used any amount of force beyond that effort necessary to obtain possession of the money or other property; or

(b) There was any resistance offered by the victim to the offender or that there was injury to the victim’s person.

(2)(a) If, in the course of committing a robbery by sudden snatching, the offender carried a firearm or other deadly weapon, the robbery by sudden snatching is a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(b) If, in the course of committing a robbery by sudden snatching, the offender carried no firearm or other deadly weapon, the robbery by sudden snatching is a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(3)(a) An act shall be deemed “in the course of committing a robbery by sudden snatching” if the act occurs in an attempt to commit robbery by sudden snatching or in fleeing after the attempt or commission.

(b) An act shall be deemed “in the course of the taking” if the act occurs prior to, contemporaneous with, or subsequent to the taking of the property and if such act and the act of taking constitute a continuous series of acts or events.

History.–s. 1, ch. 99-175.

812.133 Carjacking.–

(1) “Carjacking” means the taking of a motor vehicle which may be the subject of larceny from the person or custody of another, with intent to either permanently or temporarily deprive the person or the owner of the motor vehicle, when in the course of the taking there is the use of force, violence, assault, or putting in fear.

(2)(a) If in the course of committing the carjacking the offender carried a firearm or other deadly weapon, then the carjacking is a felony of the first degree, punishable by imprisonment for a term of years not exceeding life imprisonment or as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(b) If in the course of committing the carjacking the offender carried no firearm, deadly weapon, or other weapon, then the carjacking is a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(3)(a) An act shall be deemed “in the course of committing the carjacking” if it occurs in an attempt to commit carjacking or in flight after the attempt or commission.

(b) An act shall be deemed “in the course of the taking” if it occurs either prior to, contemporaneous with, or subsequent to the taking of the property and if it and the act of taking constitute a continuous series of acts or events.

History.–s. 1, ch. 93-212.

812.135 Home-invasion robbery.–

(1) “Home-invasion robbery” means any robbery that occurs when the offender enters a dwelling with the intent to commit a robbery, and does commit a robbery of the occupants therein.

(2)(a) If in the course of committing the home-invasion robbery the person carries a firearm or other deadly weapon, the person commits a felony of the first degree, punishable by imprisonment for a term of years not exceeding life imprisonment as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(b) If in the course of committing the home-invasion robbery the person carries a weapon, the person commits a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(c) If in the course of committing the home-invasion robbery the person carries no firearm, deadly weapon, or other weapon, the person commits a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

History.–s. 2, ch. 93-212; s. 1, ch. 2004-290.

Seal And Expunge Records

Sealing and Expungement Law in Florida

943.0585 Court-ordered expunction of criminal history records.–The courts of this state have jurisdiction over their own procedures, including the maintenance, expunction, and correction of judicial records containing criminal history information to the extent such procedures are not inconsistent with the conditions, responsibilities, and duties established by this section. Any court of competent jurisdiction may order a criminal justice agency to expunge the criminal history record of a minor or an adult who complies with the requirements of this section. The court shall not order a criminal justice agency to expunge a criminal history record until the person seeking to expunge a criminal history record has applied for and received a certificate of eligibility for expunction pursuant to subsection (2). A criminal history record that relates to a violation of s. 393.135, s. 394.4593, s. 787.025, chapter 794, s. 796.03, s. 800.04, s. 817.034, s. 825.1025, s. 827.071, chapter 839, s. 847.0133, s. 847.0135, s. 847.0145, s. 893.135, s. 916.1075, or a violation enumerated in s. 907.041 may not be expunged, without regard to whether adjudication was withheld, if the defendant was found guilty of or pled guilty or nolo contendere to the offense, or if the defendant, as a minor, was found to have committed, or pled guilty or nolo contendere to committing, the offense as a delinquent act. The court may only order expunction of a criminal history record pertaining to one arrest or one incident of alleged criminal activity, except as provided in this section. The court may, at its sole discretion, order the expunction of a criminal history record pertaining to more than one arrest if the additional arrests directly relate to the original arrest. If the court intends to order the expunction of records pertaining to such additional arrests, such intent must be specified in the order. A criminal justice agency may not expunge any record pertaining to such additional arrests if the order to expunge does not articulate the intention of the court to expunge a record pertaining to more than one arrest. This section does not prevent the court from ordering the expunction of only a portion of a criminal history record pertaining to one arrest or one incident of alleged criminal activity. Notwithstanding any law to the contrary, a criminal justice agency may comply with laws, court orders, and official requests of other jurisdictions relating to expunction, correction, or confidential handling of criminal history records or information derived therefrom. This section does not confer any right to the expunction of any criminal history record, and any request for expunction of a criminal history record may be denied at the sole discretion of the court.

(1) PETITION TO EXPUNGE A CRIMINAL HISTORY RECORD.–Each petition to a court to expunge a criminal history record is complete only when accompanied by:

(a) A certificate of eligibility for expunction issued by the department pursuant to subsection (2).

(b) The petitioner’s sworn statement attesting that the petitioner:

1. Has never, prior to the date on which the petition is filed, been adjudicated guilty of a criminal offense or comparable ordinance violation or adjudicated delinquent for committing a felony or a misdemeanor specified in s. 943.051(3)(b).

2. Has not been adjudicated guilty of, or adjudicated delinquent for committing, any of the acts stemming from the arrest or alleged criminal activity to which the petition pertains.

3. Has never secured a prior sealing or expunction of a criminal history record under this section, former s. 893.14, former s. 901.33, or former s. 943.058, or from any jurisdiction outside the state.

4. Is eligible for such an expunction to the best of his or her knowledge or belief and does not have any other petition to expunge or any petition to seal pending before any court.

Any person who knowingly provides false information on such sworn statement to the court commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(2) CERTIFICATE OF ELIGIBILITY FOR EXPUNCTION.–Prior to petitioning the court to expunge a criminal history record, a person seeking to expunge a criminal history record shall apply to the department for a certificate of eligibility for expunction. The department shall, by rule adopted pursuant to chapter 120, establish procedures pertaining to the application for and issuance of certificates of eligibility for expunction. The department shall issue a certificate of eligibility for expunction to a person who is the subject of a criminal history record if that person:

(a) Has obtained, and submitted to the department, a written, certified statement from the appropriate state attorney or statewide prosecutor which indicates:

1. That an indictment, information, or other charging document was not filed or issued in the case.

2. That an indictment, information, or other charging document, if filed or issued in the case, was dismissed or nolle prosequi by the state attorney or statewide prosecutor, or was dismissed by a court of competent jurisdiction.

3. That the criminal history record does not relate to a violation of s. 393.135, s. 394.4593, s. 787.025, chapter 794, s. 796.03, s. 800.04, s. 817.034, s. 825.1025, s. 827.071, chapter 839, s. 847.0133, s. 847.0135, s. 847.0145, s. 893.135, s. 916.1075, or a violation enumerated in s. 907.041, where the defendant was found guilty of, or pled guilty or nolo contendere to any such offense, or that the defendant, as a minor, was found to have committed, or pled guilty or nolo contendere to committing, such an offense as a delinquent act, without regard to whether adjudication was withheld.

(b) Remits a $75 processing fee to the department for placement in the Department of Law Enforcement Operating Trust Fund, unless such fee is waived by the executive director.

(c) Has submitted to the department a certified copy of the disposition of the charge to which the petition to expunge pertains.

(d) Has never, prior to the date on which the application for a certificate of eligibility is filed, been adjudicated guilty of a criminal offense or comparable ordinance violation or adjudicated delinquent for committing a felony or a misdemeanor specified in s. 943.051(3)(b).

(e) Has not been adjudicated guilty of, or adjudicated delinquent for committing, any of the acts stemming from the arrest or alleged criminal activity to which the petition to expunge pertains.

(f) Has never secured a prior sealing or expunction of a criminal history record under this section, former s. 893.14, former s. 901.33, or former s. 943.058.

(g) Is no longer under court supervision applicable to the disposition of the arrest or alleged criminal activity to which the petition to expunge pertains.

(h) Is not required to wait a minimum of 10 years prior to being eligible for an expunction of such records because all charges related to the arrest or criminal activity to which the petition to expunge pertains were dismissed prior to trial, adjudication, or the withholding of adjudication. Otherwise, such criminal history record must be sealed under this section, former s. 893.14, former s. 901.33, or former s. 943.058 for at least 10 years before such record is eligible for expunction.

(3) PROCESSING OF A PETITION OR ORDER TO EXPUNGE.–

(a) In judicial proceedings under this section, a copy of the completed petition to expunge shall be served upon the appropriate state attorney or the statewide prosecutor and upon the arresting agency; however, it is not necessary to make any agency other than the state a party. The appropriate state attorney or the statewide prosecutor and the arresting agency may respond to the court regarding the completed petition to expunge.

(b) If relief is granted by the court, the clerk of the court shall certify copies of the order to the appropriate state attorney or the statewide prosecutor and the arresting agency. The arresting agency is responsible for forwarding the order to any other agency to which the arresting agency disseminated the criminal history record information to which the order pertains. The department shall forward the order to expunge to the Federal Bureau of Investigation. The clerk of the court shall certify a copy of the order to any other agency which the records of the court reflect has received the criminal history record from the court.

(c) For an order to expunge entered by a court prior to July 1, 1992, the department shall notify the appropriate state attorney or statewide prosecutor of an order to expunge which is contrary to law because the person who is the subject of the record has previously been convicted of a crime or comparable ordinance violation or has had a prior criminal history record sealed or expunged. Upon receipt of such notice, the appropriate state attorney or statewide prosecutor shall take action, within 60 days, to correct the record and petition the court to void the order to expunge. The department shall seal the record until such time as the order is voided by the court.

(d) On or after July 1, 1992, the department or any other criminal justice agency is not required to act on an order to expunge entered by a court when such order does not comply with the requirements of this section. Upon receipt of such an order, the department must notify the issuing court, the appropriate state attorney or statewide prosecutor, the petitioner or the petitioner’s attorney, and the arresting agency of the reason for noncompliance. The appropriate state attorney or statewide prosecutor shall take action within 60 days to correct the record and petition the court to void the order. No cause of action, including contempt of court, shall arise against any criminal justice agency for failure to comply with an order to expunge when the petitioner for such order failed to obtain the certificate of eligibility as required by this section or such order does not otherwise comply with the requirements of this section.

(4) EFFECT OF CRIMINAL HISTORY RECORD EXPUNCTION.–Any criminal history record of a minor or an adult which is ordered expunged by a court of competent jurisdiction pursuant to this section must be physically destroyed or obliterated by any criminal justice agency having custody of such record; except that any criminal history record in the custody of the department must be retained in all cases. A criminal history record ordered expunged that is retained by the department is confidential and exempt from the provisions of s. 119.07(1) and s. 24(a), Art. I of the State Constitution and not available to any person or entity except upon order of a court of competent jurisdiction. A criminal justice agency may retain a notation indicating compliance with an order to expunge.

(a) The person who is the subject of a criminal history record that is expunged under this section or under other provisions of law, including former s. 893.14, former s. 901.33, and former s. 943.058, may lawfully deny or fail to acknowledge the arrests covered by the expunged record, except when the subject of the record:

1. Is a candidate for employment with a criminal justice agency;

2. Is a defendant in a criminal prosecution;

3. Concurrently or subsequently petitions for relief under this section or s. 943.059;

4. Is a candidate for admission to The Florida Bar;

5. Is seeking to be employed or licensed by or to contract with the Department of Children and Family Services or the Department of Juvenile Justice or to be employed or used by such contractor or licensee in a sensitive position having direct contact with children, the developmentally disabled, the aged, or the elderly as provided in s. 110.1127(3), s. 393.063, s. 394.4572(1), s. 397.451, s. 402.302(3), s. 402.313(3), s. 409.175(2)(i), s. 415.102(4), s. 916.106(10) and (13), s. 985.407, or chapter 400; or

6. Is seeking to be employed or licensed by the Department of Education, any district school board, any university laboratory school, any charter school, any private or parochial school, or any local governmental entity that licenses child care facilities.

(b) Subject to the exceptions in paragraph (a), a person who has been granted an expunction under this section, former s. 893.14, former s. 901.33, or former s. 943.058 may not be held under any provision of law of this state to commit perjury or to be otherwise liable for giving a false statement by reason of such person’s failure to recite or acknowledge an expunged criminal history record.

(c) Information relating to the existence of an expunged criminal history record which is provided in accordance with paragraph (a) is confidential and exempt from the provisions of s. 119.07(1) and s. 24(a), Art. I of the State Constitution, except that the department shall disclose the existence of a criminal history record ordered expunged to the entities set forth in subparagraphs (a)1., 4., 5., and 6. for their respective licensing and employment purposes, and to criminal justice agencies for their respective criminal justice purposes. It is unlawful for any employee of an entity set forth in subparagraph (a)1., subparagraph (a)4., subparagraph (a)5., or subparagraph (a)6. to disclose information relating to the existence of an expunged criminal history record of a person seeking employment or licensure with such entity or contractor, except to the person to whom the criminal history record relates or to persons having direct responsibility for employment or licensure decisions. Any person who violates this paragraph commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(5) STATUTORY REFERENCES.–Any reference to any other chapter, section, or subdivision of the Florida Statutes in this section constitutes a general reference under the doctrine of incorporation by reference.

History.–s. 3, ch. 92-73; s. 43, ch. 93-39; s. 1, ch. 94-127; s. 19, ch. 94-154; s. 95, ch. 94-209; s. 140, ch. 95-418; s. 3, ch. 95-427; s. 52, ch. 96-169; s. 7, ch. 96-402; s. 443, ch. 96-406; s. 1847, ch. 97-102; s. 57, ch. 98-280; s. 115, ch. 99-3; s. 10, ch. 99-188; s. 4, ch. 99-300; s. 16, ch. 99-304; s. 3, ch. 2000-246; s. 27, ch. 2000-320; s. 115, ch. 2000-349; s. 4, ch. 2001-127; s. 1, ch. 2002-212; ss. 8, 97, ch. 2004-267; s. 1, ch. 2004-295.

943.059 Court-ordered sealing of criminal history records.–The courts of this state shall continue to have jurisdiction over their own procedures, including the maintenance, sealing, and correction of judicial records containing criminal history information to the extent such procedures are not inconsistent with the conditions, responsibilities, and duties established by this section. Any court of competent jurisdiction may order a criminal justice agency to seal the criminal history record of a minor or an adult who complies with the requirements of this section. The court shall not order a criminal justice agency to seal a criminal history record until the person seeking to seal a criminal history record has applied for and received a certificate of eligibility for sealing pursuant to subsection (2). A criminal history record that relates to a violation of s. 393.135, s. 394.4593, s. 787.025, chapter 794, s. 796.03, s. 800.04, s. 817.034, s. 825.1025, s. 827.071, chapter 839, s. 847.0133, s. 847.0135, s. 847.0145, s. 893.135, s. 916.1075, or a violation enumerated in s. 907.041 may not be sealed, without regard to whether adjudication was withheld, if the defendant was found guilty of or pled guilty or nolo contendere to the offense, or if the defendant, as a minor, was found to have committed or pled guilty or nolo contendere to committing the offense as a delinquent act. The court may only order sealing of a criminal history record pertaining to one arrest or one incident of alleged criminal activity, except as provided in this section. The court may, at its sole discretion, order the sealing of a criminal history record pertaining to more than one arrest if the additional arrests directly relate to the original arrest. If the court intends to order the sealing of records pertaining to such additional arrests, such intent must be specified in the order. A criminal justice agency may not seal any record pertaining to such additional arrests if the order to seal does not articulate the intention of the court to seal records pertaining to more than one arrest. This section does not prevent the court from ordering the sealing of only a portion of a criminal history record pertaining to one arrest or one incident of alleged criminal activity. Notwithstanding any law to the contrary, a criminal justice agency may comply with laws, court orders, and official requests of other jurisdictions relating to sealing, correction, or confidential handling of criminal history records or information derived therefrom. This section does not confer any right to the sealing of any criminal history record, and any request for sealing a criminal history record may be denied at the sole discretion of the court.

(1) PETITION TO SEAL A CRIMINAL HISTORY RECORD.–Each petition to a court to seal a criminal history record is complete only when accompanied by:

(a) A certificate of eligibility for sealing issued by the department pursuant to subsection (2).

(b) The petitioner’s sworn statement attesting that the petitioner:

1. Has never, prior to the date on which the petition is filed, been adjudicated guilty of a criminal offense or comparable ordinance violation or adjudicated delinquent for committing a felony or a misdemeanor specified in s. 943.051(3)(b).

2. Has not been adjudicated guilty of or adjudicated delinquent for committing any of the acts stemming from the arrest or alleged criminal activity to which the petition to seal pertains.

3. Has never secured a prior sealing or expunction of a criminal history record under this section, former s. 893.14, former s. 901.33, former s. 943.058, or from any jurisdiction outside the state.

4. Is eligible for such a sealing to the best of his or her knowledge or belief and does not have any other petition to seal or any petition to expunge pending before any court.

Any person who knowingly provides false information on such sworn statement to the court commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(2) CERTIFICATE OF ELIGIBILITY FOR SEALING.–Prior to petitioning the court to seal a criminal history record, a person seeking to seal a criminal history record shall apply to the department for a certificate of eligibility for sealing. The department shall, by rule adopted pursuant to chapter 120, establish procedures pertaining to the application for and issuance of certificates of eligibility for sealing. The department shall issue a certificate of eligibility for sealing to a person who is the subject of a criminal history record provided that such person:

(a) Has submitted to the department a certified copy of the disposition of the charge to which the petition to seal pertains.

(b) Remits a $75 processing fee to the department for placement in the Department of Law Enforcement Operating Trust Fund, unless such fee is waived by the executive director.

(c) Has never, prior to the date on which the application for a certificate of eligibility is filed, been adjudicated guilty of a criminal offense or comparable ordinance violation or adjudicated delinquent for committing a felony or a misdemeanor specified in s. 943.051(3)(b).

(d) Has not been adjudicated guilty of or adjudicated delinquent for committing any of the acts stemming from the arrest or alleged criminal activity to which the petition to seal pertains.

(e) Has never secured a prior sealing or expunction of a criminal history record under this section, former s. 893.14, former s. 901.33, or former s. 943.058.

(f) Is no longer under court supervision applicable to the disposition of the arrest or alleged criminal activity to which the petition to seal pertains.

(3) PROCESSING OF A PETITION OR ORDER TO SEAL.–

(a) In judicial proceedings under this section, a copy of the completed petition to seal shall be served upon the appropriate state attorney or the statewide prosecutor and upon the arresting agency; however, it is not necessary to make any agency other than the state a party. The appropriate state attorney or the statewide prosecutor and the arresting agency may respond to the court regarding the completed petition to seal.

(b) If relief is granted by the court, the clerk of the court shall certify copies of the order to the appropriate state attorney or the statewide prosecutor and to the arresting agency. The arresting agency is responsible for forwarding the order to any other agency to which the arresting agency disseminated the criminal history record information to which the order pertains. The department shall forward the order to seal to the Federal Bureau of Investigation. The clerk of the court shall certify a copy of the order to any other agency which the records of the court reflect has received the criminal history record from the court.

(c) For an order to seal entered by a court prior to July 1, 1992, the department shall notify the appropriate state attorney or statewide prosecutor of any order to seal which is contrary to law because the person who is the subject of the record has previously been convicted of a crime or comparable ordinance violation or has had a prior criminal history record sealed or expunged. Upon receipt of such notice, the appropriate state attorney or statewide prosecutor shall take action, within 60 days, to correct the record and petition the court to void the order to seal. The department shall seal the record until such time as the order is voided by the court.

(d) On or after July 1, 1992, the department or any other criminal justice agency is not required to act on an order to seal entered by a court when such order does not comply with the requirements of this section. Upon receipt of such an order, the department must notify the issuing court, the appropriate state attorney or statewide prosecutor, the petitioner or the petitioner’s attorney, and the arresting agency of the reason for noncompliance. The appropriate state attorney or statewide prosecutor shall take action within 60 days to correct the record and petition the court to void the order. No cause of action, including contempt of court, shall arise against any criminal justice agency for failure to comply with an order to seal when the petitioner for such order failed to obtain the certificate of eligibility as required by this section or when such order does not comply with the requirements of this section.

(e) An order sealing a criminal history record pursuant to this section does not require that such record be surrendered to the court, and such record shall continue to be maintained by the department and other criminal justice agencies.

(4) EFFECT OF CRIMINAL HISTORY RECORD SEALING.–A criminal history record of a minor or an adult which is ordered sealed by a court of competent jurisdiction pursuant to this section is confidential and exempt from the provisions of s. 119.07(1) and s. 24(a), Art. I of the State Constitution and is available only to the person who is the subject of the record, to the subject’s attorney, to criminal justice agencies for their respective criminal justice purposes, or to those entities set forth in subparagraphs (a)1., 4., 5., and 6. for their respective licensing and employment purposes.

(a) The subject of a criminal history record sealed under this section or under other provisions of law, including former s. 893.14, former s. 901.33, and former s. 943.058, may lawfully deny or fail to acknowledge the arrests covered by the sealed record, except when the subject of the record:

1. Is a candidate for employment with a criminal justice agency;

2. Is a defendant in a criminal prosecution;

3. Concurrently or subsequently petitions for relief under this section or s. 943.0585;

4. Is a candidate for admission to The Florida Bar;

5. Is seeking to be employed or licensed by or to contract with the Department of Children and Family Services or the Department of Juvenile Justice or to be employed or used by such contractor or licensee in a sensitive position having direct contact with children, the developmentally disabled, the aged, or the elderly as provided in s. 110.1127(3), s. 393.063, s. 394.4572(1), s. 397.451, s. 402.302(3), s. 402.313(3), s. 409.175(2)(i), s. 415.102(4), s. 415.103, s. 916.106(10) and (13), s. 985.407, or chapter 400; or

6. Is seeking to be employed or licensed by the Department of Education, any district school board, any university laboratory school, any charter school, any private or parochial school, or any local governmental entity that licenses child care facilities.

(b) Subject to the exceptions in paragraph (a), a person who has been granted a sealing under this section, former s. 893.14, former s. 901.33, or former s. 943.058 may not be held under any provision of law of this state to commit perjury or to be otherwise liable for giving a false statement by reason of such person’s failure to recite or acknowledge a sealed criminal history record.

(c) Information relating to the existence of a sealed criminal record provided in accordance with the provisions of paragraph (a) is confidential and exempt from the provisions of s. 119.07(1) and s. 24(a), Art. I of the State Constitution, except that the department shall disclose the sealed criminal history record to the entities set forth in subparagraphs (a)1., 4., 5., and 6. for their respective licensing and employment purposes. It is unlawful for any employee of an entity set forth in subparagraph (a)1., subparagraph (a)4., subparagraph (a)5., or subparagraph (a)6. to disclose information relating to the existence of a sealed criminal history record of a person seeking employment or licensure with such entity or contractor, except to the person to whom the criminal history record relates or to persons having direct responsibility for employment or licensure decisions. Any person who violates the provisions of this paragraph commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(5) STATUTORY REFERENCES.–Any reference to any other chapter, section, or subdivision of the Florida Statutes in this section constitutes a general reference under the doctrine of incorporation by reference.

History.–s. 4, ch. 92-73; s. 44, ch. 93-39; s. 3, ch. 94-127; s. 20, ch. 94-154; s. 96, ch. 94-209; s. 4, ch. 95-427; s. 53, ch. 96-169; s. 8, ch. 96-402; s. 444, ch. 96-406; s. 1848, ch. 97-102; s. 58, ch. 98-280; s. 116, ch. 99-3; s. 10, ch. 99-188; s. 5, ch. 99-300; s. 17, ch. 99-304; s. 3, ch. 2000-246; s. 28, ch. 2000-320; s. 5, ch. 2001-127; s. 1, ch. 2002-212; ss. 9, 98, ch. 2004-267; s. 2, ch. 2004-295.

History.–s. 16A, ch. 71-132; s. 1383, ch. 97-102

Stalking / Aggravated Stalking

784.048 Stalking; definitions; penalties.–

(1) As used in this section, the term:

(a) “Harass” means to engage in a course of conduct directed at a specific person that causes substantial emotional distress in such person and serves no legitimate purpose.

(b) “Course of conduct” means a pattern of conduct composed of a series of acts over a period of time, however short, evidencing a continuity of purpose. Constitutionally protected activity is not included within the meaning of “course of conduct.” Such constitutionally protected activity includes picketing or other organized protests.

(c) “Credible threat” means a threat made with the intent to cause the person who is the target of the threat to reasonably fear for his or her safety. The threat must be against the life of, or a threat to cause bodily injury to, a person.

(d) “Cyberstalk” means to engage in a course of conduct to communicate, or to cause to be communicated, words, images, or language by or through the use of electronic mail or electronic communication, directed at a specific person, causing substantial emotional distress to that person and serving no legitimate purpose.

(2) Any person who willfully, maliciously, and repeatedly follows, harasses, or cyberstalks another person commits the offense of stalking, a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(3) Any person who willfully, maliciously, and repeatedly follows, harasses, or cyberstalks another person, and makes a credible threat with the intent to place that person in reasonable fear of death or bodily injury of the person, or the person’s child, sibling, spouse, parent, or dependent, commits the offense of aggravated stalking, a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(4) Any person who, after an injunction for protection against repeat violence, sexual violence, or dating violence pursuant to s. 784.046, or an injunction for protection against domestic violence pursuant to s. 741.30, or after any other court-imposed prohibition of conduct toward the subject person or that person’s property, knowingly, willfully, maliciously, and repeatedly follows, harasses, or cyberstalks another person commits the offense of aggravated stalking, a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(5) Any person who willfully, maliciously, and repeatedly follows, harasses, or cyberstalks a minor under 16 years of age commits the offense of aggravated stalking, a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(6) Any law enforcement officer may arrest, without a warrant, any person he or she has probable cause to believe has violated the provisions of this section.

(7) Any person who, after having been sentenced for a violation of s. 794.011 or s. 800.04, and prohibited from contacting the victim of the offense under s. 921.244, willfully, maliciously, and repeatedly follows, harasses, or cyberstalks the victim commits the offense of aggravated stalking, a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(8) The punishment imposed under this section shall run consecutive to any former sentence imposed for a conviction for any offense under s. 794.011 or s. 800.04.
History.–s. 1, ch. 92-208; s. 29, ch. 94-134; s. 29, ch. 94-135; s. 2, ch. 97-27; s. 23, ch. 2002-55; s. 1, ch. 2003-23; s. 3, ch. 2004-17; s. 3, ch. 2004-256.

Trafficking Of Drugs

893.135 Trafficking; mandatory sentences; suspension or reduction of sentences; conspiracy to engage in trafficking.–

(1) Except as authorized in this chapter or in chapter 499 and notwithstanding the provisions of s. 893.13:

(a) Any person who knowingly sells, purchases, manufactures, delivers, or brings into this state, or who is knowingly in actual or constructive possession of, in excess of 25 pounds of cannabis, or 300 or more cannabis plants, commits a felony of the first degree, which felony shall be known as “trafficking in cannabis,” punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. If the quantity of cannabis involved:

1. Is in excess of 25 pounds, but less than 2,000 pounds, or is 300 or more cannabis plants, but not more than 2,000 cannabis plants, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 3 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $25,000.

2. Is 2,000 pounds or more, but less than 10,000 pounds, or is 2,000 or more cannabis plants, but not more than 10,000 cannabis plants, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 7 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $50,000.

3. Is 10,000 pounds or more, or is 10,000 or more cannabis plants, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 15 calendar years and pay a fine of $200,000.

For the purpose of this paragraph, a plant, including, but not limited to, a seedling or cutting, is a “cannabis plant” if it has some readily observable evidence of root formation, such as root hairs. To determine if a piece or part of a cannabis plant severed from the cannabis plant is itself a cannabis plant, the severed piece or part must have some readily observable evidence of root formation, such as root hairs. Callous tissue is not readily observable evidence of root formation. The viability and sex of a plant and the fact that the plant may or may not be a dead harvested plant are not relevant in determining if the plant is a “cannabis plant” or in the charging of an offense under this paragraph. Upon conviction, the court shall impose the longest term of imprisonment provided for in this paragraph.

(b)1. Any person who knowingly sells, purchases, manufactures, delivers, or brings into this state, or who is knowingly in actual or constructive possession of, 28 grams or more of cocaine, as described in s. 893.03(2)(a)4., or of any mixture containing cocaine, but less than 150 kilograms of cocaine or any such mixture, commits a felony of the first degree, which felony shall be known as “trafficking in cocaine,” punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. If the quantity involved:

a. Is 28 grams or more, but less than 200 grams, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 3 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $50,000.

b. Is 200 grams or more, but less than 400 grams, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 7 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $100,000.

c. Is 400 grams or more, but less than 150 kilograms, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 15 calendar years and pay a fine of $250,000.

2. Any person who knowingly sells, purchases, manufactures, delivers, or brings into this state, or who is knowingly in actual or constructive possession of, 150 kilograms or more of cocaine, as described in s. 893.03(2)(a)4., commits the first degree felony of trafficking in cocaine. A person who has been convicted of the first degree felony of trafficking in cocaine under this subparagraph shall be punished by life imprisonment and is ineligible for any form of discretionary early release except pardon or executive clemency or conditional medical release under s. 947.149. However, if the court determines that, in addition to committing any act specified in this paragraph:

a. The person intentionally killed an individual or counseled, commanded, induced, procured, or caused the intentional killing of an individual and such killing was the result; or

b. The person’s conduct in committing that act led to a natural, though not inevitable, lethal result,

such person commits the capital felony of trafficking in cocaine, punishable as provided in ss. 775.082 and 921.142. Any person sentenced for a capital felony under this paragraph shall also be sentenced to pay the maximum fine provided under subparagraph 1.

3. Any person who knowingly brings into this state 300 kilograms or more of cocaine, as described in s. 893.03(2)(a)4., and who knows that the probable result of such importation would be the death of any person, commits capital importation of cocaine, a capital felony punishable as provided in ss. 775.082 and 921.142. Any person sentenced for a capital felony under this paragraph shall also be sentenced to pay the maximum fine provided under subparagraph 1.

(c)1. Any person who knowingly sells, purchases, manufactures, delivers, or brings into this state, or who is knowingly in actual or constructive possession of, 4 grams or more of any morphine, opium, oxycodone, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, or any salt, derivative, isomer, or salt of an isomer thereof, including heroin, as described in s. 893.03(1)(b), (2)(a), (3)(c)3., or (3)(c)4., or 4 grams or more of any mixture containing any such substance, but less than 30 kilograms of such substance or mixture, commits a felony of the first degree, which felony shall be known as “trafficking in illegal drugs,” punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. If the quantity involved:

a. Is 4 grams or more, but less than 14 grams, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 3 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $50,000.

b. Is 14 grams or more, but less than 28 grams, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 15 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $100,000.

c. Is 28 grams or more, but less than 30 kilograms, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 25 calendar years and pay a fine of $500,000.

2. Any person who knowingly sells, purchases, manufactures, delivers, or brings into this state, or who is knowingly in actual or constructive possession of, 30 kilograms or more of any morphine, opium, oxycodone, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, or any salt, derivative, isomer, or salt of an isomer thereof, including heroin, as described in s. 893.03(1)(b), (2)(a), (3)(c)3., or (3)(c)4., or 30 kilograms or more of any mixture containing any such substance, commits the first degree felony of trafficking in illegal drugs. A person who has been convicted of the first degree felony of trafficking in illegal drugs under this subparagraph shall be punished by life imprisonment and is ineligible for any form of discretionary early release except pardon or executive clemency or conditional medical release under s. 947.149. However, if the court determines that, in addition to committing any act specified in this paragraph:

a. The person intentionally killed an individual or counseled, commanded, induced, procured, or caused the intentional killing of an individual and such killing was the result; or

b. The person’s conduct in committing that act led to a natural, though not inevitable, lethal result,

such person commits the capital felony of trafficking in illegal drugs, punishable as provided in ss. 775.082 and 921.142. Any person sentenced for a capital felony under this paragraph shall also be sentenced to pay the maximum fine provided under subparagraph 1.

3. Any person who knowingly brings into this state 60 kilograms or more of any morphine, opium, oxycodone, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, or any salt, derivative, isomer, or salt of an isomer thereof, including heroin, as described in s. 893.03(1)(b), (2)(a), (3)(c)3., or (3)(c)4., or 60 kilograms or more of any mixture containing any such substance, and who knows that the probable result of such importation would be the death of any person, commits capital importation of illegal drugs, a capital felony punishable as provided in ss. 775.082 and 921.142. Any person sentenced for a capital felony under this paragraph shall also be sentenced to pay the maximum fine provided under subparagraph 1.

(d)1. Any person who knowingly sells, purchases, manufactures, delivers, or brings into this state, or who is knowingly in actual or constructive possession of, 28 grams or more of phencyclidine or of any mixture containing phencyclidine, as described in s. 893.03(2)(b), commits a felony of the first degree, which felony shall be known as “trafficking in phencyclidine,” punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. If the quantity involved:

a. Is 28 grams or more, but less than 200 grams, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 3 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $50,000.

b. Is 200 grams or more, but less than 400 grams, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 7 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $100,000.

c. Is 400 grams or more, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 15 calendar years and pay a fine of $250,000.

2. Any person who knowingly brings into this state 800 grams or more of phencyclidine or of any mixture containing phencyclidine, as described in s. 893.03(2)(b), and who knows that the probable result of such importation would be the death of any person commits capital importation of phencyclidine, a capital felony punishable as provided in ss. 775.082 and 921.142. Any person sentenced for a capital felony under this paragraph shall also be sentenced to pay the maximum fine provided under subparagraph 1.

(e)1. Any person who knowingly sells, purchases, manufactures, delivers, or brings into this state, or who is knowingly in actual or constructive possession of, 200 grams or more of methaqualone or of any mixture containing methaqualone, as described in s. 893.03(1)(d), commits a felony of the first degree, which felony shall be known as “trafficking in methaqualone,” punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. If the quantity involved:

a. Is 200 grams or more, but less than 5 kilograms, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 3 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $50,000.

b. Is 5 kilograms or more, but less than 25 kilograms, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 7 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $100,000.

c. Is 25 kilograms or more, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 15 calendar years and pay a fine of $250,000.

2. Any person who knowingly brings into this state 50 kilograms or more of methaqualone or of any mixture containing methaqualone, as described in s. 893.03(1)(d), and who knows that the probable result of such importation would be the death of any person commits capital importation of methaqualone, a capital felony punishable as provided in ss. 775.082 and 921.142. Any person sentenced for a capital felony under this paragraph shall also be sentenced to pay the maximum fine provided under subparagraph 1.

(f)1. Any person who knowingly sells, purchases, manufactures, delivers, or brings into this state, or who is knowingly in actual or constructive possession of, 14 grams or more of amphetamine, as described in s. 893.03(2)(c)2., or methamphetamine, as described in s. 893.03(2)(c)4., or of any mixture containing amphetamine or methamphetamine, or phenylacetone, phenylacetic acid, or ephedrine in conjunction with other chemicals and equipment utilized in the manufacture of amphetamine or methamphetamine, commits a felony of the first degree, which felony shall be known as “trafficking in amphetamine,” punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. If the quantity involved:

a. Is 14 grams or more, but less than 28 grams, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 3 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $50,000.

b. Is 28 grams or more, but less than 200 grams, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 7 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $100,000.

c. Is 200 grams or more, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 15 calendar years and pay a fine of $250,000.

2. Any person who knowingly manufactures or brings into this state 400 grams or more of amphetamine, as described in s. 893.03(2)(c)2., or methamphetamine, as described in s. 893.03(2)(c)4., or of any mixture containing amphetamine or methamphetamine, or phenylacetone, phenylacetic acid, or ephedrine in conjunction with other chemicals and equipment used in the manufacture of amphetamine or methamphetamine, and who knows that the probable result of such manufacture or importation would be the death of any person commits capital manufacture or importation of amphetamine, a capital felony punishable as provided in ss. 775.082 and 921.142. Any person sentenced for a capital felony under this paragraph shall also be sentenced to pay the maximum fine provided under subparagraph 1.

(g)1. Any person who knowingly sells, purchases, manufactures, delivers, or brings into this state, or who is knowingly in actual or constructive possession of, 4 grams or more of flunitrazepam or any mixture containing flunitrazepam as described in s. 893.03(1)(a) commits a felony of the first degree, which felony shall be known as “trafficking in flunitrazepam,” punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. If the quantity involved:

a. Is 4 grams or more but less than 14 grams, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 3 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $50,000.

b. Is 14 grams or more but less than 28 grams, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 7 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $100,000.

c. Is 28 grams or more but less than 30 kilograms, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 25 calendar years and pay a fine of $500,000.

2. Any person who knowingly sells, purchases, manufactures, delivers, or brings into this state or who is knowingly in actual or constructive possession of 30 kilograms or more of flunitrazepam or any mixture containing flunitrazepam as described in s. 893.03(1)(a) commits the first degree felony of trafficking in flunitrazepam. A person who has been convicted of the first degree felony of trafficking in flunitrazepam under this subparagraph shall be punished by life imprisonment and is ineligible for any form of discretionary early release except pardon or executive clemency or conditional medical release under s. 947.149. However, if the court determines that, in addition to committing any act specified in this paragraph:

a. The person intentionally killed an individual or counseled, commanded, induced, procured, or caused the intentional killing of an individual and such killing was the result; or

b. The person’s conduct in committing that act led to a natural, though not inevitable, lethal result,

such person commits the capital felony of trafficking in flunitrazepam, punishable as provided in ss. 775.082 and 921.142. Any person sentenced for a capital felony under this paragraph shall also be sentenced to pay the maximum fine provided under subparagraph 1.

(h)1. Any person who knowingly sells, purchases, manufactures, delivers, or brings into this state, or who is knowingly in actual or constructive possession of, 1 kilogram or more of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), as described in s. 893.03(1)(d), or any mixture containing gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), commits a felony of the first degree, which felony shall be known as “trafficking in gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB),” punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. If the quantity involved:

a. Is 1 kilogram or more but less than 5 kilograms, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 3 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $50,000.

b. Is 5 kilograms or more but less than 10 kilograms, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 7 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $100,000.

c. Is 10 kilograms or more, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 15 calendar years and pay a fine of $250,000.

2. Any person who knowingly manufactures or brings into this state 150 kilograms or more of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), as described in s. 893.03(1)(d), or any mixture containing gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), and who knows that the probable result of such manufacture or importation would be the death of any person commits capital manufacture or importation of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), a capital felony punishable as provided in ss. 775.082 and 921.142. Any person sentenced for a capital felony under this paragraph shall also be sentenced to pay the maximum fine provided under subparagraph 1.

(i)1. Any person who knowingly sells, purchases, manufactures, delivers, or brings into this state, or who is knowingly in actual or constructive possession of, 1 kilogram or more of gamma-butyrolactone (GBL), as described in s. 893.03(1)(d), or any mixture containing gamma-butyrolactone (GBL), commits a felony of the first degree, which felony shall be known as “trafficking in gamma-butyrolactone (GBL),” punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. If the quantity involved:

a. Is 1 kilogram or more but less than 5 kilograms, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 3 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $50,000.

b. Is 5 kilograms or more but less than 10 kilograms, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 7 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $100,000.

c. Is 10 kilograms or more, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 15 calendar years and pay a fine of $250,000.

2. Any person who knowingly manufactures or brings into the state 150 kilograms or more of gamma-butyrolactone (GBL), as described in s. 893.03(1)(d), or any mixture containing gamma-butyrolactone (GBL), and who knows that the probable result of such manufacture or importation would be the death of any person commits capital manufacture or importation of gamma-butyrolactone (GBL), a capital felony punishable as provided in ss. 775.082 and 921.142. Any person sentenced for a capital felony under this paragraph shall also be sentenced to pay the maximum fine provided under subparagraph 1.

(j)1. Any person who knowingly sells, purchases, manufactures, delivers, or brings into this state, or who is knowingly in actual or constructive possession of, 1 kilogram or more of 1,4-Butanediol as described in s. 893.03(1)(d), or of any mixture containing 1,4-Butanediol, commits a felony of the first degree, which felony shall be known as “trafficking in 1,4-Butanediol,” punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. If the quantity involved:

a. Is 1 kilogram or more, but less than 5 kilograms, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 3 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $50,000.

b. Is 5 kilograms or more, but less than 10 kilograms, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 7 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $100,000.

c. Is 10 kilograms or more, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 15 calendar years and pay a fine of $500,000.

2. Any person who knowingly manufactures or brings into this state 150 kilograms or more of 1,4-Butanediol as described in s. 893.03(1)(d), or any mixture containing 1,4-Butanediol, and who knows that the probable result of such manufacture or importation would be the death of any person commits capital manufacture or importation of 1,4-Butanediol, a capital felony punishable as provided in ss. 775.082 and 921.142. Any person sentenced for a capital felony under this paragraph shall also be sentenced to pay the maximum fine provided under subparagraph 1.

(k)1. Any person who knowingly sells, purchases, manufactures, delivers, or brings into this state, or who is knowingly in actual or constructive possession of, 10 grams or more of any of the following substances described in s. 893.03(1)(a) or (c):

a. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA);

b. 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine;

c. 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine;

d. 2,5-Dimethoxyamphetamine;

e. 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine (DOET);

f. N-ethylamphetamine;

g. N-Hydroxy-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine;

h. 5-Methoxy-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine;

i. 4-methoxyamphetamine;

j. 4-methoxymethamphetamine;

k. 4-Methyl-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine;

l. 3,4-Methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine;

m. 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine;

n. N,N-dimethylamphetamine; or

o. 3,4,5-Trimethoxyamphetamine,

individually or in any combination of or any mixture containing any substance listed in sub-subparagraphs a.-o., commits a felony of the first degree, which felony shall be known as “trafficking in Phenethylamines,” punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

2. If the quantity involved:

a. Is 10 grams or more but less than 200 grams, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 3 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $50,000.

b. Is 200 grams or more, but less than 400 grams, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 7 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $100,000.

c. Is 400 grams or more, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 15 calendar years and pay a fine of $250,000.

3. Any person who knowingly manufactures or brings into this state 30 kilograms or more of any of the following substances described in s. 893.03(1)(a) or (c):

a. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA);

b. 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine;

c. 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine;

d. 2,5-Dimethoxyamphetamine;

e. 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine (DOET);

f. N-ethylamphetamine;

g. N-Hydroxy-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine;

h. 5-Methoxy-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine;

i. 4-methoxyamphetamine;

j. 4-methoxymethamphetamine;

k. 4-Methyl-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine;

l. 3,4-Methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine;

m. 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine;

n. N,N-dimethylamphetamine; or

o. 3,4,5-Trimethoxyamphetamine,

individually or in any combination of or any mixture containing any substance listed in sub-subparagraphs a.-o., and who knows that the probable result of such manufacture or importation would be the death of any person commits capital manufacture or importation of Phenethylamines, a capital felony punishable as provided in ss. 775.082 and 921.142. Any person sentenced for a capital felony under this paragraph shall also be sentenced to pay the maximum fine provided under subparagraph 1.

(l)1. Any person who knowingly sells, purchases, manufactures, delivers, or brings into this state, or who is knowingly in actual or constructive possession of, 1 gram or more of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) as described in s. 893.03(1)(c), or of any mixture containing lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), commits a felony of the first degree, which felony shall be known as “trafficking in lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD),” punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. If the quantity involved:

a. Is 1 gram or more, but less than 5 grams, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 3 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $50,000.

b. Is 5 grams or more, but less than 7 grams, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 7 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $100,000.

c. Is 7 grams or more, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 15 calendar years and pay a fine of $500,000.

2. Any person who knowingly manufactures or brings into this state 7 grams or more of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) as described in s. 893.03(1)(c), or any mixture containing lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), and who knows that the probable result of such manufacture or importation would be the death of any person commits capital manufacture or importation of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), a capital felony punishable as provided in ss. 775.082 and 921.142. Any person sentenced for a capital felony under this paragraph shall also be sentenced to pay the maximum fine provided under subparagraph 1.

(2) A person acts knowingly under subsection (1) if that person intends to sell, purchase, manufacture, deliver, or bring into this state, or to actually or constructively possess, any of the controlled substances listed in subsection (1), regardless of which controlled substance listed in subsection (1) is in fact sold, purchased, manufactured, delivered, or brought into this state, or actually or constructively possessed.

(3) Notwithstanding the provisions of s. 948.01, with respect to any person who is found to have violated this section, adjudication of guilt or imposition of sentence shall not be suspended, deferred, or withheld, nor shall such person be eligible for parole prior to serving the mandatory minimum term of imprisonment prescribed by this section. A person sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment under this section is not eligible for any form of discretionary early release, except pardon or executive clemency or conditional medical release under s. 947.149, prior to serving the mandatory minimum term of imprisonment.

(4) The state attorney may move the sentencing court to reduce or suspend the sentence of any person who is convicted of a violation of this section and who provides substantial assistance in the identification, arrest, or conviction of any of that person’s accomplices, accessories, coconspirators, or principals or of any other person engaged in trafficking in controlled substances. The arresting agency shall be given an opportunity to be heard in aggravation or mitigation in reference to any such motion. Upon good cause shown, the motion may be filed and heard in camera. The judge hearing the motion may reduce or suspend the sentence if the judge finds that the defendant rendered such substantial assistance.

(5) Any person who agrees, conspires, combines, or confederates with another person to commit any act prohibited by subsection (1) commits a felony of the first degree and is punishable as if he or she had actually committed such prohibited act. Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to prohibit separate convictions and sentences for a violation of this subsection and any violation of subsection (1).

(6) A mixture, as defined in s. 893.02(14), containing any controlled substance described in this section includes, but is not limited to, a solution or a dosage unit, including but not limited to, a pill or tablet, containing a controlled substance. For the purpose of clarifying legislative intent regarding the weighing of a mixture containing a controlled substance described in this section, the weight of the controlled substance is the total weight of the mixture, including the controlled substance and any other substance in the mixture. If there is more than one mixture containing the same controlled substance, the weight of the controlled substance is calculated by aggregating the total weight of each mixture.

(7) For the purpose of further clarifying legislative intent, the Legislature finds that the opinion in Hayes v. State, 750 So. 2d 1 (Fla. 1999) does not correctly construe legislative intent. The Legislature finds that the opinions in State v. Hayes, 720 So. 2d 1095 (Fla. 4th DCA 1998) and State v. Baxley, 684 So. 2d 831 (Fla. 5th DCA 1996) correctly construe legislative intent.

History.–s. 1, ch. 79-1; s. 1, ch. 80-70; s. 2, ch. 80-353; s. 491, ch. 81-259; s. 1, ch. 82-2; s. 3, ch. 82-16; s. 53, ch. 83-215; s. 5, ch. 87-243; ss. 1, 4, ch. 89-281; s. 1, ch. 90-112; s. 3, ch. 93-92; s. 24, ch. 93-406; s. 15, ch. 95-184; s. 5, ch. 95-415; s. 54, ch. 96-388; s. 3, ch. 97-1; s. 1828, ch. 97-102; s. 23, ch. 97-194; s. 9, ch. 99-188; s. 4, ch. 2000-320; s. 2, ch. 2001-55; s. 7, ch. 2001-57; ss. 1, 2, 3, ch. 2002-212; s. 4, ch. 2003-10.

893.1351 Lease or rent for the purpose of trafficking in a controlled substance.–

(1) A person may not lease or rent any place, structure, or part thereof, trailer, or other conveyance, with the knowledge that such place, structure, trailer, or conveyance will be used for the purpose of trafficking in a controlled substance, as provided in s. 893.135, or the sale of a controlled substance, as provided in s. 893.13.

(2) A person who violates subsection (1) is guilty of a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

History.–s. 1, ch. 91-118; s. 10, ch. 99-188; s. 22, ch. 2000-320; s. 1, ch. 2002-212.

Uttering a Forged Instrument

831.09 Uttering forged bills, checks, drafts, or notes.–Whoever utters or passes or tenders in payment as true, any such false, altered, forged, or counterfeit note, or any bank bill, check, draft, or promissory note, payable to the bearer thereof or to the order of any person, issued as aforesaid, knowing the same to be false, altered, forged, or counterfeit, with intent to injure or defraud any person, commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

History.–s. 6, ch. 1637, 1868; RS 2487; GS 3368; RGS 5216; CGL 7334; s. 966, ch. 71-136; s. 10, ch. 2001-115.

831.10 Second conviction of uttering forged bills.–Whoever, having been convicted of the offense mentioned in s. 831.09 is again convicted of the like offense committed after the former conviction, and whoever is at the same term of the court convicted upon three distinct charges of such offense, shall be deemed a common utterer of counterfeit bills, and shall be punished as provided in s. 775.084.

History.–s. 7, ch. 1637, 1868; RS 2488; GS 3369; RGS 5217; CGL 7335; s. 967, ch. 71-136; s. 11, ch. 2001-115.

831.11 Bringing into the state forged bank bills, checks, drafts, or notes.–Whoever brings into this state or has in his or her possession a false, forged, or counterfeit bill, check, draft, or note in the similitude of the bills or notes payable to the bearer thereof or to the order of any person issued by or for any bank or banking company established in this state, or within the United States, or any foreign province, state or government, with intent to utter and pass the same or to render the same current as true, knowing the same to be false, forged, or counterfeit, commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

History.–s. 8, ch. 1637, 1868; RS 2489; GS 3370; RGS 5218; CGL 7336; s. 968, ch. 71-136; s. 1292, ch. 97-102; s. 12, ch. 2001-115.